Research Guide on the Trading Systems in the Asian-Pacific Region: APEC, ASEAN and their Members

by Chenglin Liu

Chenglin Liu is the Foreign and International Librarian at the O’Quinn Law Library at the University of Houston Law Center, where he also teaches Chinese Law.  Chenglin Liu received his Masters of Law from Dalian University of Technology (China) in 1993, an LL.M in European Law from Lund University (Sweden) in 1999, an LL.M in U.S. Law from Washington University in St. Louis in 2000 and a MIS from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2002. He will be getting a J.S.D. (Doctor of Judicial Science) from Washington University in St. Louis in 2005. Among his recent publications, Mr. Liu’s book Chinese Law on SARS was published by W.S. Hein (New York, 2004).

Published April 2005
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Table of Contents

A. Introduction

B. APEC and ASEAN—Overviews

C. The Impact of the Asian Tsunami on APEC and ASEA

D. Online Resources on APEC and ASEAN

E. A Selected Bibliography on APEC and ASEAN

F. Online Resources and Bibliographies on Member Economies



APEC members
Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, China, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam.  



ASEAN members

Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam.



A. Introduction

This research guide provides basic information about the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and their member economies. The first section of the guide includes online resources about the two organizations and a selected bibliography for further research on the history and future trends of the economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. The second section provides online information and bibliographies on trade and investment in individual member economies.

This research guide was adapted from the author's presentation at the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) 97th Annual Conference in Boston, July 2004.


B. APEC and ASEAN- Overviews

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

APEC was established in 1989. The objectives of APEC are to eliminate trade and investment barriers in the Asia-Pacific region. Currently, APEC consists of 21 member economies: Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, China, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam. APEC maintains a Secretariat in Singapore funded with by annual contributions from the member economies.

APEC operates on "the basis of non-binding commitments, open dialogue and equal respect for the views of all participating economies."[i] Unlike other regional economic organizations, APEC does not have a binding treaty that sets forth an institutional framework for economic integration. However, the influence of APEC on the Asia-Pacific region and world economy should not be underestimated. APEC member economies, which cover 2.6 billion people or 30% of the world population, account for approximately 60% of the world Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and nearly 72% of world economic growth.[ii] APEC has greatly contributed to the liberalization of world trade and investment. The frequent meetings of the leaders of its members and the exchange of trade information within APEC have facilitated mutual understandings between the least developed nations and the developed nations.[iii] Since the September 11th attacks, APEC members have also actively participated in the anti-terrorism efforts.[iv]

The Associations of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

ASEAN was established in 1967 by five nations: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. In the 1980's and 1990's, five other nations joined ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), and Vietnam. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam and Vietnam are also members of APEC. The goals of ASEAN are to accelerate the regional economic growth, facilitate social and culture development, and pursue regional peace, stability and rule of law.[v]

ASEAN is a treaty based organization.[vi] Compared with APEC, ASEAN is a much smaller and weaker entity.[vii] However, in recent years, ASEAN played an important role in advocating the interests of the least developed nations in Southeast Asia, especially after the failure of the round trade talks in the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Seattle. By establishing external relations with the developed economies and other regional trade organizations, ASEAN has been active in promoting interregional dialogue and cooperation.[viii]


C. The Impact of the Asian Tsunami on APEC and ASEAN

Condolence Messages to Tsunami Damaged APEC Economies
Briefing Paper: The ASEAN Leaders’ Special Summit Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster 6 January 2005, Jakarta and Aceh Visit


D. Online Resources on APEC and ASEAN


Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation - APEC's official website.

About APEC

APEC member economies:  Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, China, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam.

APEC tariff database - The easy way to find tariff schedules, concessions, prohibitions, and much more information for the APEC member economies.

Counter Terrorism Task Force (CTTF) The CTTF assists economies in identifying and assess counter-terrorism needs, co-ordinates capacity building and technical assistance programs, cooperates with international and regional organisations and facilitates cooperation between APEC fora on counter-terrorism issues.

Important Documents:


Brunei Cambodia Laos Indonesia Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand Vietnam

ASEAN Secretariat - This is the official site of ASEAN.

