UPDATE: Research Guide on the Trading Systems in the Asian-Pacific Region: APEC, ASEAN and their Members

  By Chenglin Liu


Update by Wilhelmina Randtke

Wilhelmina Randtke is Electronic Services and Reference Librarian at St. Mary's University School of Law,SanAntonio,Texas.
Chenglin Liu is an Assistant Professor of Law at St. Mary's University School of Law,
San Antonio, Texas .   Professor Liu is the author of Chinese Law on SARS (New York: W.S. Hein 2004), which is held by over 100 law libraries worldwide.

Published September 2014
(Previously updated by Chenglin Liu in January/February 2010 and by Wilhelmina Randtke and Brian Detweiler in November/December 2012)
See the Archive Version!

Table of Contents

A. Introduction

B. APEC and ASEAN-Overviews

C. Online Resources on APEC and ASEAN

D. A Selected Bibliography on APEC and ASEAN

E. Online Resources and Bibliographies on Member Economies

APEC members overviews:  Australia , Brunei Darussalam , Canada , Chile , China , Chinese Taipei , Hong Kong , Indonesia , Japan , Korea , Malaysia , Mexico , New Zealand , Papua New Guinea , Peru , Philippines , Russia , Singapore , Thailand , United States , and Vietnam .

ASEAN members’ overviews:  Brunei Darussalam , Cambodia , Indonesia , Laos , Malaysia , Myanmar , Philippines , Singapore , Thailand , and Vietnam .

A. Introduction

This research guide provides basic information about the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and their member economies. The first section of the guide includes online resources about the two organizations and a selected bibliography for further research on the history and future trends of the economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. The second section provides online information and bibliographies on trade and investment in individual member economies, with emphasis on developments in free trade agreements and bilateral trade agreements in each country.

This research guide was adapted from the author's presentation at the American Association of Law Libraries (AALL) 97th Annual Conference in Boston, July 2004.

B. APEC and ASEAN- Overviews

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

APEC was established in 1989. The objectives of APEC are to eliminate trade and investment barriers in the Asia-Pacific region. Currently, APEC consists of 21 member economies: Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, China, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam. APEC maintains a Secretariat in Singapore funded by annual contributions from the member economies.

APEC operates on "the basis of non-binding commitments, open dialogue and equal respect for the views of all participating economies." [ [i] ] Unlike other regional economic organizations, APEC does not have a binding treaty that sets forth an institutional framework for economic integration. However, the influence of APEC on the Asia-Pacific region and world economy should not be underestimated. APEC member economies, which cover 2.6 billion people or 30% of the world population, account for approximately 60% of the world Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and nearly 72% of world economic growth. [ [ii] ] APEC has greatly contributed to the liberalization of world trade and investment. The frequent meetings of the leaders of its members and the exchange of trade information within APEC have facilitated mutual understandings between the least developed nations and the developed nations . [ [iii] ] Since the September 11 th attacks, APEC members have also actively participated in the anti-terrorism efforts. [ [iv] ]

The Associations of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

ASEAN was established in 1967 by five nations: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. In the 1980's and 1990's, five other nations joined ASEAN: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), and Vietnam. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Brunei Darussalam and Vietnam are also members of APEC. The goals of ASEAN are to accelerate the regional economic growth, facilitate social and culture development, and pursue regional peace, stability and rule of law. [ [v] ]

ASEAN is a treaty based organization. [ [vi] ] Compared with APEC, ASEAN is a much smaller and weaker entity. [ [vii] ] However, in recent years, ASEAN played an important role in advocating the interests of the least developed nations in Southeast Asia, especially after the failure of the round trade talks in the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Seattle. By establishing external relations with the developed economies and other regional trade organizations, ASEAN has been active in promoting interregional dialogue and cooperation. [ [viii] ]

Recent Developments in Asian Pacific Free Trade

Recent developments in free trade agreements in Southeast Asia include the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement. The TPP is a proposed free trade agreement between Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States, and Vietnam.  As of 2014, the TPP is still under negotiation, but if it goes through would impact ASEAN and APEC because of the overlapping membership.

 

C. Online Resources on APEC and ASEAN

APEC Online Resources

APEC Members:  Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, China, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation - APEC's official website. Contains an "About APEC" section with a short description of APEC and goals.  The website also has a list of member countries and join dates.

APEC tariff database - Links to the tariffs and rules of origin in each APEC member.  Information is provided and maintained by each member state. Counter Terrorism Working Group (CTWG) The CTWG assists economies in identifying and assess counter-terrorism needs, co-ordinates capacity building and technical assistance programs, cooperates with international and regional organizations and facilitates cooperation between APEC fora on counter-terrorism issues.

Important Documents:

·        Bogor Goals 1994

·        Osaka Action 1995

·        Shanghai Accord 2001

·        Los Cabos Statement: Fighting Terrorism and Promoting Growth 2002

·        Leader's declarations  

·        APEC Study Centers (ASCC)  - Links to the universities in the Asian-Pacific region, focusing on academic research on APEC.   The ASCC also holds an annual conference and makes material available via it's website.

ASEAN

ASEAN Members: Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia , Malaysia , Myanmar , Philippines , Singapore , Thailand , Vietnam

 

ASEAN's Official Site  - The official site of ASEAN.  "About ASEAN" gives a short overview of ASEAN.  "Resources - Publications" contains legal documents, published articles, staff papers, annual reports and more.  "Resources - Statistics" gives statistics on key indicators for ASEAN and its member states. ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) Council - ASEAN Member Countries have made significant progress in the lowering of intra-regional tariffs through the Common Effective Preferential Tariff (CEPT). Among other important documents, this site provides Non-Tariff Measures Database .

US-ASEAN Business Council - Its objective is to improve the business environment for American companies and expand the U.S. competitive position in the Southeast Asian region. This site provides updated information on trade in ASEAN member countries.

US-ASEAN Joint Declaration on Combating Terrorism - In this declaration, the ASEAN members pledged to fight terrorism in Southeast Asian.

EU-ASEAN

  Other Resources:

·        Asian Trade Promotion forum - A portal of 21 trade promotion organizations in Asia with useful information for promoting trade in the Asian region.

·        Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) - The ASEM Summit is an annual meeting between members of ASEAN an members of the EU.  The ASEM has met each year since 1996.  Summit statements and information about past meetings and activities are available on this website. 

·        Asia Times Online - Covers geopolitical, political, economic and business issues in the Asian-Pacific region.

·        Economic, Manufacturing, Finance, and Business in Asia - Provides comprehensive trade and investment information on Asian countries.

·        US Census Bureau Foreign Trade Statistics by Countries - This site provides updated trade statistics of all countries.

D. A Selected Bibliography on APEC and ASEAN

Articles

David B. Jerger, Jr., Indonesia's Role in Realizing the Goals of ASEAN's Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution, 13 Sustainable Dev. L. & Pol'y 35 (2014).

David P. Vincent, The Trans-Pacific Partnership:  Environmental Savior or Regulatory Carte Blanche?, 23 Minn. J. Int'l L. 1 (2014).

Tara Davenport, ASEAN Approaches to Maritime Boundary Disputes:  Wider Implications for ASEAN, 107 Am. Soc'y Int'l L. Proc. 281 (2014).

Michael Ewing-Chow, ASEAN Integration, the Rule of Law, and Investment Agreements, 107 Am. Soc'y Int'l L. Proc. 284 (2014).

Arif Havas Oegroseno, ASEAN as the Most Feasible Forum to Address the South China Sea Challenges, 107 Am. Soc'y Int'l L. Proc. 290 (2014).

Tan Hsien-Li, ASEAN's Impact on Myanmar's Transformation:  Human Rights and Beyond, 107 Am. Soc'y Int'l L. Proc. 293 (2014).

Elizabeth Diew-Kuan NG, ASEAN IP Harmonization:  Striking the Delicate Balance, 25 Pace Int'l L. Rev. 129 (2013).

Meredith Kolsky Lewis, The TPP and the RCEP (ASEAN+6) as Potential Paths Toward Deeper Asian Economic Integration, 8 Asian J. WTO & Int'l Health L. & Pol'y 359 (2013).

Hoa Duy Phan, Procedures for Peace:  Building Mechanisms for Dispute Settlement and Conflict Management within ASEAN, 20 U.C. Davis J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 47 (2013).

Hao Duy Phan, Towards a Rules-Based ASEAN:  The Protocol to the ASEAN Charter on Dispute Settlement Mechanisms, 5 Y.B. Arb. & Mediation 254 (2013).

Tarik Abdel-Monem, ASEAN's Gradual Evolution:  Challenges and Opportunities for Integrating Participartory Procedural Reforms for the Environment in an Evolving Rights-Based Framework, 29 UCLA Pac. Basin L.J. 234 (2012).

