UPDATE: International Human Rights Research Guide

 

By Grace M. Mills

 

Grace M. Mills , J.D., M.L.S. is a retired law librarian.  She previously had positions within public services affiliated with the law schools of City University of New York, North Carolina Central University, and University of California at Berkeley.  She was the law library director at Florida A&M University and Hamline University where she retired in 2012

 

Published October 2014

(Previously updated on March 2008 and June 2012)

See the Archive Version

 

Table of Contents

 

1.      Introduction

2.      European Union Documentation

3.      United Nations Documentation

3.1. Charter Bodies

3.2.   Treaty Bodies

4.      Abbreviations

5.      Basic Documents in International Human Rights

5.1.      Guide to United Nations Symbols

5.2.      United Nations Web Sites

5.3.      United Nations Depository Library

6.      United Nations Human Rights Documents Listed by Subject Matter

7.      International Organizations

8.      International News Organizations

9.      Educational Institutions Web Information

10.   International Law Journals

 

1.      Introduction

The bodies of the United Nations primarily govern international human rights documents and decisions.  The United Nations was established on October 24, 1945, by the governments of 51 countries, including the victors of WWII -- the United States, England, France, and Russia.  The United Nations is a body committed to securing the world’s peace through international cooperation.  As of this writing there are currently 193 member nations as members of this body.  Human rights issues affect all countries, whether they are active participants in the United Nations or not. 

 

Although this document primarily discusses the documentation created by the United Nations, mention should be made of the European Union.  This regional organization was founded after World War II by six nations (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) in the hopes of eliminating war between neighboring countries. By 1951, the six nations had signed a treaty establishing common management for two of their mutual industries:  coal and steel.  From this initial economic parity between six countries on two mutual industries, the European Union has grown to 28 nations (and as of this writing, six more nations have applied for membership and two more countries are in line for potential membership). 

 

2.      European Union Documentation

The European Union (EU) is a complex and unique organization.  Although it is a regional organization of membership nations, the EU does not have any jurisdiction within the member state.  The European Union does not interfere with the internal sovereignty of a member nation.  The Union can only create policy that regulates issues of mutual concern between member nations. The disparate cultures and economies of the respective countries have led to the creation of important documents for the region.  The ease of the border restrictions and controls concerning the passage of goods, resources and people has convinced separate nations that there is a greater need for uniform documents controlling these multinational concerns.    The Union, as the regional body, has created several relevant documents on child labor, human trafficking and immigration that directly impact upon international human rights. 

 

Three bodies determine the decision-making policies of the European Union policies: the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union.  The European Commission proposes new laws and it is the Parliament and Council that passes the new law.  Each new law fits into one of the existing European Union treaty documents.

 

The eight main treaties are:

 

The web portal to the European Union is available here . The web portal to the European Commission is available here .

 

3.      United Nations Documentation

An understanding of the United Nations documentation begins with the abbreviations employed for discussing and classifying United Nations documents. United Nations abbreviations are used for documentation of materials found in either bodies chartered by the UN (the Human Rights Council or Commission on Human Rights) or those bodies created by United Nations treaties. Human rights documents and organizations frequently are discussed using abbreviations found below.   

 

3.1.   Charter Bodies

The charter bodies created under the United Nation charter are:

 

  • Human Rights Council
  • Commission on Human Rights
    • Special Procedures established by the Commission on Human Rights
    • Sub-Commission for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights

 

3.2.   Treaty Bodies

There are seven UN treaty bodies governing international human rights: 

 

  • Human Rights Committee (HRC)
  • Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR)
  • Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
  • Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
  • Committee Against Torture (CAT)
  • Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRCD)
  • Committee on Migrant Workers (CMW)

 

There are several bodies within the United Nations whose primary goal is not to promote or protect human rights; however, these entities frequently endorse activities that protect human rights.  The scope of this Guide is not to examine these entities at length but they must be mentioned as these entities often effectuate and promote the aims of international human rights:  the UN General Assembly (GA), the Third Committee of the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (HABITAT) and the International Court of Justice (ICJ).