ASEAN Overview 

ASEAN Summit to Create Single Market, Inks Historic Deal with China

Annual Reports since 1980 (full text)

ASEAN Statistics

Basic Documents

ASEAN: Advancing APEC’s Core Purposes

ASEAN Free Trade Area - ASEAN Member Countries have made significant progress in the lowering of intra-regional tariffs through the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT). Among other important documents, this site provides Non-Tariff Measures Database

US-ASEAN Business Council - Its objective is to improve the business environment for American companies and expand the U.S. competitive position in the Southeast Asian region. This site provides updated information on trade in ASEAN member countries.

US-ASEAN Joint Declaration on Combating Terrorism - In this declaration, the ASEAN members pledged to fight terrorism in Southeast Asian.



Other Resources:


E. A Selected Bibliography on APEC and ASEAN


Lusan Chua, Amanda R. Evansburg, Mark J. Fiore, Vanessa Kaye Watson, K. Brooke Welch, Phyllis Eremitaggio. Asian Group Endorses Optical Disc Regulation Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal Jan 2004 v16 i1 p18(1).

Thomas C. Fischer. A commentary on regional institutions in the Pacific Rim: do APEC and ASEAN still matter?  Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law Spring 2003 v13 i2 p337(44).

Ramkishen S. Rajan, Rahul Sen. Liberalisation of Financial Services in Southeast Asian Univer the ASEAN Framework Agreemment on Services (AFAS) Journal of International Banking Law and Regulation March 2003 v18 i3 p132-135.

Edwin van der Bruggen. Salient features of the ASEAN model tax treaty. (Association of South-East Asian Nations) (Statistical Data Included)  Tax Notes International March 18, 2002 v25 i11 p1227-1236. 

George O. White III. Foreigners beware? Investing in a jungle with many predators: the ASEAN investment area. (effect of Asian financial crisis)  Texas International Law Journal Winter 2002 v37 i1 p157-176

George O. White III. From snowplows to siopao - trying to compete in a global marketplace: the ASEAN free trade area. (Association of South East Asian Nations)
Tulsa Journal of Comparative & International Law Fall 2000 v8 i1 p177-199.

Pearlie M.C. Koh. Enhancing economic co-operation: a regional arbitration centre for ASEAN? (Association of Southeast Asia Nations) International and Comparative Law Quarterly April 2000 v49 i2 p390-412

Mya Than; Carolyn L Gates  ASEAN enlargement: impacts and implications. Singapore : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2001. xv, 378 p.

Colin Ong. The ASEAN Free Trade Area and the necessity for the creation of a legal mechanism for resolving private disputes of an international nature. Journal of Business Law March 1998 p213-216.

Jack I. Garvey. AFTA after NAFTA: regional trade blocs and the propagation of environmental and labor standards. (ASEAN Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement)  Berkeley Journal of International Law Fall 1997 v15 n2 p245-274. 

Kreinin, M.E. and Plummer, Michael. Economic integration and Asia: the dynamics of regionalism in Europe, North America and the Asia-Pacific. Cheltenham, U.K. ; Northampton, Mass., USA : E. Elgar Pub., 2000. vii, 216 p. 

Parlie M.C. Koh. Foreign judgments in ASEAN - a proposal. International and Comparative Law Quarterly Oct 1996 v45 n4 p844-860.

Ann Marie Sabath. International business etiquette. what you need to know to conduct business abroad with charm and savvy Asia & the Pacific Rim : N.Y. : ASJA Press, 2002. 223 p.

Yoshi Kodama. Asia-Pacific Region: APEC and ASEAN. (Annual Review of Significant Developments: 1995)  International Lawyer Summer 1996 v30 n2 p367-389. 

Horacio A. Grigera Naon. Sovereignty and regionalism. (Symposium: Free Trade Areas: The Challenge and Promise of Fair vs. Free Trade)  Law and Policy in International Business Summer 1996 v27 n4 p1073-1180.

Jeffrey A. Kaplan. ASEAN's rubicon: a dispute settlement mechanism for AFTA. (Association of South East Asian Nations Free Trade Area). UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal Spring 1996 v14 n2 p147-195. 

Harold Dichter. Legal implications of an Asia-Pacific economic grouping. University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Business Law Spring 1995 v16 n1 p99-154.

