UPDATE: A Research Guide on the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
By Md. Mostafa Hosain and Dr. Md. Ershadul Karim
Dr. Md. Ershadul Karim is a Senior Lecture at the Faculty of Law, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and a non-practicing lawyer enrolled with Bangladesh Supreme Court.
Published September/October 2023
(Previously updated by Md. Toriqul Islam and Dr. Md. Ershadul Karim in September/October 2019)
Table of Contents
- 1. Introduction
- 2. History
- 3. Membership
- 4. SAARC Charter
- 5. Organization Structure
- 6. SAARC Agreements
- 7. SAARC Conventions
- 8. SAARC Summits
- 9. Areas of Cooperation
- 9.1. Agriculture, Rural Development
- 9.2. Environment, Natural Disasters and Biotechnology
- 9.3. Education, Security and Culture
- 9.4. Economic Trade, and Finance
- 9.5. Energy, Transport, Science and Technology
- 9.6. Information and Poverty Alleviation
- 9.7. Social Affairs
- 9.8. Human Resource Development and Tourism
- 10. Designated SAARC Decades and Years
- 11. SAARC Regional Centers
- 12. SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme
- 13. Awards and Scholarships
- 14. SAARC Observer States
- 15. Relationship Between SAARC and Other International/Intergovernmental/Regional Organizations
- 16. SAARC NGOs
- 17. Key Documents
- 18. SAARC During COVID-19
- 19. Concluding Remarks
- 20. Selected Bibliography
- 21. Useful Links
The regional organization, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), was established in Dhaka on December 8, 1985. In the Organisation, there were initially seven Member States that are mainly located in South Asia, i.e. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. In April 2007, at the Association's 14th summit, Afghanistan became its eighth member. The combined area of the SAARC region is nearly 2 million square miles, which is equivalent up to 3% of the world’s geographical expansion, whereas the population among the SAARC nations is over 1.7 billion, which is about 21% of the total population of the world. The Headquarters of SAARC is based in Kathmandu, Nepal. His Excellency Mr. Esala Ruwan Weerakoon, a Sri Lankan diplomat, is the present Secretary General of the organization since March 1, 2020, with his term set to conclude by the end of February 2023. The next nomination for Secretary General has been considered Mr. Golam Sarwar, a Bangladeshi career diplomat. Although it was Afghanistan’s turn alphabetically to nominate for the position, the Taliban regime has not been recognized by members of SAARC.
The idea of establishing SAARC is not a recent phenomenon; it is rather rooted in the historical past. It is a result of at least three conferences: the Asian Relations Conference, New Delhi, April 1947; the Baguio Conference, Philippines, May 1950, and the Colombo Powers Conference, Sri Lanka, April 1954. Particularly, at the end of the 1970s, seven South Asian countries, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka acceded to form this geopolitical, regional, and intergovernmental union. Later, the then-President of Bangladesh, Ziaur Rahman formally attempted to establish the SAARC, and for this, he tried to communicate with the Heads of the Governments of the region. The proposal of Bangladesh was immediately supported by other countries save India and Pakistan, as both these countries remained dubious initially. India worried about all bilateral issues anticipating that their smaller neighbors may internationalize them, and even these nations may be organized against the interests of India. Pakistan, on the other hand, anticipated that the idea was an Indian tactic to sell their products to consolidate and strengthen their economy against Pakistan. During a series of diplomatic deliberations by Bangladesh between 1979 to 1981, finally, India and Pakistan conceded to become members of the SAARC at a conference in Colombo, Sri Lanka in 1981.
In August 1983, the leaders adopted the Declaration on South Asian Regional Cooperation at a meeting that was held in New Delhi, India. During the next two years, the South Asian nations committed themselves to forming this South Asian alliance and the process culminated in the First SAARC Summit held on 7-8 December 1985 in Dhaka, Bangladesh where the Heads of State or Government of the initial seven countries adopted the Charter establishing the SAARC.