 Patrick B. Fazzone, The Trans-Pacific Partnership:  Towards a Free Trade Agreement of Asia-Pacific?, 43 Geo. J. Int'l L. 695 (2012). Peter K. Yu, The Asian Century?: Lost in Translation?: Sinic Trade Agreements, 44 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 953 (2011).

Jun Zhao, and Timothy Webster, Taking Stock:  China's First Decade of Free Trade, 33 U. Pa. J. Int'l L. 65 (2011).

Meredith Kolsky Lewis, The Prisoner's Dilemma Posed by Free Trade Agreements:  Can Open Access Provisions Provide an Escape?, 11 Chi. J. Int'l L. 631 (2011).

Diane A. Desierto, ASEAN's Constitutionalization of International Law:  Challenges to Evolution Under the New ASEAN Charter, 49 Colum. J. Transnat'l L. 268 (2011). C.L. Lim, East Asia's Engagement with Cosmopolitan Ideals Under its Trade Treaty Dispute Provision, 56 McGill L.J. 821 (2011). Rumu Sarkar, Sovereign Wealth Funds as a Development Tool for ASEAN Nations:  From Social Wealth to Social Responsibility, 41 Geo. J. Int'l L. 621 (2010). Anna Turinov, Free Trade Agreements in the World Trade Organization:  The Experience of East Asia and the Japan-Mexico Economic Partnership Agreement, 25 UCLA Pac. Basin L.J. 336 (2008). Eric M. Pedersen, APEC: What Future Course of Action Should it Pursue?, 16 Currents: Int'l Trade L.J. 31 (2008) . Alexandra Harrington, Regional Commons: An Assessment of the Impact of the Framework Convention and Kyoto Protocol on the Organization of American States and the Association of South East Asian Nations and Suggestions for the Role of Regionalism in International Environmental Law, 16 U. Balt. J. Envtl. L. 29 (2008). Carla Bulford, Between the East and West: The APEC Privacy Framework and the Balance of International Data Flows 3 J. L. & Pol'y for Info. Soc'y 705 (2007). Joel Vander Kooi, The ASEAN Enhanced Dispute Settlement Mechanism: Doing it the “ASEAN Way”, 20 N.Y. Int'l L. Rev. 1 (2007).Alison Duxbury, Moving Towards or Turning Away from Institutions? The Future of International Organizations in Asia and the Pacific, 11 Singapore Y.B. Int'l L. 177 (2007).  Jaemin Lee, Juggling Counter-Terrorism and Trade, The APEC Way: APEC’s Leadership in Devising Counter-Terrorism Measures in Compliance with International Norms, 12 U.C. Davis J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 257 (2006). Sungjoon Cho, Defragmenting World Trade, 27 Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus. 39 (2006). Alyssa Greenwald, The ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA): A Legal Response to China’s Economic Rise?, 16 Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 193 (2006). Michael Ewing Chow, ASEAN-China F.T.A.: Trade or Tribute?, 10 Singapore Y.B. Int'l L. 251 (2006). Greg J. Bamber, How is the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Forum Developing? Comparative Comments on APEC and Employment Relations, 26 Comp. Lab. L. & Pol'y J 423 (2005).Thomas C. Fischer, A commentary on regional institutions in the Pacific Rim: do APEC and ASEAN still matter?, 13 Duke J. Comp. & Int'l L. 337 (2003).

Edwin van der Bruggen, Salient features of the ASEAN model tax treaty,Tax Notes Int'l, March 18, 2002, at 1227-1236.

George O. White III. Foreigners beware? Investing in a jungle with many predators: the ASEAN investment area, 37 Tex. Int'l L.J. 157 (2002).

George O. White III. From snowplows to siopao - trying to compete in a global marketplace: the ASEAN free trade area., 8 Tulsa J. Comp. & Int'l L. 177 (2000).

Jack I. Garvey. AFTA after NAFTA: regional trade blocs and the propagation of environmental and labor standards. (ASEAN Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement) , 15 Berkeley J. Int'l L. 245 (1997). 

Horacio A. Grigera Naon. Sovereignty and regionalism. (Symposium: Free Trade Areas: The Challenge and Promise of Fair vs. Free Trade) , 27 L. & Pol'y Int'l Bus. 1073 (1996).

Yoji Akashi
, An ASEAN Perspective on APEC (Columbia Int'l Affairs Online, Working Paper 10/98, 1997), http://www.ciaonet.org/conf/aky01/ .

Lorraine C. Cardenas; Arpaporn Buranakanits. The Role of APEC in the Achievement of Regional Cooperation in Southeast Asia, (1999) 5 Ann. Surv. Int'l & Comp. L. 49 (1999).

Merit E. Janow.  Symposium - Institutions for International Economic Integration: Assessing APEC's Role in Economic Integration in the Asia-Pacific Region, 17 Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus. 947 (1997).

Books

Davidson, Paul J. Trading Arrangements in the Pacific Rim: ASEAN and APEC. New York: Oceana Publications, 2011-. V. <1-2> (looseleaf).

Baker & Mckenzie. Asia Pacific Legal Developments Bulletin. Sydney, N.S.W.; Los Angeles, California: Baker & Mckenzie, 1993-. Serial Publication: Periodical: Quarterly (every 3 months) v.

Inderjit N. Kaur and Nirvikar Singh, The Oxford handbook of the economics of the Pacific Rim (Oxford University Press, 2014).

Yiping Huang and Shiro Armstrong, Asian financial integration : impacts of the global crisis and options for regional policies (Routledge, 2014).

Shintaro Hamanaka, Asian Free Trade Agreements and WTO Compatibility : Goods, Services, Trade Facilitation and Economic Cooperation (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2014).

Sanchita Basu Das, ASEAN economic community scorecard : performance and perception (Singapore : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013).

Steve Chan, Enduring rivalries in the Asia-Pacific (Cambridge University Press, 2013).

Zahid Shahab Ahmed, Regionalism and regional security in South Asia : the role of SAARC (Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2013).

Matthew P Goodman, Scott Miller, and David A Parker, Enhancing value chains : an agenda for APEC (Rowman & Littlefield, 2013).

Sanchita Basu Das, Jayant Menon, Rodolfo Severino, and Omkar L Shrestha, The ASEAN Economic Community : a work in progress (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013).

Bafoil Franc ̧ ois, Resilient states from a comparative regional perspective : Central and Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia (World Scientific, 2012).

C. L. Lim, Deborah Kay Elms, and Patrick Low, The Trans-Pacific Partnership : a quest for a twenty-first century trade agreement (Cambridge University Press, 2012).

U-sik Mun; Yŏng-sŏp Yi, Asian monetary integration : coping with a new monetary order after the global crisis (Edward Elgar, 2012).

Peter A Petri, Michael G Plummer, and Fan Zhai, The Trans-Pacific Partnership and Asia-Pacific integration : a quantitative assessment (Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2012).

Otto Von Feigenblatt, The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) : conflict and development (New Delhi : New Century Publications, 2012).

Balbir B. Bhasin, Doing Business in the ASEAN Countries (Business Expert Press, 2010).

 Christoph Antons, Law and development in East and Southeast Asia (Routledge Curzon: IIAS, 2003).  Mark Beeson, Institutions of the Asia-Pacific: ASEAN, APEC and Beyond(Routledge 2008).Peter Drysdale, The new economy in East Asia and the Pacific (Routledge, 2004). Dzulkarnain Ahmad. ASEAN+3: The Institutionalization of Asia Values (Naval Postgraduate School, 2003).

 Dzulkarnain Ahmad, ASEAN+3: The Institutionalization of Asia Values (Naval Postgraduate School, 2003).Christoph Antons (ed.). Law and Development in East and Southeast Asia (Routledge Curzon, 2003).ASEAN, Towards a Single Economic Space (ASEAN Secretariat, 2003). Bernie Bishop, Liberalising Foreign Direct Investment Policies in the APEC Region. [U.K]: (Ashgate, 2001). ix, 199 p.Chae Wook, and Hong-yol Han, Impact of China's Accession into the WTO and Policy Implication for Asia-Pacific Developing Economies(Korea Institute for International Economy Policy, 2001).  Paul J. Davidson, ASEAN: The Evolving Legal Framework for Economic Cooperation (Singapore: Times Academic Press, 2002).  