Yoji Akashi: An ASEAN Perspective on APEC (1997)

Kiminami; Intra-Asia trade and foreign direct investment (1999)

Mary Y. Pierson. East Asia - regional economic integration and implications for the United States. Law and Policy in International Business Spring 1994 v25 n3 p1161-1185.

Sherry M. Stephenson. ASEAN and the multilateral trading system. (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) (Silver Anniversary Essays) Law and Policy in International Business Winter 1994 v25 n2 p439-448.

Deborah A. Haas. (Note) And Comment: Out of Other’s Shadows: ASEAN Moves Toward Greater Regional Cooperation in the Face of the EC and NAFTA, 9 Am. U.J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 809.

Lorraine C. Cardenas; Arpaporn Buranakanits. The Role of APEC in the Achievement of Regional Cooperation in Southeast Asia, (1999) 5 Ann. Surv. Int'l & Comp. L. 49.

Ernesto M. Hizon. Virtual Reality and Reality: The East Asian NICs AND THE Global Trading System,  (1999) 5 Ann. Surv. Int'l & Comp. L. 81.

Copyright (c) 1996 Northwestern School of Law Journal of International Law & Business, Winter, , 26028 words, Merit E. Janow.  Symposium – Institutions for International Economic Integration: Assessing APEC's Role in Economic Integration in the Asia-Pacific Region. (1997) 17 NW. J. INT'L L. & BUS. 947.


Guide to the Investment Regimes of the APEC Member Economies (5th Edition), July 2003 (728 p. full text) This is a large document in PDF format. It will take a few minutes to download.

Christoph Antons. Law and development in East and Southeast Asia. London ; New York : RoutledgeCurzon : IIAS, 2003. 387 p.

Peter Drysdale. The new economy in East Asia and the Pacific. London; New York : Routledge, 2004. xvii, 326 p.

Ahmad, Dzulkarnain. ASEAN+3: The Institutionalization of Asia Values. Monterrey, California : Springfield, Va. : Naval Postgraduate School, 2003. xiv, 79 p

Antons, Christoph (ed.). Law and Development in East and Southeast Asia. New York : RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. xi, 387 p.

ASEAN. Towards a Single Economic Space. Jakarta : ASEAN Secretariat, 2003. 8 p.

Baker & Mckenzie. Asia Pacific Legal Developments Bulletin. Sydney, N.S.W. ; Los Angeles, California : Baker & Mckenzie, 1993-. Serial Publication : Periodical : Quarterly (every 3 months) v.

Bishop, Bernie. Liberalising Foreign Direct Investment Policies in the APEC Region. [U.K] : Ashgate, 2001. ix, 199 p.

Buchanan, Mark Allen. The Asia-Pacific Region and the Expanding Borders of the WTO: Implications, Challenges and Opportunities. Victoria, B.C. : Centre for Asia-Pacific Initiatives, University of Victoria, 1996, ii, 217 p.

Centre for Strategic and International Studies. Towards an ASEAN strategy of Globalization. Jakarta : Centre for Strategic and International Studies, 2001. iv, 158 p.

Chae Wook; Han, Hong-yol. Impact of China’s Accession into the WTO and Policy Implication for Asia-Pacific Developing Economies. Seoul Korea : Korea Institute for International Economy Policy, 2001. 73 p.

Davidson, Paul J. ASEAN: The Evolving Legal Framework for Economic Cooperation. Singapore : Times Academic Press, 2002. viii, 288 p.

Davidson, Paul J. Trading Arrangements in the Pacific Rim: ASEAN and APEC. New York : Oceana Publications, 1995-. V. <1-2> (looseleaf).

DeRosa, Dean A. Regional Trading Arrangements among Developing Countries: the ASEAN Example. Washington D.C. : International Food Policy Research Institute, 1995. viii, 129 p.

Downing, Sandra L. (ed.) Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): Current Issues and Background. New York : Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2003. ix, 193 p.

Drysdale, Peter and Ishigaki, Kenichi. East Asian Trade and Financial Integration: new issues. Australia : Asia Pacific Press at the Australian National University, 2002. xv. 240.

Freeman, Nick J;  Bartels, Frank L. The future of foreign investment in Southeast Asia. New York : RoutledgeCurzon 2004, xii, 288 p.