 

The United Nations Commission on Human Rights was founded in 1946.  It was dissolved by the United Nations in 2006 and replaced by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights This Commission meets in Geneva, Switzerland in a regular session lasting six weeks in March/April of each year.  At an annual regular session the Commission adopts resolutions and make decisions that affect the entire globe when monitoring human rights situations whether in specific countries or in territories. A member state can call the UN to protect the human rights of its people within its own state or a member state can call the UN to adopt a resolution, make a determination of a violation of human rights against another state and/or request that the UN provide protection of human rights for people of a certain state, region or territory.  As of this 2014 writing the Commission has 13 regional offices and 13 country offices.

 

The Commission can also meet in special sessions upon the agreement of member States.  A special session deals with any urgent human rights matters brought before the Commission by a member State.   

 

The Human Rights Committee (HRC), the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD), the Committee Against Torture (CAT) and the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) can receive petitions from individuals who claim that their human rights have been violated. 

 

4.      Abbreviations

·     CAT – Committee Against Torture

·     CEDAW – Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women

·     CERD – Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

·     CESCR – Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

·     CHR – Commission on Human Rights

·     CMW – Committee on Migrant Workers

·     CRC – Committee on the Rights of the Child

·     CSW – Commission on the Status of Women

·     DAW – Division for the Advancement of Women

·     DESA – Department on Economic and Social Affairs

·     ESC – Economic and Social Council of the United Nations

·     FAO – Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

·     HABITAT – United Nations Human Settlements Programme

·     HRC – Human Rights Committee

·     IASC – Inter-Agency Standing Committee

·     ICJ – International Court of Justice

·     OCHA – Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

·     OHCHR – Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

·     OSAGI – Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and the Advancement of Women

·     UNAIDS – Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

·     UNDP – United Nations Development Programme

·     UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

·     UNGA – General Assembly of the United Nations

·     UNHCR – United Nationals High Commissioner for Refugees

·     UNICEF – United Nations Children’s Fun

·     UNIFEM – United Nations Development Fund for Women

·     UNIFPA – United Nations Population Fund

·     UNMA – United Nations Mine Action

·     UNTS – United Nations Treaty Series

·     WHO – World Health Organization

 

5.      Basic Documents in International Human Rights

 

5.1.   Guide to United Nations Symbols

The United Nations uses a classification system unique to this international body.  Once the reader understands the system it is very easy to find a category of documents, related and any subsequent documents related to human rights.

 

There are two useful United Nations web sites concerning UN document symbols.  A guide is published by the United Nations for deciphering the symbols of official United Nations documents, and is available from the United Nations web site .  There is also a guide from the Office of the Commission on Human Rights .

 

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights lists the following United Nations documents as core to the development and understanding of international law:

 

·        Charter of the United Nations

·        The International Bill of Human Rights

·        Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948

·        International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966

·        International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966

·        Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

·        Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty

 

All of these documents can be found in paper or via electronic databases using the United Nations Treaty Series (UNTS) as published by the United Nations.  The United Nations Treaty Series contains all treaties deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations. There are currently over 40,000 treaties in this collection, each reproduced in either the authentic language or languages of the treaty, as well as in English and French.

 

5.2.   United Nations Web Sites

 

Databases:

The United Nations also has several databases that provide electronic means for accessing human rights documents and materials.  These databases are available in three languages:  English, French and Spanish. 

 

  • Charter-based bodies database , which contains all the human rights reports, resolutions, decisions and materials created by all the organizations created within the United Nations since 1994. 
  • Treaty body database, which included those treaties that implement the principles of international human rights.   

 

5.3.   United Nations Depository Library

The United Nations has a Depository Library System whereby libraries throughout the world can participate in providing information on human rights and have the right to deposit UN documents.  The UN has a Depository Library locator

 

Publications:

Publications (including background information, fact sheets, issue papers, promotional and reference materials) concerning international human rights are available from the OHCHR .

 

In addition to the United Nations documents listed above the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has designated several treaty documents as ‘core international human rights instruments’ that are critical in determining the implementations of human rights on its State members. The documents, with their abbreviations and dates of enactment and bodies that monitor the progress of these documents, are listed below as provided by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.

