UPDATE: International Human Rights Research Guide
By Grace M. Mills
Grace M. Mills , J.D., M.L.S. is a retired law librarian. She previously had positions within public services affiliated with the law schools of City University of New York, North Carolina Central University, and University of California at Berkeley. She was the law library director at Florida A&M University and Hamline University where she retired in 2012 .
Published October 2014
(Previously updated on March 2008 and June 2012)
Table of Contents
3.1. Charter Bodies
3.2. Treaty Bodies
The bodies of the United Nations primarily govern international human rights documents and decisions. The United Nations was established on October 24, 1945, by the governments of 51 countries, including the victors of WWII -- the United States, England, France, and Russia. The United Nations is a body committed to securing the world’s peace through international cooperation. As of this writing there are currently 193 member nations as members of this body. Human rights issues affect all countries, whether they are active participants in the United Nations or not.
Although this document primarily discusses the documentation created by the United Nations, mention should be made of the European Union. This regional organization was founded after World War II by six nations (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) in the hopes of eliminating war between neighboring countries. By 1951, the six nations had signed a treaty establishing common management for two of their mutual industries: coal and steel. From this initial economic parity between six countries on two mutual industries, the European Union has grown to 28 nations (and as of this writing, six more nations have applied for membership and two more countries are in line for potential membership).
The European Union (EU) is a complex and unique organization. Although it is a regional organization of membership nations, the EU does not have any jurisdiction within the member state. The European Union does not interfere with the internal sovereignty of a member nation. The Union can only create policy that regulates issues of mutual concern between member nations. The disparate cultures and economies of the respective countries have led to the creation of important documents for the region. The ease of the border restrictions and controls concerning the passage of goods, resources and people has convinced separate nations that there is a greater need for uniform documents controlling these multinational concerns. The Union, as the regional body, has created several relevant documents on child labor, human trafficking and immigration that directly impact upon international human rights.
Three bodies determine the decision-making policies of the European Union policies: the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. The European Commission proposes new laws and it is the Parliament and Council that passes the new law. Each new law fits into one of the existing European Union treaty documents.
The eight main treaties are:
- Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which founded the entity that became the European Union. This treaty was ratified in 1952 and expired in 2002.
- Treaty of Rome , which was entered into force in 1958, created the European Economic Commission (EEC).
- Merger Treaty, which was entered into force on July 1, 1967 , established the single Commission and Council.
- Single European Act (SEA) entered into force in 1987.
- Treaty on European Union entered into force in November 1993 and streamlined the institutions so that the European Union came into formal existence, and with the subsequent ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon, this treaty is also known as the “Treaty on the Functioning of the EU”.
- Treaty of Amsterdam entered into force in 1999 consolidated and renumbered the EU treaties.
- Treaty of Nice entered into force in 2003 again consolidated several EU treaties and made the organization more governable in its present form.
- Treaty of Lisbon , which was ratified in 2009, sought to bring greater accountability and efficiency to those citizens living within the member nations.
An understanding of the United Nations documentation begins with the abbreviations employed for discussing and classifying United Nations documents. United Nations abbreviations are used for documentation of materials found in either bodies chartered by the UN (the Human Rights Council or Commission on Human Rights) or those bodies created by United Nations treaties. Human rights documents and organizations frequently are discussed using abbreviations found below.
The charter bodies created under the United Nation charter are:
- Human Rights Council
- Commission on Human Rights
- Special Procedures established by the Commission on Human Rights
- Sub-Commission for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights
There are seven UN treaty bodies governing international human rights:
- Human Rights Committee (HRC)
- Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR)
- Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
- Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
- Committee Against Torture (CAT)
- Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRCD)
- Committee on Migrant Workers (CMW)
There are several bodies within the United Nations whose primary goal is not to promote or protect human rights; however, these entities frequently endorse activities that protect human rights. The scope of this Guide is not to examine these entities at length but they must be mentioned as these entities often effectuate and promote the aims of international human rights: the UN General Assembly (GA), the Third Committee of the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (HABITAT) and the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights was founded in 1946. It was dissolved by the United Nations in 2006 and replaced by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights . This Commission meets in Geneva, Switzerland in a regular session lasting six weeks in March/April of each year. At an annual regular session the Commission adopts resolutions and make decisions that affect the entire globe when monitoring human rights situations whether in specific countries or in territories. A member state can call the UN to protect the human rights of its people within its own state or a member state can call the UN to adopt a resolution, make a determination of a violation of human rights against another state and/or request that the UN provide protection of human rights for people of a certain state, region or territory. As of this 2014 writing the Commission has 13 regional offices and 13 country offices.