Fukase, Emiko; Martin, Will. Free Trade Area Membership as a Stepping Stone to Development: The Case of ASEAN. Washington D.C. : World Bank, 2001. viii, 172 p.

Lincoln, Edward J. East Asian Economic Regionalism. New York : Council on Foreign Relations; Washington D.C. : Brookings Institution Press, 2004. vii, 292 p.

Martin, Will; Pangestu, Mari. Options for Global Trade Reform. Cambridge, UK; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2003. xvii, 202 p.

Montan, Nils Victor. Trademark Anticounterfeiting in Asia and the Pacific Rim. New York : International Trademark Association, 2001. xvi, 576 p.

Nanto, Dick Kazuyuki. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Free Trade, and the 2003 Summit in Bangkok, Thailand. [Washington D.C.] : Derwood, MD : Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress : Distributed by Penny Hill Press, 2003. Internet Resources.

Nesadurai, Helen Sharmini. Globalisation, Domestic Politics, and Regionalism: the ASEAN Free Trade Area. London; New York : Routledge, 2003. xiv, 226 p.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Regulatory Reform in the Global Economy: Asian and Latin America Perspectives, 1998. 141 p.

Pennsylvania Bar Institute. Successfully Doing Business in Asia. [Mechanicsburg, Pa.] : Pennsylvania Bar Institute, 2000. xi, 189 p.

Pryles, Michael (ed.). Dispute Resolution in Asia. 2nd ed. The Hague, London, New York : Kluwer, 2002. xxx, 410 p.

Ravenhill, John. APEC and the Construction of Pacific Rim Regionaliam. U.K. : Cambridge University Press, 2001. xii, 294 p.

Saunders, Cheryl; Triggs, Gillian D. Trade and Cooperation with the European Union in the New Millennium. The Hague ; London : Kluwer Law International, 2002. xvii, 202 p.

Srinivasan, T N. Post-Uruguay Round Issues for Asian Developing Countries. New Haven, CT. : Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1997. 43 p.

Tomasic, Roman (ed.). Company Law in East Asia. [U.S.] Bookfield : Ashgate, 1999. viii, 708 p.

United Nations. Implications of General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) for Asia-Pacific Economies: Report, studies and papers presented at a seminar held in Bangkok, 25-26 May 1998. New York : United Nations, 1998. vii, 176 p.

Wesley, Michael. The Regional Organizations of the Asia-Pacific. [UK] : Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. xiv, 247 p.

Whiting, Van R. Regionalization in the World Economy: NAFTA, the Americas and Asia Pacific. New Delhi : Macmillan India Ltd, 1996. xii, 301 p.

Yamazawa, Ippei. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) challenges and tasks for the twenty-first century. London; New York : Routledge, 2000. xviii, 332 p.

Yeung, May T; Perdikis, Nicholas; William A Kerr. Regional Trading Blocs in the Global Economy: The EU and ASEAN. Cheltenham, UK ; Northampton, MA : E. Elgar, 1999. xi, 163 p.

Ash Ahmad; P Someshwar Rao. Foreign direct investment and APEC economic integration. Ottawa, Ont. : Industry Canada, 1996.  iii, 112, iv, 114 p.


F. Online Resources and Bibliographies on Member Economies


Online Resources:



Ferguson A B. Enterprising Australia: planning, preparing and profiting from trade and investment : a short report on the proceedings of the inquiry. Canberra : The Committee, 2002. ix, 42 p. available at:

Australia.Strengthening economic legal infrastructure in APEC: supporting trade, investment and economic development. Canberra : APEC and Regional Trade Policy Branch, Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Commonwealth of Australia, 2002. 25 p.

Bijit Bora. Foreign direct investment: research issues. London ; New York : Routledge, 2002 . xiii, 354 p.

Australia. Doing business online with government : a guide for suppliers to trade electronically with Commonwealth Government agencies. Canberra : National Office for the Information Economy,  2002. iv, 44 p.

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in Australia .
New York : PriceWaterhouseCoopers,  2001. 342 p.


Paul U. Ali, Martin Gold. Investing for good - the cost of ethical investment. (Australia). Company and Securities Law Journal August 2002 v20 i5 p307-312.