Sandra L. Downing (ed.), Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC): Current Issues and Background(Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2003).  Nick J. Freeman, and Frank L. Bartels, The future of foreign investment in Southeast Asia (Routledge Curzon 2004).Emiko Fukase, and Will Martin, Free Trade Area Membership as a Stepping Stone to Development: The Case of ASEAN (World Bank, 2001).  Lok-sang Ho, John Wong, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (Organization) Study Center, APEC and the Rise of China (World Scientific, 2011).Edward J. Lincoln, East Asian Economic Regionalism (Brookings Institution Press, 2004). Will Martin, and Mari Pangestu, Options for Global Trade Reform (Cambridge University Press, 2003).Nils Victor Montan, Trademark and counterfeiting in Asia and the Pacific Rim (New York: International Trademark Association, 2001). Helen Sharmini Nesadurai, Globalisation, Domestic Politics, and Regionalism: the ASEAN Free Trade Area (Routledge, 2003).John Ravenhill, APEC and the Construction of Pacific Rim Regionalism. U.K.: (Cambridge University Press, 2001). xii, 294 p.Roman Tomasic (ed.), Company Law in East Asia (Ashgate, 1999).United Nations, Implications of General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) for Asia-Pacific Economies: Report, studies and papers presented at a seminar held in Bangkok, 25-26 May 1998 (United Nations, 1998).Michael Wesley, The Regional Organizations of the Asia-Pacific (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).Ippei Yamazawa, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) challenges and tasks for the twenty-first century(Routledge, 2000). May T. Yeung, Nicholas Perdikis, and William A. Kerr, Regional Trading Blocs in the Global Economy: The EU and ASEAN(Elgar, 1999).  Ash Ahmad, and P Someshwar Rao, Foreign direct investment and APEC economic integration (Industry Canada, 1996).

E. Online Resources and Bibliographies on Member Economies

Australia

Member of APEC

Australia Online Resources:

·        Australian Government Information

·        Australia APEC Study Center - Since 1998 the Centre has been operated solely by Monash University. The primary objectives of the Center are to inform the Australian community of the economic development and relations in the Asian Pacific region, and serve as a liaison between academic, government and private sectors in dealing with issues regarding APEC. The Center's website provides valuable sources for studies of APEC.

·        Issues Papers of the Australian APEC Study Centre  

·        Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and Australia - This site is hosted by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. It provides basic information about trade relations between Australia and APEC.

·        Australian Treaties Library - Information about treaties in Australia, prepared by Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

·        APEC Tariff Database for Australia

·       Australia's Trade Agreements - Information from Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade about free trade agreements in Australia.

·       World Bank's Ease of Doing Business in Australia

·        GlobaLex guide to Australia - Contains a section on researching treaties .

Australia Bibliography:

Books:

Australia, Strengthening economic legal infrastructure in APEC: supporting trade, investment and economic development(Canberra: APEC and Regional Trade Policy Branch, Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Commonwealth of Australia, 2002).   PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in Australia.   (New York: PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2001. 342 p).

Articles:

Roberto Bergami, Malaysia-Australia Free Trade Agreement: Early Comments, 16 Vindobona J. Int'l Comm. L. & Arbitration 175 (2012).

Yanning Yu, Trade Remedies:  The Impact on the Proposed Australia-China Free Trade Agreement, 18 Mich. St. J. Int'l L. 267 (2010).

Roberto Bergami, Rules, Regulations & Procedures of the Asean-Australia-New Zealand Free Trade Area (AANZFTA), 14 Vindobona J. Int'l Comm. L. & Arbitration 319 (2010).

 Benedict Sheehy. Unfair Trade as Friendly Fire: The United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement, 16 Currents Int'l Trade L. J. 70 (2007). Thomas A. Faunce, Kellie Johnston, and Hilary Bambrick, The Trans-Tasman Therapeutic Products Authority: Potential AUSFTA Impacts on Safety and Cost-Effectiveness Regulation for Medicines Devices in New Zealand, 37 Vict. U. Wellington L. Rev. 365 (2006).Paul U. Ali, and Martin Gold, Investing for good - the cost of ethical investment, Company & Sec. L. J. 307 (2002).

Grant Richardson, and Helen Anderson. The deductibility of interest: an Asia-Pacific regional comparison, 23 Int'l Tax J. 6 (1996).

Australian Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee, Trick or Treaty?:  Commonwealth Power to Make and Implement Treaties (Senate Report, Nov. 1995), available at
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/dfat/reports/tortcon.html .
 

Brunei Darussalam

Member of APEC and ASEAN

Brunei Darussalam Online Resources:

·        The official website of the Brunei Government

·        Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade for Brunei Darussalam

·        Brunei and ASEAN - From US-ASEAN Business Council website.

·       APEC tariff database for Brunei

·        World Bank's Ease of Doing Business in Brunei Darussalam

Brunei Darussalam Bibliography:

Articles

 Megan R. Williams, ASEAN: Do Progress and Effectiveness Require a Judiciary? , 30 Suffolk Transnat'l L. Rev. 433 .Ann Black, Alternative dispute resolution in Brunei Darussalam: the blending of imported and traditional processes, 13 Bond L. Rev. 305 (2001). Andrew D. Mitchell, Chinese walls in Brunei: Prince Jefri Bolkiah v. KPMG, 22 U. New S. Wales L. J. 243 (1999).

Philip Podzebenko, Redefining accessory liability: Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd v. Tan, 18 Sydney L. Rev. 234 (1996).

Graham Ferris, The advice of the Privy Council in Royal Brunei Airlines Sdn Bhd v. Tan, Law Teacher, Winter 1996, v30 n1 p111-120.

Books

Ernst & Young. Doing business in Brunei Darussalam.
New York, N.Y.: Ernst & Young 1996-. Serial Publication v.

Brunei. Brunei Darussalam, business in perspective.
Bandar Seri Begawan: Economic Development Board, Ministry of Finance, Brunei Darussalam, 1989. 52 p.

KPMG Peat Marwick. Investment in Brunei Darussalam. [Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam]: KPMG, 1987. 40 p.

Cambodia

Member of ASEAN

Cambodia Online Resources: 

·        Kingdom of Cambodia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation  - From Cambodian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation website. It provide trade and investment information in Cambodian. All the texts are in English.

·        Cambodia Country Profile and Trade Information - Provided by US-ASEAN business council.

·        GlobaLex Overview of Cambodian History, Governance and Legal Structure - Contains a section listing international treaties with Cambodia .

Cambodia Bibliography:

Articles:

 Kate Shulman, The Case Concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand): The ICJ Orders Sweeping Provisional Measures To Prevent Armed Conflict at the Expense of Sovereignty, 20 Tul. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 555 (2012). Lejo Sibbel Petra Barrmann, Linking Trade with Labor Rights: The ILO Better Factories Cambodia Project, 24 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 235 (2007). Jillian M. Young, Cambodia’s Accession to the World Trade Organization and its Impact on Agriculture, 11 Drake J. Agric. L. 107 (2006).Muthiah Alagappa, Regionalism and the quest for security: ASEAN and the Cambodian conflict. (Keeping the Peace: Conflict Resolution in the Twenty-First Century) , 46 J. Int'l Affairs 439 (1993).

Bretton G. Sciaroni, New investment law creates favorable framework. (Cambodia)
East Asian Executive Reports July 15, 1994, at 7.
Robin Davies, Cambodia and the GATT, Journal of World Trade , Oct 1992 at 93.

Neill T. Macpherson, Cambodia: foreign investment law, International Business Lawyer, July-August 1991, at 351. 

H. Lawrence Serra, Foreign investment law. (Cambodia) East Asian Executive Reports Sept 15, 1990. at 10 (2).

Books :

Caroline Hughes, and Kheang Un, Cambodia's economic transformation (Nias Press, 2011).

 Peter Dale Scott, Drugs, oil, and war: the United States in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Indochina  (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2003). Kanokpan Lao-Araya, How can Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Viet Nam cope with revenue lost due to AFTA tariff reductions?   ( Manila: Asian Development Bank, 2002).
 

Canada

Member of APEC

Canada Online Resources:

·        How Canadians Govern Themselves? - A page from Canadian Library of Parliament explains Canadian political structure.

·        Government of Canada - This comprehensive site hosted by Canadian Government provides direct links to the primary Web sites of Government of Canada departments and agencies.

·        World Bank's Ease of Doing Business in Canada

·        GlobaLex guide to researching Canadian law

Canada and APEC

·        CANADA-APEC - From the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade website. It provides updated information about Canada's involvement in APEC.

·        APEC Study Centre in Canada - The Centre is involved in research and dialogue on the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum and on priority issues for Canada's involvement in the regional grouping.

·        APEC Tariff Database for Canada - Includes tariff schedules, concessions, prohibitions, and much more useful information on trade and investment in Canada.

Bibliography:

Books:

Price, Waterhouse & Co.; Price Waterhouse. Doing business in Canada. [United States]: Price Waterhouse, 1975-1997. v.

Heather Gibb. Canadian perspectives on labour mobility in APEC.  [Ottawa] : North-South Institute, 1997. 105 p.

 

Chile

Member of APEC

Online Resources:

·        APEC Virtual Center - Chile

·        GlobaLex Guide to the Chilean Legal System

Bibliography: Chile Trade and Treaties:

Articles:

Rodrigo Polanco Lazo, Legal Framework of Foreign Investment in Chile, 18 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 203 (2012).