The Commission can also meet in special sessions upon the agreement of member States. A special session deals with any urgent human rights matters brought before the Commission by a member State.
The Human Rights Committee (HRC), the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), the Committee Against Torture (CAT) and the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) can receive petitions from individuals who claim that their human rights have been violated.
· CAT – Committee Against Torture
· CEDAW – Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women
· CERD – Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
· CESCR – Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
· CHR – Commission on Human Rights
· CMW – Committee on Migrant Workers
· CRC – Committee on the Rights of the Child
· CSW – Commission on the Status of Women
· DAW – Division for the Advancement of Women
· DESA – Department on Economic and Social Affairs
· ESC – Economic and Social Council of the United Nations
· FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
· HABITAT – United Nations Human Settlements Programme
· HRC – Human Rights Committee
· IASC – Inter-Agency Standing Committee
· ICJ – International Court of Justice
· OCHA – Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
· OHCHR – Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
· OSAGI – Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and the Advancement of Women
· UNAIDS – Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
· UNDP – United Nations Development Programme
· UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
· UNGA – General Assembly of the United Nations
· UNHCR – United Nationals High Commissioner for Refugees
· UNICEF – United Nations Children’s Fun
· UNIFEM – United Nations Development Fund for Women
· UNIFPA – United Nations Population Fund
· UNMA – United Nations Mine Action
· UNTS – United Nations Treaty Series
· WHO – World Health Organization
The United Nations uses a classification system unique to this international body. Once the reader understands the system it is very easy to find a category of documents, related and any subsequent documents related to human rights.
There are two useful United Nations web sites concerning UN document symbols. A guide is published by the United Nations for deciphering the symbols of official United Nations documents, and is available from the United Nations web site . There is also a guide from the Office of the Commission on Human Rights .
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights lists the following United Nations documents as core to the development and understanding of international law:
· Charter of the United Nations
· The International Bill of Human Rights
· Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948
· International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966
· International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966
· Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
· Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty
All of these documents can be found in paper or via electronic databases using the United Nations Treaty Series (UNTS) as published by the United Nations. The United Nations Treaty Series contains all treaties deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations. There are currently over 40,000 treaties in this collection, each reproduced in either the authentic language or languages of the treaty, as well as in English and French.
The United Nations also has several databases that provide electronic means for accessing human rights documents and materials. These databases are available in three languages: English, French and Spanish.
- Charter-based bodies database , which contains all the human rights reports, resolutions, decisions and materials created by all the organizations created within the United Nations since 1994.
- Treaty body database, which included those treaties that implement the principles of international human rights.
The United Nations has a Depository Library System whereby libraries throughout the world can participate in providing information on human rights and have the right to deposit UN documents. The UN has a Depository Library locator .
Publications (including background information, fact sheets, issue papers, promotional and reference materials) concerning international human rights are available from the OHCHR .
In addition to the United Nations documents listed above the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has designated several treaty documents as ‘core international human rights instruments’ that are critical in determining the implementations of human rights on its State members. The documents, with their abbreviations and dates of enactment and bodies that monitor the progress of these documents, are listed below as provided by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
The OHCHR provides an updated grouping of the relevant human rights documents on its web site.