 

6.     United Nations Human Rights Documents Listed by Subject Matter

The OHCHR provides an updated grouping of the relevant human rights documents on its web site.

 

Freedom of Association:

 

 

Human Rights in the Administration of Justice: Protection of Persons Subjected to Detention or Imprisonment:

 

 

Humanitarian Law: See UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS

 

 

Marriage:

 

 

Nationality, Statelessness, Asylum and Refugees:

 

 

Prevention of Discrimination:  

 

Promotion and Protection of Human Rights:

 

 

 

  • Rights of Women:

 

 

Slavery, Slavery-Like Practices, and Forced Labour:

 

 

Social Welfare, Progress, and Development:

 

 

War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity, Including Genocide:

 

 

World Conference on Human Rights and Millennium Assembly:

 

 

7.      International Organizations

There are many organizations that promote international human rights but are not affiliated with, or organized by, the United Nations or the European Union.  These organizations often called NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are important to note as they often go into areas of conflict without the imprint of political organizations or country affiliation.  Below are four such organizations: 

 

 

  • Amnesty International is an independent, i.e., not sponsored or funded by any nation, worldwide organization of people dedicated to campaign for those human rights as written in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 

 

  • Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) was founded in 1971.  It is an international humanitarian organization committed to providing medical care to patients and their governments. The organization’s decision to intervene in situations is based upon the critical care and needs of people, regardless of the political, economic or social interests of hostile or friendly governments.

 

  • GlobalRights.org is a global human rights advocacy group that partners with activists within various countries combating discrimination based upon race, gender or sexual orientation.  Their work involves a great deal of legal and legislative work.

 

  • Human Rights Action Center is an NGO working on issues concerning the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.  Their work is to “ create and develop new strategies to stop human rights abuses.” 

 

  • Human Rights Watch is an international organization that seeks to defend ‘human rights worldwide.’  The organization’s website is searchable by country or global issue.  One can search this web site via seventeen listed languages.  This organization boasts the latest global news available affecting human rights.

 

  • Human Rights Without Frontiers (HRWF) was founded in 2001 relating to all international concerns in the field of human rights. This organization firmly believes that all human rights at its root are matters of social justice.

 

  • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) was organized in 1863.  It is an international impartial organization whose goal is to protect the lives and dignity of those persons who find themselves in regions of strife and war-torn areas.  The organization works to strengthen humanitarian law. This organization is the outgrowth of two previous organizations:  International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. 

 

  • MADRE , is an international human rights organization whose mission is to “use human rights to advance social, environmental, and economic justice” through a network of community-based organizations serving women and families.  Founded in 1983, MADRE documents human rights violations and partners with other community-based organization to promote change. 

 

  • Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF) was founded in 1985.  It is an international organization founded to ensure that people always have freedom of the press.  In January 2002, RSF organized the Damocles Network, which is the organization’s judicial arm. The Network ensures that murderers and torturers of journalists are brought to trial, and it provides victims with legal services and represents them before the competent national and international courts so that proper judicial procedures can be implemented.

 

8.     International News Organizations

The following all started as news reporting services with bureaus and reporters located in major cities throughout the world.  These agencies have expanded their coverage to provide electronic media.  This has sped the delivery of human disasters, such as typhoons and earthquakes that strike remote areas, human rights disasters, such as the refugee camps of Darfur and Thailand, and human rights violations throughout the world.   

 

  • AllAfrica is a news organization providing electronic information of African news and global news worldwide.  This organization is the successor of AllAfricaNews, which provided news to National Public Radio, BBC and the Washington Post for two decades. 
  • Al Jazeera English is the first global news and current affairs channel broadcasting information 24 hours a day from its Middle East headquarters in Doha.  Its counterpart, Al Jazeera Arabic , sends 24-hour global news and current affairs in Arabic to its Arabic speaking audience in the Muslim countries within the Middle East.

 

  • BBC is an English news organization sending out news from bureaus located throughout the world.