Andrew Hill, Foreign Infrastructure Investment in Chile:  The Success of Public-Private Partnerships through Concessions Contracts, 32 Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus. 165 (2011).

Andrew P. Tuck, United States-Chile FTA Chapter 10:  Lessons from NAFTA Chapter 11 Jurisprudence, 15 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 575 (2009).

 Ralph Fischer, The Expansion of Intellectual Property Rights by International Agreement: A Case Study Comparing Chile and Australia's Bilateral FTA Negotiations With the U.S., 28 Loy. L.A. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 129 (2006).Andrea Miller,  The United States Antidumping Statutes: Can a Trade Agreement with the United States be Both “Free” and Fair? A Case Study of Chile, 54 Catholic U. L. Rev. 627 (2005). Juan Luis Ossa, Royalty payments on mining in Chile and Peru, Mineral Law Series: Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation April 28, 2003, at CH2(24) (includes text in Spanish)(Mining Law & Investment in Latin America).

Samuel Lira Ovalle, Dispute resolution arbitration and mediation - Chile, Mineral Law Series: Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation , April 28, 2003, at CH4C(25) (includes text in Spanish)(Mining Law & Investment in Latin America).

Rodrigo Valenzuela,  Taxation of the mining industry in Chile: an update. Mineral Law Series: Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation, April 28, 2003, at CH7A(10) (Mining Law & Investment in Latin America).

Steven G. Fishbach, "The quiet revolution": trade and investment liberalization in Chile and Jamaica, 48 Admin. L. Rev. 527 (1996).

Eduardo A. Wiesner, ANCOM: a new attitude toward foreign investment?, U. Miami Inter American L. Rev. 435 (1993).

Books:

Ernst & Young, Doing business in Chile  (Santiago, Chile : Ernst & Young, 2001).Rafael Hernández Mayoral, George A Baptista, Frederick E Jenney, and Jacqueline I Cisneros, Impediments to risk capital in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador and Mexico (Obstáculos para las inversíones de capital de riesgo en Argentina, Brasil, Chile, El Salvador y México) (Washington, DC : Inter-American Development Bank, Multilateral Investment Fund, 2001).

China, People's Republic of

Member of ASEAN

Online Resources:

·        C hina.org.cn - China's Official Gateway to News & Information - Provides up-to-date news about China, with searchable texts of government position papers and a wealth of basic information about Chinese history, politics, economics and culture. This authorized government portal site to China is published under the auspices of the China International Publishing Group and the State Council Information Office in Beijing.

·        China in Brief

·        State Structure

·        Legislative System

·        Who's Who in China's Leadership

·        CIELA, China IP Litigation Analysis

·        US Patent and Trademark Office:  Report on Patent Enforcement in China

·        World Bank's 2008 Doing Business in China Report

·        China Economic Information

·        GlobaLex Guide to Finding Chinese Law on the Internet - Contains a tutorial on searching ChinaLawInfo, and a list of databases that publish Chinese law.

Information on Trade with China

·        The U.S. China Business Council - The Council, founded in 1973, is a private, non-profit, non-partisan, member-supported organization. It is the principal organization of US corporations engaged in business relations with China.

Laws

·        Law and Regulations in English - Provided by ChinaToday.com.

·        ChinaLawInfo - A subscription database of laws and regulations in China.  Paid account contains full text of laws in China in English and in Chinese.  Free of charge search gives snippets.

Trade Statistics

·        National Bureau of Statistics of China

Bibliography

Dilip K. Das, China and the Asian economies : interactive dynamics, synergy and symbiotic growth (Routledge, 2014).

Kong Qingjiang, China in the WTO and Beyond:  China's Approach to International Institutions, 88 Tul. L. Rev. 959 (2014).

Kate Hadley, Do China's BITs Matter?  Assessing the Effect of China's Investment Agreements on Foreign Direct Investment Flows, and Investor's Rights, and the Rule of Law, 45 Geo. J. Int'l L. 255 (2013).

Jane Menzies, Mona Chung, and  Stuart Orr, Doing business in China : getting ready for the Asian century (Business Expert Press, 2012).

Chien-Huei Wu, WTO and the greater China : economic integration and dispute resolution (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012).

 Jun Zhao, and Timothy Webster, Taking Stock:  China's First Decade of Free Trade. 33 U. Pa. J. Int'l L. 65 (2011). Guiguo Wang, China's FTAs:  Legal Characteristics and Implications, 105 Am. J. Int'l L. 493 (2011). Juliana W. Chen, Achieving Supreme Excellence: How China Is Using Agreements with ASEAN to Overcome Obstacles to Its Leadership in Asian Regional Economic Integration, 7 Chi. J. Int'l L. 655 (2007).Chenglin Liu, Chinese Law on Trade, Investment and Intellectual Property Rights: A Bibliography of Selected English-Language Materials , 32 Int'l J. Legal Info. 1 (2004) .

Hong Kong, China

Member of ASEAN

Hong Kong Online Resources:

·        Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of People's Republic of China

·        Organization Chart of the Government

·        Constitution (Basic Law)  

·        Hong Kong Judiciary  

·        Hong Kong Legislative Council

·        Chief Executive

·        GlobaLex guide to legal research on the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region - Contains a section on alternative dispute resolution .

Trade and Investment in Hong Kong

·        Doing Business in Hong Kong - Information made available by the government of Hong Kong.

·        Economic and Trade Offices Overseas

·        Invest Hong Kong  - Made available by the Hong Kong government.

·        World Bank's Ease of Doing Business in Hong Kong

Relevant Government Departments & Agencies:

·         

·        Hong Kong Statistics includes

o    Hong Kong in Figures, 2014 Edition

o    Press Releases on Statistical Data

Hong Kong and APEC

·        Hong Kong APEC Study Centre - This site is sponsored by Faculty of Business, City University of Hong Kong. It provides economic data, meeting summaries and links to other APEC websites provide useful information among APEC economies.

·        APEC Tariff Database for Hong Kong, China

Bibliography:

Articles:

Jessica C. Stabile, Clashes Between Economies and Environments: Consumerism Versus Conservation in Taiwan and Hong Kong, 7 Asian Pac. L. Rev. 125 (2006). Jonathan A. DeMella, Note: In re Extradition of Lui Kin-Hong: Examining the effects of Hong Kong's Reversion to the People's Republic of China on United States-United Kingdom Treaty Obligations, 47 Am. U.L. Rev. 187 (1997).


Elizabeth A.R. Yee, Hong Kong and China in 1997: an examination of possible legal and economic implications for United States businesses, 36 Santa Clara L. Rev 647 (1996).

Books:

Yongnian Zheng and Chiew Ping Yew, Hong Kong under Chinese rule : Economic integration and political gridlock (World Scientific Pub. Co., 2013).

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in Hong Kong.  [United States] : PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2001-. Serial Publication Internet Resource v.

 

Indonesia

Online Resources:

·        Indonesia Government Website

·        Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia - Oversees foreign affairs in Indonesia.

·        Ministry of Trade - Formulates policies related to developing trade and industry in Indonesia.

·        APEC Tariff Database for Indonesia

·        Indonesia ASEAN country profile - Provided by US-ASEAN business council.

·        World Bank's 2012 Doing Business in Indonesia Report

·        GlobaLex Guide to the Indonesian System and Legal Research - Contains an overview of the government structure in Indonesia.

Bibliography: Indonesia Trade and Treaties:

David B. Jerger, Indonesia's Role in Realizing the Goals of ASEAN's Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution, 13 Sustainable Dev. L. & Pol'y 35 (2014).

William H. Frederick and Robert L. Worden, editors. Indonesia: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1993, available from http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/99.htm .

Assafa Endeshaw, Regulating e-commerce in Indonesia: lessons from ASEAN and beyond, Computer Law & Security Report, Sept-Oct 2002, at 352.

 

Dewi Fortuna Anwar. Indonesia in ASEAN: foreign policy and regionalism (St. Martin's Press ; Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1994). Munmun Majumdar, Indonesia: primus inter pares in ASEAN ( Rajat, 1st ed., 2003)Anthony L Smith, Strategic centrality: Indonesia's changing role in ASEAN (Regional Strategic and Political Studies Programme, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies,  2000).

Japan

Member of APEC

Online Resources:

·        Fundamental Structure of the Government of Japan  - From the Prime Minister of Japan's official website, provides a brief introduction to the Structure of Japanese Government. 

·        The National Administrative Organization in Japan

·        Organization Charts - These charts give a clear idea how the theory of separation of powers works in Japan. 

·        The Constitution of Japan  - Full text of the Constitution from Prime Minister of Japan's official website. 