Julian Donnan. Debentures, derivatives and managed investment schemes - the characterisation and regulation of investment instruments. (Australia). Journal of Banking and Finance Law and Practice March 2002 v13 i1 p28-35

Dimity Kingsford Smith. Decentered regulation in online investment. (Australia). Company and Securities Law Journal Nov 2001 v19 i8 p532-549.

Paul von Nessen. Securities regulation for interests in managed investment schemes. (Australia) Australian Journal of Corporate Law Dec 1999 v11 i1 p63-88

Franz J. Ranero. Constitutional amendments in managed investment schemes. (Australia) Corporate and Business Law Journal Dec 1999 v11 i2 p287-322.

John Abrahamson. Investment in Australia and state transaction taxes - stamp duty. Tax Notes International Sept 21, 1998 v17 n12 p897-903.

Stephen J. Gates. Regional financial centre. (proposed bill amending investment law)(Australia) Journal of Banking and Finance Law and Practice Sept 1998 v9 i3 p204-207.

Grant Richardson, Helen Anderson. The deductibility of interest: an Asia-Pacific regional comparison. The International Tax Journal Summer 1997 v23 n3 p6-24.

Andrew Lazar. Classification of United States business entities and the impact on Australia.
Australian Tax Review Sept 1996 v25 n3 p153-155

Brunei Darussalam

Online Resources:



Ann Black. Alternative dispute resolution in Brunei Darussalam: the blending of imported and traditional processes. (Special Issue: International Dispute Resolution) Bond Law Review Dec 2001 v13 i2 p305-334.

Andrew D. Mitchell. Chinese walls in Brunei: Prince Jefri Bolkiah v. KPMG. (United Kingdom)
University of New South Wales Law Journal Winter 1999 v22 i1 p243-255

Philip Podzebenko. Redefining accessory liability: Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd v. Tan. (United Kingdom) Sydney Law Review June 1996 v18 n2 p234-248.

Graham Ferris. The advice of the Privy Council in Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd v. Tan. (United Kingdom) Law Teacher Winter 1996 v30 n1 p111-120.


Ernst & Young. Doing business in Brunei Darussalam.
New York, N.Y. : Ernst & Young 1996-. Serial Publication v.

Brunei. Brunei Darussalam, business in perspective.
Bandar Seri Begawan : Economic Development Board, Ministry of Finance, Brunei Darussalam, 1989. 52 p.

KPMG Peat Marwick. Investment in Brunei Darussalam. [Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam] : KPMG, 1987. 40 p.



Online Resources:



Muthiah Alagappa. Regionalism and the quest for security: ASEAN and the Cambodian conflict. (Keeping the Peace: Conflict Resolution in the Twenty-First Century) Journal of International Affairs Winter 1993 v46 n2 p439-467

Bretton G. Sciaroni. New investment law creates favorable framework. (Cambodia)
East Asian Executive Reports July 15, 1994 v16 n7 p7(2).

Robin Davies. Cambodia and the GATT. Journal of World Trade (Law-Economics-Public Policy) Oct 1992 v26 n5 p93-98.

Neill T. Macpherson. Cambodia: foreign investment law. International Business Lawyer July-August 1991 v19 n7 p351(3). 

H. Lawrence Serra. Foreign investment law. (Cambodia) East Asian Executive Reports Sept 15, 1990 v12 n9 p10(2).


Peter Dale Scott Drugs, oil, and war: the United States in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Indochina.  Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003. xix, 225 p.

Kanokpan Lao-Araya. How can Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Viet Nam cope with revenue lost due to AFTA tariff reductions? Manila : Asian Development Bank, 2002.

Cambodia; International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO. Kingdom of Cambodia :
demand survey on automotive components. [Phnom Penh : Ministry of Commerce], 2002. 71 p.


Online Resources:

Canada and APEC



Price, Waterhouse & Co.; Price Waterhouse. Doing business in Canada. [United States] : Price Waterhouse,  1975-1997. v.

Heather Gibb. Canadian perspectives on labour mobility in APEC.  [Ottawa] : North-South Institute, 1997. 105 p.



Online Resources:



Juan Luis Ossa. Royalty payments on mining in Chile and Peru. (includes text in Spanish)(Mining Law & Investment in Latin America) Mineral Law Series: Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation April 28, 2003 v2003 i2 pCH2(24).