More information about the history of SAARC can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
4. SAARC Charter
The SAARC Charter which appears as the Constitution of this regional organization, contains provisions on the missions, visions, objectives, principles, structure, and functions of the organization, and so on. The member states are legally bound to follow the provisions of this Charter. However, one of the most important policy issues of the Charter is that it deliberately excludes bilateral and contentious matters from the discussions. For additional information on the SAARC Charter, visit the Official Website of the SAARC.
4.1. Objectives of SAARC
According to Article I of the SAARC Charter, the Association has the following objectives:
- To promote the welfare of the people of South Asia and to improve their quality of life.
- To accelerate economic growth, social progress, and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals the opportunity to live in dignity and to realize their full potential.
- To promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of South Asia.
- To contribute to mutual trust, understanding, and appreciation of one another problem.
- To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical, and scientific fields.
- To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries.
- To strengthen cooperation among themselves in International forums on matters of common interests.
- To cooperate with International and regional organizations with similar aims and purposes.
4.2. SAARC’s Principles
According to Article II of the SAARC Charter, the Association has the following principles:
- Cooperation within the framework of the ASSOCIATION shall be based on respect for the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, political independence, non-interference in the internal affairs of other States, and mutual benefit.
- Such cooperation shall not be a substitute for bilateral and multilateral cooperation but shall complement them.
- Such cooperation shall not be inconsistent with bilateral and multilateral obligations.
4.3. General Provisions
According to Article X of the SAARC Charter, the Association will function based on the following two general provisions:
- Decisions at all levels shall be taken based on unanimity.
- Bilateral and contentious issues shall be excluded from the deliberations.
4.4. SAARC Charter of Democracy
A SAARC Charter of Democracy was drafted by a technical committee in September 2010 and approved by the standing committee comprising the foreign secretaries of all SAARC nations in February of 2019. The idea for such a Charter was mooted by Sheikh Hasina, the Prime Minister of Bangladesh during the 16th SAARC Summit held in Thimphu, Bhutan in 2010. The thinking behind the Charter was to recognize and reaffirm the commitment of all South Asian nations to democracy.
The SAARC Charter of Democracy has encapsulated many important provisions that recognize the supremacy of the respective constitutions, guarantee the independence of the judiciary, and renounce unconstitutional measures adopted in changing the head of a state. See more information on the SAARC Charter of Democracy.
5. Organization Structure
5.1. Council of Ministers
The Council of Ministers (CoM) comprises the ministers of foreign/external affairs of the member states. As provided in Article IV of the Charter, the Council undertakes the following functions:
- Formulation of policies of the Association
- Review of progress of cooperation under SAARC
- Decision on new areas of cooperation
- Establishment of additional mechanisms under SAARC, is deemed necessary; and
- Decision making on other matters of general interest to SAARC.
The CoM is mandated to meet twice a year as well also to hold its extra-ordinary session (by agreement among the member states). More information about the Council of Ministers can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
5.2. Standing Committee
The Standing Committee comprises the Foreign Secretaries of the SAARC member states. As provided in Article V of the SAARC Charter, the functions of the standing committee are as follows:
- Overall monitoring and coordination of program of cooperation under different areas
- Approval of projects and programs, including modalities of their financing
- Determination of inter-sectoral priorities
- Mobilization of regional and external resources, and
- Identification of new areas of cooperation based on appropriate studies
The Standing Committee is mandated to meet as often as necessary. Generally, they meet before the sessions of the CoM, i.e. during the summit, and in between two summits. The committee reports to the CoM on regular matters and asks for specific decision on policy matters from the Council, if needed. More information on the standing committees can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
5.3. Technical Committees
Technical Committees, consisting of representatives of member states, are responsible for the implementation, coordination and monitoring of the programs in the respective areas of cooperation. Article VI (2) of the SAARC Charter confers upon these Committees following terms of reference:
- Determination of the potential and the scope of regional cooperation in agreed areas
- Formulation of programmes and preparation of projects
- Determination of financial implications of sectoral programmes
- Formulation of recommendations regarding apportionment of costs
- Implementation and coordination of sectoral programmes
- Monitoring of progress in implementation
The Technical Committees shall submit periodic reports to the Standing Committee, and use the following mechanisms and modalities when considered necessary as per Article VI (5) of the Charter:
- Meetings of heads of national technical agencies
- Meetings of experts in specific fields
- Contact amongst recognised centres of excellence in the region
Apart from determining the potential and the scope of regional cooperation in agreed areas, Technical Committees are involved in the formulation of programs and preparation of projects. They also coordinate the implementation of sectoral programs and assess the implementation regularly.