·        Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet  

·        Supreme Court

·        Statistics Bureau, Japan Information Net Desk - Statistics about Japan.

·        E-Gov site for Japan - Full text of laws, including treaties, in effect in Japan.  The site is provided by the Japanese government and is in Japanese.

·        GlobaLex Guide to Japanese Legal Research - Contains a section on consumer protection laws .

Japan and APEC

·        Japan and APEC - From the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs website.

·        APEC Tariff Database for Japan

Bibliography:

Takashi Shiraishi, and Takaaki Kojima, ASEAN-Japan Relations (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2014).

Larry Catá Backer, The Tras-Pacific Partnership:  Japan, China, the U.S., and the Emerging Shape of a New World Trade Regulatory Order, 13 Wash. U. Global Stud. L. Rev. 49 (2014).

Kuniko Ashizawa, Japan, the US, and regional institution-building in the new Asia : when identity matters (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

Kazunobu Hayakawa, Does the use of multiple FTAs force firms to raise local input share? : evidence of the spaghetti bowl phenomenon (Institute of Developing Economies, JETRO, IDE Discussion Paper No. 364. 2012.8, 2012), http://ir.ide.go.jp/dspace/handle/2344/1168 .

Tanya Karina A. Lat, Testing the Limits of GATT Art. XX(B): Toxic Waste Trade, Japan's Econmic Partnership Agreements, and the WTO, 21 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 367 (2009).

 Saadia M. Pekkanen, Japan's legal actions in the GATT/WTO system, 5 J. World Intellectual Prop. 565 (2002).

 J. Linarelli, The role of dispute settlement in world trade law: some lessons from the Kodak-Fuji dispute, 31 L. & Policy in Int'l Business 263 (1999-2000).

Southwick, J.D. Addressing market access barriers in Japan through the WTO: a survey of typical Japan market access issues and the possibility to address them through WTO dispute resolution procedures. Law and Policy in International Business. 31, no.3, p. 923-976 1999-2000.

Yamane, H. Restrictive practices and market access in Japan: has the JFTC been effective in eliminating barriers in distribution? World Competition Law and Economics Review. 22, no.2, p. 1-39 1999.

Takigawa, T. The impact of the WTO Telecommunications Agreement on U.S. and Japanese telecommunications regulations. Journal of World Trade. 32, no.6, p. 33-55 1998.

Saito, A. The WTO Agreement and the relevant Japanese domestic laws. Journal of World Trade. 30, no.3, p. 87-108 1996.

Hamabe, Y. The JFCN Treaty preemption of U.S. anti-discrimination laws in executive positions: analysis in international contexts. Law and Policy in International Business. 27, no.1, p. 67-135 1995-1996.

Heath, C. Sellout of foreign trademark rights in Japan?: the ''type Chanel no.5'' decision. International Review of Industrial Property & Copyright Law. 26, no.4, p. 509-526 1995.

Kitami, T. A new approach to resolve the Unite States-Japan trade imbalance: from the perspective of economic integration in the Asia-Pacific region. World Competition Law and Economics Review. 19, no.1, p. 25-52 1995.

Veronica Taylor. Harmonising competition law within APEC: US-Japan disputes on vertical restraints. (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) A ustralian Journal of Corporate Law Sept 1995 v5 n3 p379-389.

Margo Grimm. Japan and ASEAN: a new interdependence. (includes related article on Japanese financial assistance to ASEAN nations) East Asian Executive Reports April 15, 1992 v14 n4 p11(6).

Korea, Republic of

Member of APEC

Korea Online Resources:

·        Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade - In Korean, but you can use Google Translate to read in English.  The Ministry of Foreign Affair handles foreign relations and matters related to Koreans living overseas.

·        Ministry of Government Legislation - In English.  Publishes full text of laws , including treaties in effect.  Not all laws are available translated into English.

·        APEC Tariff Database for Korea

·        GlobaLex Guide to South Korean Law Research on the Internet - Contains a short section on primary law , including treaty interpretation.  Treaties have the same effect as domestic law.

Bibliography:

Pierce Lee, Are the Outward Processing Provisions in the South Korean Free Trade Agreements Consistent with the Law of the World Trade Organizations, 37 B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 53 (2014).

 Ho Cheol Kim, Does Annex 22-B of the Proposed United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Contemplate and Allow for Trade with Respect to North Korea? , 40 Geo. J. Int'l L. 67 (2008) . Karen M. Takishita, U.S. Economic Sanctions Against North Korea: An Unsuccessful and Sanctimonious Policy Ripe for Modification, 14 Pac. Rim L. & Pol'y J. 515 (2005). Yun Sai-Ree, Regulation of business combination under the antimonopoly regulation and Fair Trade Act with emphasis on the case law, 2 J. Korean L. 43 (2002).

 Shin Yukyun, Protection and border enforcement of trademarks in Korea: aiming high, but still to be pursued, 3 J. World Intellectual Prop. 249 (2000).

 Kim, B.-I. The protection of trade secrets in Korea, 30 International Rev. Industrial Prop. & Copyright L. 403 (1999).

 Lee Yong-Shik. [WTO, 1995] Review of the first WTO panel case on the agreement on safeguards: Korea -- definitive safeguard measure on imports of certain daily products and its implications for the application of the agreement, 33 J. World Tradee 27 (1999).

Lee, H.D. Solving trade regulatory problems in Korea: a three-step approach. East Asian Executive Reports. 18, no.11, p. 8-19 1996.

Byington, L.M. The effects of the Korean labor movement on the economy of the Republic of Korea and on U.S. investment in the Republic of Korea / L.M. Byington. Washington Journal of International Law and Economics (continuation of: Journal of International Law and Economics). 24, no.1, p. 149-193 1990.

Bellis, J.-F. European Community trade policies vis-à-vis Korea and Taiwan in the eighties: a comparative perspective. Michigan Journal of International Law (formerly: Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies). 11, no.2, p. 509-524 1989-1990.

Bello, J.H. [GATT, 1947] The GATT Uruguay Round: its significance for U.S. bilateral trade with Korea and Taiwan. Michigan Journal of International Law (formerly: Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies). 11, no.2, p. 307-325 1989-1990.

Kim, J.-K. The impact of U.S. trade law actions on government policy decisions in Korea / J.-K. Kim. Michigan Journal of International Law (formerly: Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies). 11, no.2, p. 410-422 1989-1990.

Laverty, D.A. Regulation and liberalization of imports and foreign investment and the role of trade actions in the Republic of Korea. Michigan Journal of International Law (formerly: Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies). 11, no.2, p. 423-451 1989-1990.

Stoltenberg, C.D. U.S.-Korea and U.S.-Taiwan trade law issues in comparative perspective. Michigan Journal of International Law (formerly: Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies). 11, no.2, p. 273-278 1989-1990.

Wheeler, J.W. Comparative development strategies of South Korea and Taiwan as reflected in their respective international trade policies / J.W. Wheeler. Michigan Journal of International Law (formerly: Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies). 11, no.2, p. 472-508 1989-1990.

Chang, S.-K. Trademark prosecution practice in South Korea. International Review of Industrial Property & Copyright Law. 19, no.3, p. 302-318 1988.

Simon, D.L. Effects of the U.S. Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 on U.S. trade with the Republic of China (Taiwan), Korea and the Chinese mainland. Chinese Yearbook of International Law and Affairs. 8, no.1988-89, p. 77-93 1988-1989.

Books:

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in the Republic of Korea. [New York] : PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2001-. Serial Publication v.

 

Laos

Member of ASEAN

Online Resources:

·        Laos-ASEAN - Provided by US-ASEAN business council.

·        Embassy of Laos, Washington D.C.  

·        World Bank's Ease of Doing Business in Laos report

 

Malaysia

Member of APEC and ASEAN

Malaysia Online Resources:

·        Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) (National Bank of Malaysia)

·        GlobaLex Guide An Overview of Malaysian Legal System and Research

·        GlobaLex Guide Introduction to the Sources of Law in Malaysia - Contains a section on alternative dispute resolution , and a section on interpreting international treaties .

Bibliography:

Articles:
Daromir Rudnyckyj, Islamic Finance and the Afterlives of Development in Malaysia, 37 PoLAR: Pol. & Legal Anthropology Rev. 69 (2014).

Michael W. Meredith, Malaysia's World Trade Organization Challenge to the European Union's Renewable Energy Directive:  An Economic Analysis, 21 Pac. Rim L. & Pol'y J. 399 (2012).

 Robert Galantucci, Data Protection in a U.S.-Malaysia Free Trade Agreement: New Barriers to Market Access for Generic Drug Manufacturers, 17 Fordham Intell. Prop. Media & Ent. L.J. 1083 (2007).Michael B. Likosky, Infrastructure for commerce, 22 Nw. J. Int'l L. & Bus. 1 (2001).