Samuel Lira Ovalle. Dispute resolution arbitration and mediation - Chile. (includes text in Spanish)(Mining Law & Investment in Latin America). Mineral Law Series: Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation April 28, 2003 v2003 i2 pCH4C(25).

Rodrigo Valenzuela.  Taxation of the mining industry in Chile: an update. (Mining Law & Investment in Latin America). Mineral Law Series: Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation April 28, 2003 v2003 i2 pCH7A(10).

Sergio Sapag, Daniel Vanrell, Manuel F. Solano, Paulo Espindula. Chile's new holding company regime expected to boost foreign investment. Tax Notes International Jan 27, 2003 v29 i4 p348-350.

Jennifer Anne Scott. Environmental watchdogs take a bite out of Chilean foreign investment: mandatory environmental impact statements may affect foreign investment in Chile. The Transnational Lawyer Spring 1998 v11 n1 p245-275.

Alberto Gonzalez-Pita, Adriana Koeck de Schmidt. Chile's concessions law facilitates investments; permitting private sector to bid on projects is heart of effort to rebuild national infrastructure. (International Law) J. The National Law Journal Dec 23, 1996 v19 n17 pC2 col 4 (8 col in).

Steven G. Fishbach. "The quiet revolution": trade and investment liberalization in Chile and Jamaica. (Project: Privatization: The Global Scale-Back of Government Involvement in National Economies) Administrative Law Review Fall 1996 v48 n4 p527-543.

Eduardo A. Wiesner. ANCOM: a new attitude toward foreign investment? (Andean Common Market) (Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador and Chile) University of Miami Inter-American Law Review Spring-Summer 1993 v24 n3 p435-465

Leon Larrain. Chile proposes amendments to foreign investment statute. Tax Notes International Jan 11, 1993 v6 n2 p73-74.


Ernst & Young. Doing business in Chile. Santiago, Chile : Ernst & Young, 2001.  52 p.

Rafael Hernández Mayoral; George A Baptista; Frederick E Jenney; Jacqueline I Cisneros.  Impediments to risk capital in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador and Mexico (Obstáculos para las inversíones de capital de riesgo en Argentina, Brasil, Chile, El Salvador y México). Washington, DC : Inter-American Development Bank, Multilateral Investment Fund, 2001.19 p.


China, People’s Republic of

Online Resources:

Information on Trade with China


Trade Statistics


Chenglin Liu. Chinese Law on Trade, Investment and Intellectual Property Rights: A Bibliography of Selected English-Language Materials. International Journal of Legal Information Vol. 32 No. 1. Spring 2004. p 1-33.


Hong Kong, China

Online Resources:

Trade and Investment in Hong Kong

Relevant Government Departments & Agencies:


Hong Kong and APEC




Andrew Halkyard.  Hong Kong Estate Duty: A Blueprint for Reform? 2000, 30 Hong Kong L.J. 47.


Jonathan A. DeMella. Note: In re Extradition of Lui Kin-Hong: Examining the effects of Hong Kong’s Reversion to the People’s Republic of China on United States-United Kingdom Treaty Obligations, (1997) 47 Am. U.L. Rev. 187.

Akash Sachdeva. Brand new day. (new trademark laws in Hong Kong). Trademark World May 2003 i157 p65(1).

Cally Jordan. Doing business in Hong Kong from 1 July. New Zealand Law Journal.  Jan 1997 p9-14.

Elizabeth A.R. Yee. Hong Kong and China in 1997: an examination of possible legal and economic implications for United States businesses. Santa Clara Law Review Spring 1996 v36 n2 p595-647.




PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in Hong Kong.  [United States] : PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2001-. Serial Publication Internet Resource v.

Insight Information Inc. Doing business in China and Hong Kong post "1997." Toronto, Ont.: Insight Press, 1997, 517 p. 



Online Resources:



Book online: Indonesia, ASEAN, and the Third Indochina War

Assafa Endeshaw. Regulating e-commerce in Indonesia: lessons from ASEAN and beyond. (Association of South East Asian Nations) Computer Law & Security Report Sept-Oct 2002 v18 i5 p352-355.