Freedom of Association:
- Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention, 1948 (No. 87)
- Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98)
Human Rights in the Administration of Justice: Protection of Persons Subjected to Detention or Imprisonment:
- Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners
- Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners
- Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment
- United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty
- Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Being Subjected to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)
- Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT)
- Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the Role of Health Personnel, particularly Physicians, in the Protection of Prisoners and Detainees against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- Principles on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- Safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty
- Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials
- Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials
- United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures (The Tokyo Rules)
- United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules)
- Guidelines for Action on Children in the Criminal Justice System
- United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (The Riyadh Guidelines)
- Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power
- Basic Principles on the Independence of the Judiciary
- Basic Principles on the Role of Lawyers
- Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors
- Principles on the Effective Prevention and Investigation of Extra-legal, Arbitrary and Summary Executions
- Declaration on the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance
- Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation
- Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War
- Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War
- Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I)
- Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II)
- Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages
- Recommendation on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages
- Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness
- Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons
- Convention relating to the Status of Refugees
- Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees
- Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals Who are not Nationals of the Country in which They Live
- Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100)
- Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111)
- International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)
- Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice
- Convention against Discrimination in Education
- Protocol Instituting a Conciliation and Good Offices Commission to be responsible for seeking a settlement of any disputes which may arise between States Parties to the Convention against Discrimination in Education
- Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief
- Principles relating to the status of national institutions (The Paris Principles)
- Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
- United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training
- Right to Health; The Right of Self-Determination; Right to Work and to Fair Conditions of Employment; Rights of the Child; Rights of Indigenous Peoples and Minorities; Rights of Migrants; Rights of Persons with Disabilities;
- Rights of Women:
- Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
- Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW-OP)
- Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict
- Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
Slavery, Slavery-Like Practices, and Forced Labour:
- Slavery Convention
- Protocol amending the Slavery Convention signed at Geneva on 25 September 1926
- Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery
- Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
- Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)
- Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others
- Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
Social Welfare, Progress, and Development:
- Declaration on Social Progress and Development
- Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition
- Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights
- Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity
War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, Including Genocide:
- Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
- Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity
- Principles of international co-operation in the detection, arrest, extradition and punishment of persons guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity
World Conference on Human Rights and Millennium Assembly:
There are many organizations that promote international human rights but are not affiliated with, or organized by, the United Nations or the European Union. These organizations often called NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are important to note as they often go into areas of conflict without the imprint of political organizations or country affiliation. Below are four such organizations:
- Amnesty International is an independent, i.e., not sponsored or funded by any nation, worldwide organization of people dedicated to campaign for those human rights as written in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
- Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) was founded in 1971. It is an international humanitarian organization committed to providing medical care to patients and their governments. The organization’s decision to intervene in situations is based upon the critical care and needs of people, regardless of the political, economic or social interests of hostile or friendly governments.
- GlobalRights.org is a global human rights advocacy group that partners with activists within various countries combating discrimination based upon race, gender or sexual orientation. Their work involves a great deal of legal and legislative work.
- Human Rights Action Center is an NGO working on issues concerning the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Their work is to “ create and develop new strategies to stop human rights abuses.”
- Human Rights Watch is an international organization that seeks to defend ‘human rights worldwide.’ The organization’s website is searchable by country or global issue. One can search this web site via seventeen listed languages. This organization boasts the latest global news available affecting human rights.
- Human Rights Without Frontiers (HRWF) was founded in 2001 relating to all international concerns in the field of human rights. This organization firmly believes that all human rights at its root are matters of social justice.
- International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was organized in 1863. It is an international impartial organization whose goal is to protect the lives and dignity of those persons who find themselves in regions of strife and war-torn areas. The organization works to strengthen humanitarian law. This organization is the outgrowth of two previous organizations: International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
- MADRE , is an international human rights organization whose mission is to “use human rights to advance social, environmental, and economic justice” through a network of community-based organizations serving women and families. Founded in 1983, MADRE documents human rights violations and partners with other community-based organization to promote change.
- Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF) was founded in 1985. It is an international organization founded to ensure that people always have freedom of the press. In January 2002, RSF organized the Damocles Network, which is the organization’s judicial arm. The Network ensures that murderers and torturers of journalists are brought to trial, and it provides victims with legal services and represents them before the competent national and international courts so that proper judicial procedures can be implemented.