Stephen J. Frenkel, and David Peetz, Globalization and industrial relations in East Asia: a three-country comparison, Industrial Relations, July 1998, at 282 (Symposium on Regional Studies of Comparative International Industrial Relations).

Ambiga Sreenevasan, and David Oh Kit Yan, Entertainers and restraint of trade clauses in Malaysia: a commentary on Polygram Records Sdn Bhd v. The Search. Entertainment Law Review April-May 1996, at 123-124.

Books:

Price Waterhouse (Firm). Doing business in Malaysia. [New York] : Price Waterhouse, 1996. 249 p.

Price Waterhouse (Firm). Doing business in Malaysia. [New York] : Price, Waterhouse & Co., 1977-. Serial Publication v.

Myanmar (Burma)

Member of ASEAN

Myanmar Online Resources:

·        Myanmar ASEAN Profile - From the U.S. ASEAN Business Council.

·        Doing Business in Myanmar - 2006 Mondaq report

·        Business - Myanmar (Burma)

·        The Myanmar Times

·        World Bank's Ease of Doing Business in Myanmar report

·        GlobaLex Guide The Legal System of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar in a Nutshell - Contains information on how treaties are entered into and how treaties are interpreted under Myanmar law.

Bibliography:

Articles:

Melissa Crouch, Rediscovering "Law" in Myanmar:  A Review of Scholarship on the Legal System of Myanmar, 23 Pac. Rim L. & Pol'y J. 543 (2014).

Joshua L. Savey, Unilateral Sanctions:  An Effective Foreign Policy Tool in Myanmar?, 50 Willamette L. Rev. 371 (2014).

Nick Cheesman, and Kyaw Min San, Not Just Defending; Adovocating for Law in Myanmar, 31 Wis. Int'l L.J. 702 (2013).

Thihan Myo Nyun, Feeling Good or Doing Good:  Inefficacy of the U.S. Unilateral Sanctions Against the Military Government of Burma/Myanmar, 7 Wash. U. Global Stud. L. Rev. 455 (2008).


Mark V. Tushnet. Globalization and federalism in a post-Printz world. (Massachusetts law barring state business with Burma)(Symposium: 1999-2000 Supreme Court Review) , 36 Tulsa L.J. 11 (2000) .

Books:

Balbir B Bhasin, Burma : business and investment opportunities in emerging Myanmar (Business Expert Press, 2014).

United Nations. The private sector and ASEAN business opportunities : Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar and Viet Nam / [Bangkok] : United Nations, 2000. xiii,  146 p.


 

Mexico

Member of APEC

Mexico Online Resources:

·        Mexican Government Agencies & Political Directory

·        NatLawWorld - Subscription required.  Formerly called InterAm, NatLawWorld is an electronic database of primary law for many different countries.  Coverage of Mexican law is good.

·        APEC tariff database for Mexico

·        GlobaLex Guide An Electronic Guide to Mexican Law - Contains a section on NAFTA , the free trade agreement with the biggest impact on Mexican trade.

Bibliography:

Books :

Jorge A. Vargas, Mexican law for the American lawyer (Carolina Academic Press, 2009).

Jorge Alberto Huerta-Goldman, Mexico in the WTO and NAFTA : litigating international trade disputes (Wolters Kluwer Law & Business, 2010).

Jorge A Vargas. Mexican law a treatise for legal practitioners and international investors: guide to electronic resources for Mexican law. [San Diego, Calif.: Jorge A. Vargas] 2001-.  English Internet Resource Serial Publication, available at http://www.mexlaw.com/description.html .

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in Mexico.  [New York]: PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2001-. English Serial Publication v.
 

New Zealand

Member of APEC

Online Resources:

·        New Zealand central & local government

·        Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade (MFAT) - Handles government relations with foreign governments and international organizations.

·        APEC Tariff Database for New Zealand

·        New Zealand Economy Report - Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation:  See Appendix to http://publications.apec.org/publication-detail.php?pub_id=1330  

·        GlobaLex Guide An Introduction to New Zealand Law & Sources of Legal Information - This guide contains a section on treaties , which describes treaty interpretation in New Zealand, and links to government provides lists of treaties in effect.

Bibliography:

Articles:

Lucy Reed, and Robert Kirkness, Old Seeland, New Netherland and New Zealand: Some Thoughts on the Possible “Discovery” of Investment Treaty Arbitration in New Zealand, 43 Vict. U. Wellington L. Rev. 687 (2012).

Mark A. Fox, Gordon R. Walker, and Alma Pekmezovic, Corporate Governance Research on New Zealand Listed Companies, 29 Ariz. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 1 (2012).

Stephen Jacobi, APEC: Crisis and Opportunity, New Zealand International Review , Nov/Dec 2009, Vol. 34 N 6 p. 15-17.

 Chris Noonan, The Extraterritorial Application of New Zealand Competition Law, 22 New Zealand U. L. Rev. 369 (2007). Scott Abel, Re Brumark Investments Ltd. - the final word on charges over book debts? (New Zealand). Journal of Banking and Finance Law and Practice, Dec 1999, at 337-342.

Peter Fitzsimons, Investment statements: simplified disclosure documents for public offerings. (New Zealand) Company and Securities Law Journal, March 1999, at 132-136.

Andrew M.C. Smith, Tax relief for conduit investment through New Zealand, Tax Notes Int'l, June 15, 1998, at 1885-1897. 

Izabela Kawa, and Mark A. Fox, Outcomes of foreign investment in New Zealand. Company and Securities Law Journal Oct 1997, at 439-446.

 Luke R. Nottage, Trade law harmonisation in the Asia-Pacific region; a realist's view from New Zealand - and a way forward? New Zealand Law Journal Sept 1995, at 295-300. Books:

C M V Plunket; D J Patterson, Business operations in New Zealand.  [Washington, D.C.] : Tax Management Inc., 2003- [2003 ed.]. English Book Serial Publication v. (loose-leaf).

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in New Zealand. [New York] : PricewaterhouseCoopers,  2002-. Serial Publication v.

Liz Snell, Protest, protection policing : the expansion of police powers and the impact on human rights in NSW : the policing of APEC 2007 as a case study, Ultimo, N.S.W. : Combined Community Legal Centres Group (NSW), 2008.

 

Papua New Guinea

Member of APEC

Online Resources:

·        National Parliament - Unicameral legislature of Papua New Guinea.

·        Prime Minister's Office - The prime minister is the leader of the majority party in Papua New Guinea, and acts as the head of government.

·        CIA’s listing of Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Papua New Guinea

·        National Statistical Office (NSO) - Collects social and economic data on Papua New Guinea.

·        Investment Promotion Authority - Responsible for promoting foreign investing in Papua New Guinea. 

·        APEC Tariff Database for Papua New Guinea

Bibliography:

 Owen Cox, Fair trading in Papua New Guinea, Australian Law Journal, Jan 2001, at 53-66.

 Jon H. Goldstein, The prospects for using market incentives to conserve biological diversity, 21 Envtl. L. 985 (1991).

 

Peru

Member of APEC

Online Resources:

Government

·        Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos del Peru - Signs agreements on economic and social cooperation, and human rights. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Peru - Executive agency responsible for developing and implementing foreign policy. Peru's Business and Investment Guide 2014/2015 - Published by Peru's Ministry of Foreign Affairs.  Two hundred page overview with sections on of trade agreements, industries for investing, how to incorporate in Peru, tax law, and employment law.

·        APEC Tariff Database for Peru

·        GlobaLex Guide:  Essential Issues of the Peruvian Legal System

Bibliography:

Andrew P. Tuck, The "Fair and Equitable Treatment" Standard Pursuant to the Investment Provisions of the U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Peru, Columbia and Panama, 16 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 385 (2010).

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in Peru.  New York : PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2003. 136 p.

 

Philippines

Member of APEC and ASEAN

Philippines Online Resources:

·        The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines

·        Office of the President  

·        National Economic and Development Authority - Independent cabinet level agency of the Philippine government.  Handles economic development and planning.

·        Department of Foreign Affairs - Role is to enhance national security, protect territory and national sovereignty, and promote development and the competitiveness in business.  Also to promote Filipinos overseas and project a positive image of the Philippines to the world.

·        Department of Trade and Industry - Agency with the role of expanding Philippine trade, industry, and investment in order to generate jobs for Filipinos.

·        Supreme Court of the Philippines

·        Philippine APEC Study Center Network

·        APEC tariff database for the Philippines

·        The Philippines’ Public-Private Partnership Center:  Philippine BOT law

·        World Bank's 2011 Doing Buiness in the Philippines Report

·        GlobaLex Guide:  Philippine Legal Research - This guide includes a concise description of interpretation of treaties under Philippine law .