The following Technical Committees work on the respective areas to provide support to SAARC activities:
- Technical Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development
- Technical Committee on Health and Population Activities
- Technical Committee on Women, Youth and Children
- Technical Committee on Science and Technology
- Technical Committee on Transport
- Technical Committee on Environment
More information on the Technical Committees of SAARC can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
5.4. Programming Committees
The Fifth Session of the Standing Committee (Dhaka, December 1985) set up the Programming Committee, to assist the Standing Committee on matters relating to:
- Selection of regional projects, including their location, cost-sharing modalities among the member states, and mobilization of external resources
- Inter-sectoral priority of work program
- Review of the calendar of activities
It generally meets before the sessions of the Standing Committee. It is also mandated to convene on a stand-alone basis to coordinate the implementation of the approved SAARC programs and activities. More information on the Programming Committee can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
The SAARC Secretariat is based in Kathmandu, Nepal. It coordinates and monitors the implementation of activities, prepares for and services meetings, and serves as a channel of communication between the association and its member states as well as other regional organizations. The Secretariat is headed by the Secretary General, who is appointed by the CoM from member states in alphabetical order for a term of three years. His Excellency Mr. Esala Ruwan Weerakoon, a Sri Lankan diplomat, is the present Secretary General of the organization since March 1, 2020, with his term set to conclude by the end of February 2023. The next nomination for Secretary General has been considered Mr. Golam Sarwar, a Bangladeshi career diplomat The Secretary General is assisted by eight Directors on Deputation from the member states.
More information on SAARC Secretariat can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
6. SAARC Agreements
In its initial stage, SAARC concentrated on non-controversial issues only, e.g., population, health, communications, postal, agricultural and rural development and so on. Subsequently, SAARC began to focus on some other important matters like finance, economy, trade, energy, climate change, transport etc. For nearly over three and a half decades, SAARC adopted numerous legal instruments covering both agreements and conventions in regulating mutual collaboration and cooperation in some common areas of interest. Some of its agreements are as follows:
- Agreement on Establishing the SAARC Food Security Reserve
- SAARC Limited Multilateral Agreement on Avoidance of Double Taxation and Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters
- SAARC Agreement on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Customs Matters
- Agreement on Establishing the SAARC Food Bank
- Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)
- Protocol of Accession of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)
- Agreement on SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA)
- Agreement on the Establishment of South Asian Regional Standards Organization (SARSO)
- SAARC Agreement on Trade in Services (SATIS)
- SAARC Agreement on Multilateral Arrangement on Recognition of Conformity
- Assessment 211
- Agreement on Establishing the SAARC Seed Bank
- SAARC Agreement on Rapid Response to Natural Disasters
- SAARC Agreement on Implementation of Regional Standards
7. SAARC Conventions
- SAARC Convention on Combating and Prevention of Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution
- SAARC Convention on Regional Agreements for the Promotion of Child Welfare in South Asia
- SAARC Convention on Mutual Assistance on Criminal Matters
- SAARC Convention on Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances
- SAARC Regional Convention on Suppression of Terrorism
- Additional Protocol to the SAARC Regional Convention on Suppression of Terrorism
- SAARC Convention on Cooperation on Environment
More information on SAARC Agreements and Conventions can be found in the Compilation of SAARC Charter/ Conventions/ Agreements (1985-2016).