The following all started as news reporting services with bureaus and reporters located in major cities throughout the world. These agencies have expanded their coverage to provide electronic media. This has sped the delivery of human disasters, such as typhoons and earthquakes that strike remote areas, human rights disasters, such as the refugee camps of Darfur and Thailand, and human rights violations throughout the world.
- AllAfrica is a news organization providing electronic information of African news and global news worldwide. This organization is the successor of AllAfricaNews, which provided news to National Public Radio, BBC and the Washington Post for two decades.
- Al Jazeera English is the first global news and current affairs channel broadcasting information 24 hours a day from its Middle East headquarters in Doha. Its counterpart, Al Jazeera Arabic , sends 24-hour global news and current affairs in Arabic to its Arabic speaking audience in the Muslim countries within the Middle East.
- BBC is an English news organization sending out news from bureaus located throughout the world.
- Channel NewsAsia provides global news and information from an Asian perspective. Started in 1999 as a Singapore-based news organization Chanel NewsAsia (International) provides reports and weather of major Asian and Western cities. One can select Asia Pacific, Singapore or the World for means to view the top stories. It distributes news in four languages: English, Malay, Tamil and Chinese.
- CNN is a US based news organization sending out news from bureaus located throughout the world. This organization has a heavy television presence broadcasting breaking global developments and sending teams of reporters to cover situations, whether they are natural disasters, economic crises or armed conflicts and wars. This news organization also has a strong Internet presence delivering up-to-the-moment news. The viewer can highlight news from a region (Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the United States) or by topic.
- Reuters provides global information on business, current events, politics and technology. Its web pages deliver international news oriented to 16 markets: Africa, Asia, various European countries, various Latin American countries, the United Kingdom and the United States. Languages include Arabic, Chinese, English, Italian and Spanish.
- The European Union is the gateway for all information concerning the European Union, currently 25 countries governing 450 million people. The European Union does not replace any of the member countries existing governments. It does provide the mechanisms for common interests, one of which is human rights. Within this gateway is a Newsroom , which includes press contacts, facilities and releases and a calendar of events from the European Union.
- The Drudge Report is a repository of the blogs of many reporters from a variety of media sources, such as newspapers, radio and television: media sources include The New York Times , Newsday , local and regional newspapers, and CBS, News.
- The European Union contains blogs written by its EU Commissioners and the President of the Council of Europe.
- The Huffington Post , a Pulitzer-prize winning internet newspaper, has over nine dozen featured blogs that target various Canadian, United Kingdom and United States interests be they business, political or social. Issues concerning human rights are expressed by individual bloggers and by videos.
- IntLawGrrls was started in 2007 as a means to have women’s’ voices heard concerning the vital topics of human rights, international human rights and international law written by women. This blog ended publication in 2012 , and is archived at the above site, when its editors pursued new careers. Diane Marie Amann was appointed by International Criminal Court Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda to serve as her Special Adviser on Children in and Affected by Armed Conflict, Kate Doty was promoted to the position of Attorney-Editor at the American Society of International Law, and Jaya Ramji-Nogales continued to do important work teaching and writing on immigration, refugee law, and transitional justice. Over 300 women judges, law professors and students and women within other disciplines contributed over 6100 posts to the blog. Because so many women and readers believed in the power of this blog it was revived in 2013 as IntLawGrrls – still a blog written by women voices on international law, policy and practice.
- Law professors specializing in the field of international law edit the International Law Profs Blog . Currently edited by two law professors in United States law schools, this blog discusses U.S. and foreign laws, issues and articles of interest concerning human rights.
- Many national and international news organizations, such as The New York Times , The Financial Times , and The Washington Post started as print newspapers, and now they have blogs written by many of their columnists. While these blogs are an extension of the news reported by the news organizations the blog posts often concern issues of international human rights such as child labor, global commerce, human trafficking, immigration and refugees.
Informative, Yet Not a News Site:
- You Tube is a web site created in 2005. Although it was arguably not created as a news site, but rather as an entertainment site for the average individual to place video clips for viewing by other individuals, the January/February issue of Foreign Policy noted on page 104 of its article “The You Tube Effect” that more and more videos and images about international human rights developments and violations are caught on individual hand-held videos and cameras and being shown throughout the world thanks to video-sharing sites such as the one above. Many of these segments show current events, such as the Arab Spring of 2011 and the Syrian Conflict starting in 2012. Many of the features are provocative and filmed from a point of view. Often You Tube segments document specific human rights events affecting both women and children.