Bibliography:

Articles:

 John Enriquez Andres, The Raiding of the Pearl: The Effects of Trade Liberalization on Philippine Labor Migration, and the Filipino Migrant Worker’s Experience, 10 Rutgers Race & L. Rev. 523 (2009).Ray C. Espinosa, The further liberalization of foreign exchange control regulations in the Philippines, 27 Int'l Lawyer 771 (1993).

David G. Scalise, and Patricia J. De Guzman, Foreign investment in the Philippines, 29 Geo. Wash. J. Int'l L. & Econ. 145 (1995).

Books:

Handbook on doing BOT business in the Philippines. Manila, Philippines : Office of the President, BOT Center, 2000. 57 p.

Maria Lourdes Aranal-Sereno. Doing business in the Philippines : gearing for 21st century challenges. Diliman, Quezon City : Institute of International Legal Studies, University of the Philippines Law Center, 2000. 250 p.

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in the Philippines. New York : PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2002. 258 p. 

Sycip, Gorres, Velayo & Co. Doing business in the Philippines. [Manila] : SGV & Co., 2000.64 p.

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in the Philippines. [United States] : PriceWaterhouseCoopers LLP, 2002-. Serial Publication v.

 

Russia

Member of APEC

Russia Online Resources:

·        Russian Government Online (In Russian)

·        Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade (English language site) - Regulates foreign trade.  Also regulates defense, and civil industry.

·        APEC tariff database for Russia

·        World Bank's 2012 Doing Business in Russia Report

·        GlobaLex Guide to Legal Research in Russia

Bibliography:

Articles:

William P. Kratzke, and Dmitri Titoff, Russia and the WTO:  Realpolitik by the Rules of Free Trade, 44 U. Mem. L. Rev. 633 (2014).

William E. Butler, Russia and the WTO System:  Law, Regionalism, and Politics, 44 U. Mem. L. Rev. 599 (2014).

Elena A. Wilson, Russia in the WTO:  Will it Give Full Direct Effect to WTO Law?, 27 Pac. McGeorge Global Bus. & Dev. L.J. 325 (2014).

Paul M. Blyschak, Yukos Universal v. Russia:  Shell Companies and Treaty Shopping in International Energy Disputes, 10 Rich. J. Global L. & Bus. 179 (2011).

Boris N. Mamlyuk, Russia and Legal Harmonization:  An Historical Inquiry into IP Reform as Global Convergence and Resistance, 10 Wash. U. Global Stud. L. Rev. 535 (2011).

 Dr. Rafael Leal-Arcas, The European Union and New Leading Powers: Towards Partnership in Strategic Trade Policy Areas, 32 Fordham Int'l L.J. 345 (2009).

Viktor P. Zvekov, The new civil code of the Russian Federation and private international law, 44 McGill L.J. 525 (1999).

John Clark, Restraints by regional and local governments on competition: lessons from transition countries. (Russia and Eastern Europe)(Symposium: Second Annual American Competition and Trade Round Table), 25 Brook. J. Int'l L. 363 (1999). 

 William J. Kovatch Jr.,  Joining the club: assessing Russia's application for accession to the World Trade Organization, 71 Temp. L. Rev. 995 (1998).

 Charles E. Roh Jr., John C. Kingery, Greg Mastel, and James D. Southwick, Future challenges: the proposed accession of China, Russia, and others; presentation summary and comments. (Symposium on the First Three Years of the WTO Dispute Settlement System), 32 Int'l Lawyer 883 (1998).

Books:

John Du, and Maurizio Levi-Minzi, Doing deals in and with emerging markets : BRIC & beyond (Practising Law Institute, 2012).

V A Musin, N M Kropachev, and Jane M Picker, Russian law in brief : digest for foreign investors (St. Petersburg University Press, 2012).

Eric Engle, Russia, the European Union and the CIS (Eleven International Publishing, 2012).

Vladimir Orlov, Introduction to business law in Russia (Ashgate, 2011).

Lidings Law Firm, An Introduction to Russian Business Law (Aspatore, 2010).

A I Masliaev, William Elliott Butler, and Viktor Pavlovich Mozolin, Russian civil and commercial law (Wildy, Simmonds & Hill Publishing, 2009).


Soiuz iuristov (Russia). Investment climate in Russia in the light of the banking reform and legal disputes resolution. American Chamber of Commerce in Russia.; Russian-American Banking Law Working Group.; Moscow : [s.n.], 2002. English Book 190 p.


Singapore

Member of APEC an ASEAN

Singapore Online Resources:

·        Singapore Government Online

·        Ministry of Law - In the executive branch.  Helps to create, maintain and enhance Singapore's business climate.  Manages alternative dispute resolution and administers intellectual property rights.

·        Ministry of National Development - Administers policies related to land use planning and infrastructure development.

·        Ministry of Trade and Industry - Directs formulation of policies related to developing trade and industry.

·        Singapore Economic Development Board - Statutorily created by Singapore law.  Plans and executes strategies to keep Singapore's role as a hub for global business and investing.

·        International Enterprise Singapore - Statutorily created by Singapore law.  Facilitates overseas growth of Singapore based companies.

·        Singapore Economy Profile - 2010 report provided by Economy Watch.

·        APEC tariff database for Singapore

·        Singapore ASEAN profile - From the US- ASEAN Business Council.

·        GlobaLex guide to the Singapore Legal System and Legal Research

Bibliography:

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP. Doing business and investing in Singapore. [United States] : PricewaterhouseCoopers, 1999-. English Serial Publication v.

Tian Wah Goh, Handbook for businessmen : doing business in Singapore (Rank Books, 2009).

World Trade Press. Singapore business. San Rafael, Calif., USA : World Trade Press, 1994-. English Serial Publication v.

Singapore, GATT; World Trade Organization. Trade policy review. Geneva : General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1992-. Serial Publication v.

Ippei Yamazawa, APEC : New agenda in its third decade, Singapore : Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2012.

 

Taipei, Chinese

Member of APEC

Online Resources:

·        APEC tariff database for Chinese Taipei

·        GlobaLex Taiwan Legal Research Guide

Bibliography:  Chinese Taipei Trade and Treaties:

Chi Chung, The Bilateral Investment Treaty Between China and Taiwan and its Historical Background, 5 Geo. Mason J. Int'l Com. L. 107 (2014).

Peter C Y Chow, Economic integration across the Taiwan Strait : global perspectives (Edward Elgar, 2013).

Zhao Hong, Taiwan-ASEAN Economic Relations in the Context of East Asian Regional Integration, 2 Int'l J. China Studies 39 (2011).  Available at http://ics.um.edu.my/images/ics/IJCSV2N1/zhao.pdf .

 Han-Wei Liu, A Missing Part in International Investment Law: The Effectiveness of Investment Protection of Taiwan's BIT's vis-a-vis ASEAN States, 16 U.C. Davis J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 131 (2009). K.-C. Liu, Unfair competition law in Taiwan, 30 Int'l Rev. Industrial Prop. & Copyright L. 377 (1999).

Ma Ying-Jeou, The ROC (Taiwan)'s entry into the WTO: progress, problems and prospects. Chinese Yearbook of International Law and Affairs. 1996-97, no.15, p. 32-60 1996-1997.

Shih Wen-Chen, Multilateralism and the case of Taiwan in the trade environment nexus: the potential conflict between CITES and GATT/WTO. Journal of World Trade. 30, no.3, p. 109-139 1996.

Young, L.W. Taiwan and WTO membership: IPR laws now almost completely comply with TRIPs requirements. East Asian Executive Reports. 18, no.6, p. 15-20 1996.

 

Thailand

Member of APEC and ASEAN

Online Resources:

·        Royal Thai Government

·        Department of Export Promotion -- Thailand

·        Thailand: Trade and Economic Profile

·        Thailand Trade Information Links

·        National Statistical Office of Thailand

·        American Chamber of Commerce in Thailand

·        Thailand ASEAN profile - From the US-ASEAN Business Council.

·        APEC tariff database for Thailand

·        GlobaLex guide:  Introduction to the Legal System and Legal Research of the Kingdom of Thailand

Bibliography: Thailand Trade and Treaties:

Papaporn Chunhachatrachai, and Jeff Pope, The Corporate Income Tax Compliance Costs of Small and Medium Enterprises in Thailand, 18 New Zealand J. Tax. L. & Pol'y 391 (2012).

Nan Sze Ling, Thailand's Ineffectual Intellectual Property Regime:  A Trial and Error Approach to Encouraging Foreign Direct Investment Technology Spillover, 24 N.Y. Int'l L. Rev. 99 (2011).

 Ariyanuntaka, V. [WTO-TRIPs, 1995] TRIPs and the specialised Intellectual Property Court in Thailand, 30 Int'l Rev. Industrial Prop. & Copyright L. 360 (1999).