Dewi Fortuna Anwar. Indonesia in ASEAN: foreign policy and regionalism. New York : Singapore : St. Martin's Press ; Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1994. 334 p.

Munmun Majumdar. Indonesia: primus inter pares in ASEAN. New Delhi : Rajat, 2003 1st ed. xx, 154 p.

Anthony L Smith. Strategic centrality: Indonesia's changing role in ASEAN. Pasir Panjang, Singapore : Regional Strategic and Political Studies Programme, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies,  2000. 88 p.



Online Recourses:

Japan and APEC


Pekkanen, S.M. Japan's legal actions in the GATT/WTO system. Journal of World Intellectual Property. 5, no.4, p. 565-589 2002.

Goto, H. 2000's amendments to Japanese Trademark Law for entry into the Madrid Agreement Protocol. Nihon University Comparative Law. 2001, no.18, p. 19-47 2001.

Linarelli, J. The role of dispute settlement in world trade law: some lessons from the Kodak-Fuji dispute. Law and Policy in International Business. 31, no.2, p. 263-372 1999-2000.

Southwick, J.D. Addressing market access barriers in Japan through the WTO: a survey of typical Japan market access issues and the possibility to address them through WTO dispute resolution procedures. Law and Policy in International Business. 31, no.3, p. 923-976 1999-2000.

Yamane, H. Restrictive practices and market access in Japan: has the JFTC been effective in eliminating barriers in distribution? World Competition Law and Economics Review. 22, no.2, p. 1-39 1999.

Nambu, T. Regulatory influences on the decision to introduce pharmaceutical products in Japan . Journal of World Intellectual Property. 1, no.5, p. 763-799 1998.

Takigawa, T. The impact of the WTO Telecommunications Agreement on U.S. and Japanese telecommunications regulations. Journal of World Trade. 32, no.6, p. 33-55 1998.

Saito, A. The WTO Agreement and the relevant Japanese domestic laws. Journal of World Trade. 30, no.3, p. 87-108 1996.

Hamabe, Y. The JFCN Treaty preemption of U.S. anti-discrimination laws in executive positions: analysis in international contexts. Law and Policy in International Business. 27, no.1, p. 67-135 1995-1996.

Heath, C. Sellout of foreign trademark rights in Japan?: the ''type Chanel no.5'' decision. International Review of Industrial Property & Copyright Law. 26, no.4, p. 509-526 1995.

Kitami, T. A new approach to resolve the Unite States-Japan trade imbalance: from the perspective of economic integration in the Asia-Pacific region. World Competition Law and Economics Review. 19, no.1, p. 25-52 1995.

Veronica Taylor. Harmonising competition law within APEC: US-Japan disputes on vertical restraints. (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) Australian Journal of Corporate Law Sept 1995 v5 n3 p379-389.

Margo Grimm. Japan and ASEAN: a new interdependence. (includes related article on Japanese financial assistance to ASEAN nations) East Asian Executive Reports April 15, 1992 v14 n4 p11(6).

Korea, Republic of

Online Resources:


Yun Sai-Ree. Regulation of business combination under the antimonopoly regulation and Fair Trade Act with emphasis on the case law / Yun Sai-Ree. Journal of Korean Law. 2, no.1, p. 1-43 2002.

Shin Yukyun. Protection and border enforcement of trademarks in Korea: aiming high, but still to be pursued. Journal of World Intellectual Property. 3, no.2, p. 249-264 2000.

Kim, B.-I. The protection of trade secrets in Korea. International Review of Industrial Property & Copyright Law. 30, no.4, p. 403-419 1999.

Lee Yong-Shik. [WTO, 1995] Review of the first WTO panel case on the agreement on safeguards: Korea -- definitive safeguard measure on imports of certain daily products and its implications for the application of the agreement.  Journal of World Trade. 33, no.6, p. 27-46 1999.

Kim, S. North Korea's foreign trade with the world between 1980 and 1994. World Competition Law and Economics Review. 19, no.4, p. 69-80 1996.

Lee, H.D. Solving trade regulatory problems in Korea: a three-step approach. East Asian Executive Reports. 18, no.11, p. 8-19 1996.