Several universities maintain web sites that contain important information on finding United Nations organizations and international human rights materials.
- Columbia University has two sites at its institution: the Human Rights Institute maintained by the Diamond Law Library at Columbia University and the Center of Human Rights Study at Columbia University ;
- Cornell University, Legal Information Institute , for transnational and comparative law;
- University of Minnesota has a wealth of information at its international and human rights library;
- University of Toronto has a focus upon women and human rights in its depository;
- Yale University has a depository of international and human rights databases via Project Diana.
Many United States university law schools publish student-edited journals having an emphasis upon human rights. The list below, as of August 2014, is representative but by no means comprehensive.
- The American Review of International Arbitration
- American University International Law Review
- American University National Security Law Brief
- Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law
- Berkeley Journal of International Law
- Boston College International and Comparative Law Review
- Boston College Journal of Law and Social Justice
- Boston University International Law Journal
- Brigham Young University International Law & Management Review
- Brooklyn Journal of International Law
- California Western International Law Journal
- Canada-United States Law Journal
- Cardozo Journal of International & Comparative Law
- Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law
- Chicago Journal of International Law
- Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law & Policy
- Columbia Journal of Asian Law
- Columbia Journal of European Law
- Columbia Journal of Transnational Law
- Connecticut Journal of International Law
- Cornell International Law Journal
- Currents: International Trade Law Journal
- Denver Journal of International Law and Policy
- Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law
- Emory International Law Review
- The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs
- Florida Journal of International Law
- Florida State University Journal of Transnational Law & Policy
- Fordham International Law Journal
- George Washington International Law Review
- The Georgetown International Environmental Law Review
- Georgetown Journal of International Law
- Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law
- Harvard International Law Journal
- Harvard National Security Journal (2010-)
- Hastings International and Comparative Law Review
- Houston Journal of International Law
- Human Rights & Globalization Law Review (2008-)
- ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law
- Indiana International & Comparative Law Review
- Journal of Air Law and Commerce
- Journal of Space Law
- Loyola of Los Angeles International & Comparative Law Review
- Loyola University Chicago International Law Review
- Michigan Journal of International Law
- Michigan State International Law Review
- Minnesota Journal of International Law
- New York University Journal of International Law and Politics
- North Carolina Journal of International Law and Commercial Regulation
- Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business
- Northwestern University Journal of International Human Rights
- Oregon Review of International Law
- Pace International Law Review
- Pacific McGeorge Global Business & Development Law Journal
- Penn State Journal of Law and International Affairs
- Regent Journal of International Law
- Richmond Journal of Global Law and Business
- San Diego International Law Journal
- Santa Clara Journal of International Law
- South Carolina Journal of International Law and Business
- Southwestern Journal of International Law
- Stanford Journal of International Law
- Suffolk Transnational Law Review
- Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce
- Temple International and Comparative Law Journal
- Texas International Law Journal
- Trade, Law and Development (India)
- Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems
- Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law
- Tulane Law Review
- U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy
- UCLA Journal of International Law and Foreign Affairs
- UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal
- The University of Miami Inter-American Law Review
- University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review
- University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law
- Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law
- Virginia Journal of International Law
- Washington University Global Studies Law Review
- Willamette Journal of International Law and Dispute Resolution
- Wisconsin International Law Journal
- Yale Human Rights & Development Law Journal
- The Yale Journal of International Law
The following journals, as of August 2014, are both United States law school student edited and online journals only.
- Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal
- Berkeley Journal of International Law Publicist
- Chicago-Kent Journal of International and Comparative Law
- George Mason Journal of International Commercial Law
- Gonzaga Journal of International Law
- Harvard International Law Journal Online
- Minnesota Journal of International Law Online
- Pace International Law Review Online Companion
- Touro International Law Review
- University of Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review
- The Yale Journal of International Law Online