 

  • Channel NewsAsia provides global news and information from an Asian perspective.  Started in 1999 as a Singapore-based news organization Chanel NewsAsia (International) provides reports and weather of major Asian and Western cities.  One can select Asia Pacific, Singapore or the World for means to view the top stories. It distributes news in four languages: English, Malay, Tamil and Chinese.

 

  • CNN is a US based news organization sending out news from bureaus located throughout the world.  This organization has a heavy television presence broadcasting breaking global developments and sending teams of reporters to cover situations, whether they are natural disasters, economic crises or armed conflicts and wars.  This news organization also has a strong Internet presence delivering up-to-the-moment news.  The viewer can highlight news from a region (Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the United States) or by topic. 

 

  • Reuters provides global information on business, current events, politics and technology.  Its web pages deliver international news oriented to 16 markets:  Africa, Asia, various European countries, various Latin American countries, the United Kingdom and the United States.  Languages include Arabic, Chinese, English, Italian and Spanish. 

 

  • The European Union is the gateway for all information concerning the European Union, currently 25 countries governing 450 million people.  The European Union does not replace any of the member countries existing governments.  It does provide the mechanisms for common interests, one of which is human rights.  Within this gateway is a Newsroom , which includes press contacts, facilities and releases and a calendar of events from the European Union.

 

Blogs:

 

  • The Drudge Report is a repository of the blogs of many reporters from a variety of media sources, such as newspapers, radio and television:  media sources include The New York Times , Newsday , local and regional newspapers, and CBS, News.

 

  • The European Union contains blogs written by its EU Commissioners and the President of the Council of Europe.

 

  • The Huffington Post , a Pulitzer-prize winning internet newspaper, has over nine dozen featured blogs that target various Canadian, United Kingdom and United States interests be they business, political or social.  Issues concerning human rights are expressed by individual bloggers and by videos.

 

  • IntLawGrrls was started in 2007 as a means to have women’s’ voices heard concerning the vital topics of human rights, international human rights and international law written by women.  This blog ended publication in 2012 , and is archived at the above site, when its editors pursued new careers. Diane Marie Amann was appointed by International Criminal Court Prosecutor Fatou Bensouda to serve as her Special Adviser on Children in and Affected by Armed Conflict, Kate Doty was promoted to the position of Attorney-Editor at the American Society of International Law, and Jaya Ramji-Nogales continued to do important work teaching and writing on immigration, refugee law, and transitional justice.  Over 300 women judges, law professors and students and women within other disciplines contributed over 6100 posts to the blog.  Because so many women and readers believed in the power of this blog it was revived in 2013 as IntLawGrrls – still a blog written by women voices on international law, policy and practice. 

 

  • Law professors specializing in the field of international law edit the International Law Profs Blog .  Currently edited by two law professors in United States law schools, this blog discusses U.S. and foreign laws, issues and articles of interest concerning human rights.

 

  • Many national and international news organizations, such as The New York Times , The Financial Times , and The Washington Post started as print newspapers, and now they have blogs written by many of their columnists.  While these blogs are an extension of the news reported by the news organizations the blog posts often concern issues of international human rights such as child labor, global commerce, human trafficking, immigration and refugees.

 

Informative, Yet Not a News Site:

 

  • You Tube is a web site created in 2005.  Although it was arguably not created as a news site, but rather as an entertainment site for the average individual to place video clips for viewing by other individuals, the January/February issue of Foreign Policy noted on page 104 of its article “The You Tube Effect” that more and more videos and images about international human rights developments and violations are caught on individual hand-held videos and cameras and being shown throughout the world thanks to video-sharing sites such as the one above.  Many of these segments show current events, such as the Arab Spring of 2011 and the Syrian Conflict starting in 2012.   Many of the features are provocative and filmed from a point of view. Often You Tube segments document specific human rights events affecting both women and children. 

 

9.     Educational Institutions Web Information

Several universities maintain web sites that contain important information on finding United Nations organizations and international human rights materials. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. International Law Journals

Many United States university law schools publish student-edited journals having an emphasis upon human rights.  The list below, as of August 2014, is representative but by no means comprehensive.

 

 

 

The following journals, as of August 2014, are both United States law school student edited and online journals only.