McDorman, T.L. U.S.-Thailand trade disputes: applying section 301 to cigarettes and intellectual property, 14 Michigan J. Int'l L. 119 (1992).

Srisanit, A. Thailand's trade and laws in the new Asia-Pacific country. Chulalongkorn Law Review. p. 164-172 1989-1990.

Yoonaidharma, S. [GATT, 1947] Thailand's experience in international trade law and GATT / S. Yoonaidharma. Malaya Law Review. 31, no.2, p. 335-343 1989.

 

United States

U.S. and International Trade

·        U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) - The USTR was created by Congress in the Trade Expansion Act of 1962. It was authorized to set and administer overall trade policy. As a chief trade negotiator, USTR represents the United States in the major international trade organizations.

·        U.S. International Trade Administration (ITA) - As a lead unit for trade in the Department of Commerce , the ITA promotes U.S. exports of manufactured goods, nonagricultural commodities and services. ITA provides U.S. business with information on market access to the international market and protects U.S. business from dumped and subsidized imports.

·        U.S. Import Administration (IA) - IA enforces laws and agreements to prevent unfairly traded imports and to protect jobs and the competitive strength of American industry. Here is the overview of the IA .  The document library is a good source for finding documents regarding imports.

·        Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

·        U.S. Market Access and Compliance

·        U.S. Trade Agreements - Includes active, binding agreements between the United States and its trading partners covering manufactured products and services (excluding agriculture agreements). An excellent source for searching treaties and agreements!

·        U.S. Country Market Search - The WTO Trade Policy Review Summaries are fully searchable market access reports with information on foreign trade policies and regulations. Links are also provided to the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade Barriers and to ITA's Country Market Research Library. The TCC also provides suppliers information on Global Procurement Opportunities.

·        U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) - The ITC was established by Congress in 1916 as the U.S. Tariff Commission. The Trade Act of 1974 renamed it as the U.S. International Trade Commission. It has broad investigative powers on trade issues and serves as a national resource where trade data is gathered and analyzed. The ITC provides both the President and Congress with trade information on which U.S. trade policy is based.

·        USITC Rules of Practice and Procedure (pdf)

·        Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

·        U.S. Court of International Trade (CIT) - CIT was established in 1980 as the successor to the Court of Customs. It provides judicial review of any final determinations by the ITA and ITC. (Folsom, International Trade and Investment in a nutshell 2ed. West Group 2000 p.147.)For more explanation of the CIT and its publications please see LLRX Research Guide on CIT .

·        U.S. Export/Import Bank - The Ex-Im Bank was created in 1934 to aid in financing and to facilitate U.S. exports.

U.S. and APEC

·        The United States and APEC - From US State Department website; provides updated information on the relations between the U.S. and APEC.

·        FTC’s rules on cross-border privacy under APEC - APEC Cross-Border Privacy Rules are a pragmatic way to bridge the gaps between different legal systems and privacy regimes in the APEC region.

U.S. and ASEAN

·        U.S. -ASEAN - US-ASEAN Business Council's website provides updated information on trade and investment information ASEAN countries.

Bibliography: U.S. Trade and Treaties with the South Pacific:

Articles:

 Meredith Kolsky Lewis, The Trans-Pacific Partnership:  New Paradigm or Wolf in Sheep's Clothing?, 34 B. C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 27 (2011).Christine Haight Farley, Conflicts between U.S. law and international treaties concerning geographical indications (Intellectual Property on the Pacific Rim: Asia, Latin America and the United States), 22 Whittier L. Rev. 73 (2000). Heidi S. Gruner,  The export of U.S. tobacco products to developing countries and previously closed markets, 28 L. & Pol'y Int'l Business 217 (1996). Paul C.B. Liu, U.S. industry's influence on intellectual property negotiations and Special 301 actions. (Special Issue: Intellectual Property in East Asia), 13 UCLA Pac. Basin L. Rev. 87 (1994).

Books and Reports:

Mingjiang Li, and Kalyan M Kemburi (eds), New dynamics in US-China relations : contending for the Asia Pacific (Routledge, 2014).

Danie B Samuel, East Asia's maritime territorial disputes : claims and considerations for the United States (Nova Publishers, 2013).

Steve Chan, Looking for balance : China, the United States, and power balancing in East Asia (Stanford University Press, 2012).

Ravi Arvind Palat. Capitalist restructuring and the Pacific Rim. London ; New York : Routledge Curzon, 2004. Internet Resource xiv, 275 p. Table of contents available at http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip047/2003016720.html .

K. S. Nathan, M. Pathmanathan. Trilateralism in Asia : problems and prospects in U.S. - Japan - ASEAN relations. Kuala Lumpur : Antara Book Co.,1986 xviii,205p.

Edward J Lincoln. Taking APEC seriously: [why ignoring APEC hurts U.S. interests]. Washington, DC : Brookings Institution,  2001. Internet Resource 7, [1] p. available at http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2001/12/japan-lincoln .

Michael F Martin, The 2009 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meetings and U.S. trade policy in Asia, Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, 2010, available at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41071.pdf .

Roger Buckley. The United States in the Asia-Pacific since 1945. New York : Cambridge University Press,2002. x, 258 p.

Committee for Economic Development. U.S. economic policy toward the Asia-Pacific region : a statement. New York : Committee for Economic Development,1997, English Book viii, 39 p.

U.S. Mark E Manyin, Michael J Garcia, and Wayne M Morrison, Accession to ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Cooperation (TAC); Ft. Belvoir : Defense Technical Information Center, 2009.

Won Kwang Paik. United States trade relations with the newly industrializing countries in the Pacific basin. New York : Garland,  1997. xv, 163 p.
 

Vietnam

Member of APEC and ASEAN

Online Resources:

·        Ministry of Industry and Trade

·        The US-Vietnam Trade Agreement  

·        Vietnam in ASEAN : Toward Cooperation for Mutual Benefits

·        GlobaLex Guide:  Vietnam Legal Research

Bibliography: Vietnam Trade and Treaties:

Books:

Duy Khien Nguyen. Doing business in Vietnam: essential information and guide to successful strategies. [Hanoi] : Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry,  2002 3rd ed. 203 p.

Ernst & Young. Doing business in Vietnam. Ho Chi Min City, Vietnam : Ernst & Young, 1999. 94 p.

Articles:

Do Thanh Cong, Catfish, Shrimp, and the WTO:  Vietnam Loses its Innocence, 43 Vand. J. Transnat'l L. 1235 (2010).

 Alexander H. Tuzin, Vietnam's Eligibility to Receive Trade Benefits Under the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences, 7 Loy. U. Chi. Int'l L. Rev. 193 (2010).Robert Neil Wilkey, Vietnam's antitrust legislation and subscription to e-ASEAN: an end to the bamboo firewall over Internet regulations?, 20 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 631 (2002).  Amalia R. Walton, Comment: Catfish Wars: Vietnam's Fight for Free Trade in the US Court of International Trade, 13 Pac. Rim L. & Pol'y 471 (2004). Norman Brown, The Long Road to Reform: An Analysis of Foreign Investment Reform in Vietnam, 25 B.C. Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 97 (2002). Duc V. Trang, Eighteenth Annual International Law Symposium "Doing Business in Vietnam: Law/Economy/Politics" Article the Practice of Law and Foreign Investment in Vietnam, 22 Whittier L. Rev. 1067 (2001).

 Susan R. Mendelsohn, Huy Hoang Nguyen, and Net Le, Foreign direct investments in Vietnam: investment procedures and the impact of the U.S.-Vietnam trade agreement, 14 Int'l Q. 359 (2002).

 Justin M. Pearson, The U.S./Vietnam bilateral trade agreement: another step in the right direction, 10 U. Miami Bus. L. Rev. 431 (2002).

 Pham Nghiem Xuan Bac, and Dang The Duc, The US-Vietnam Trade Agreement and its impact on Vietnam's IP system focus on trademarks, Trademark World, Oct 2000 at 25.

 Pham Nghiem Bac, and Dang The Duc, US - Vietnam trade agreement and it impacts on the intellectual property system in Vietnam. Copyright World Sept 2000 i103 p22-24.

Thuy Le Tran, Vietnam: can an effective arbitration system exist?, 20 Loy. L.A. Int'l & Comp. L.J. 361 (1998). 



[ [i] ] APEC's official web site

[ [ii] ] Id.

[ [iii] ] Thomas C. Fischer. A commentary on regional institutions in the Pacific Rim: do APEC and ASEAN still mater? 13 Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, ( Spring 2003 ) 337 ,   at 363.

[ [iv] ] See Amr Gohar. APEC: Terrorism takes over economics agenda. available  here .

[ [v] ] ASEAN's official web site

[ [vi] ] Id.

[ [vii] ] See George Siors, Fostering a proper ASEAN perspective , available  here .

[ [viii] ] See, Supra note 3.