Byington, L.M. The effects of the Korean labor movement on the economy of the Republic of Korea and on U.S. investment in the Republic of Korea / L.M. Byington. Washington Journal of International Law and Economics (continuation of: Journal of International Law and Economics). 24, no.1, p. 149-193 1990.

Bellis, J.-F. European Community trade policies vis-à-vis Korea and Taiwan in the eighties: a comparative perspective. Michigan Journal of International Law (formerly: Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies). 11, no.2, p. 509-524 1989-1990.

Bello, J.H. [GATT, 1947] The GATT Uruguay Round: its significance for U.S. bilateral trade with Korea and Taiwan. Michigan Journal of International Law (formerly: Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies). 11, no.2, p. 307-325 1989-1990.

Kim, J.-K. The impact of U.S. trade law actions on government policy decisions in Korea / J.-K. Kim. Michigan Journal of International Law (formerly: Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies). 11, no.2, p. 410-422 1989-1990.

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Myanmar (Burma)

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Matthew Schaefer. Lessons from the dispute over the Massachusetts Act regulating state contracts with countries doing business with Burma (Myanmar). Badia Fiesolana : European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, 2002. 39 p.

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New Zealand

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Andrew M.C. Smith. Tax relief for conduit investment through New Zealand. Tax Notes International June 15, 1998 v16 n24 p1885-1897. 

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Luke R. Nottage. Trade law harmonisation in the Asia-Pacific region; a realist's view from New Zealand - and a way forward? New Zealand Law Journal Sept 1995 p295-300.


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Papua New Guinea

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David G. Scalise, Patricia J. De Guzman. Foreign investment in the Philippines. George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics Fall 1995 v29 n1 p145-195


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Kara Josephberg, Jane Pollack, Jenna Victoriano, Oriyan Gitig, Alexandra D. van Nes, Scott N. Wagner. Russia revises patent law. Intellectual Property & Technology Law Journal May 2003 v15 i5 p21(2).

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Dmitri Melnik, Alexei Ryabov, Andrew Shact. Forms of conducting business in Russia: U.S. tax-planning opportunities. Tax Notes International Sept 6, 1999 v19 i10 p915-929.

Viktor P. Zvekov. The new civil code of the Russian Federation and private international law. (Russian Law Reform). McGill Law Journal August 1999 v44 i2 p525-537.

Brandon Bennett. Secured financing in Russia: risks, legal incentives, and policy concerns. Texas Law Review May 1999 v77 i6 p1443-1483.

John Clark. Restraints by regional and local governments on competition: lessons from transition countries. (Russia and Eastern Europe)(Symposium: Second Annual American Competition and Trade Round Table). Brooklyn Journal of International Law March 1999 v25 i2 p363-372. 

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Taipei, Chinese


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Lyon, M. Telecommunications law reform in the ROC. Chinese Yearbook of International Law and Affairs. 1996-97, no.15, p. 61-84 1996-1997.

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Shih Wen-Chen. Multilateralism and the case of Taiwan in the trade environment nexus: the potential conflict between CITES and GATT/WTO. Journal of World Trade. 30, no.3, p. 109-139 1996.

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United States:

U.S. and International Trade

U.S. and APEC

U.S. and ASEAN



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Justin M. Pearson. The U.S./Vietnam bilateral trade agreement: another step in the right direction. University of Miami Business Law Review Spring 2002 v10 i2 p431-450.

Fred Burke, Nguyen Lan Phuong. Mark The U.S.-Vietnam trade agreement and its effect on Vietnam's tax system. (Statistical Data Included). Tax Notes International Jan 21, 2002 v25 i3 p202-204.

Pham Nghiem Xuan Bac, Dang The Duc. The US-Vietnam Trade Agreement and its impact on Vietnam's IP system focus on trademarks. Trademark World Oct 2000 i131 p25(5)

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[ii] Id.

[iii] Thomas C. Fischer. A commentary on regional institutions in the Pacific Rim: do APEC and ASEAN still mater? 13 Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, (Spring 2003) 337,  at 363.

[iv] See Amr Gohar. APEC: Terrorism takes over economics agenda. available at:

[v] ASEAN's official web site at:

[vi] Id.

[vii] See George Siors, Fostering a proper ASEAN perspective. available at:

[viii] See, Supra note 3.