8. SAARC Summits
The meeting of the Heads of the States or Governments of the member states known as the Summit is the highest decision-making forum of SAARC. Generally, SAARC organizes Summits biennially through its member states in alphabetical order, and the hosting country of the Summit assumes the Chair of the Association. The key outcome of a SAARC Summit is a Declaration containing decisions and directives of the leaders to strengthen and consolidate regional cooperation in different areas being pursued under the auspices of SAARC. The Declaration is adopted by the leaders at the concluding session of a Summit. The Summit also considers and approves reports of the CoM and Ministerial Meetings. During the Summit, policy statements on regional cooperation under SAARC are made by the leaders. The Summit is also addressed by Heads of Observer delegations and by the Secretary-General.
The Charter provides that the Heads of State or Government "shall meet once a year or more often as and when considered necessary by the member states" (Article III). However, the Summit has generally been convened at an interval of one and a half years or so. The 19th SAARC Summit was catalogued as a diplomatic conference to be held in Islamabad, Pakistan between 15–19 November 2016. Because of the terrorist attack in Uri, and succeeding increased diplomatic tensions, India boycotted the Summit alleging Pakistan's involvement in the attack. Subsequently, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives also showed reluctance of joining the Summit resulting in an indeterminate adjournment of the summit. In the following years to date, no summit has been held which goes in contravention of Article III of the Charter.
Summit Declarations provide directives and mandates for regional co-operation. Following are the past SAARC Summits:
- First SAARC Summit, Dhaka, 1985
- Second SAARC Summit, Bangalore, 1986
- Third SAARC Summit, Kathmandu, 1987
- Fourth Summit, Islamabad, 1988
- Fifth SAARC Summit, Male', 1990
- Sixth SAARC Summit, Colombo, 1991
- Seventh SAARC Summit. Dhaka, 1993
- Eighth SAARC Summit, New Delhi 1995
- Ninth SAARC Summit, Male, 1997
- Tenth SAARC Summit, Colombo, 1998
- Eleventh SAARC Summit, Kathmandu, 2002
- Twelfth SAARC Summit, Islamabad, 2004
- Thirteenth SAARC Summit, Dhaka, 2005
- Fourteenth SAARC Summit, New Delhi, 2007
- Fifteenth SAARC Summit, Colombo, 2008
- Sixteenth SAARC Summit, Thimphu, 2010
- Seventeenth SAARC Summit, Addu City, 2011
- Eighteenth SAARC Summit, Kathmandu, 2014
- Nineteenth SAARC Summit, Islamabad, 2016 (Postponed)
More information on SAARC Summits and Summit Declarations can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
9. Areas of Cooperation
9.1. Agriculture, Rural Development
The SAARC region comprises low-income or low-middle income nations in global parlance. While poverty and hunger are among the major challenges of the region, agriculture appears to be the potential sector of the region’s economy. According to the 2021 statistics of the World Bank, the total population of South Asia is 1.9 billion. The statistics of 2017 reveal thatamong the population, 66% are living in rural areas. Nearly half of the total workforce isengaged in the farming sector, and 42% of the land property of the region is used for agricultural purposes.
Considering this factual reality, regional cooperation on agriculture and rural development has been the focus of SAARC from its inception. In 1990, two separate technical committees on agriculture and rural development were established and several specialized programs and projects were initiated by the member states through these technical committees under the auspices of the SAARC Integrated Programme of Action (SIPA). Later, these two technical committees were merged into one. The reconstituted committee, which is called the ‘Technical Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development,” started functioning in July 2000 with an additional mandate to consider livestock and fisheries matters. The functioning of this technical committee has helped bridge the knowledge gap, sharing experience, and expertise, identifying areas for pursuing regional actions and projects etc. In addition, a wide array of activities have been going on encompassing this area in the region over the years.
Food Security and SAARC Food Bank: Establishing a ‘food reserve’ to ensure the food security of the region was one of the first regional cooperation mechanisms set up by SAARC. In 1988, the Agreement on Establishing the SAARC Food Security Reserve entered into force. However, due to some technical difficulties, the reserve has not been utilized by the member states. In January 2004, the CoM recommended the establishment of a Regional Food Bank which was endorsed by the twelfth SAARC summit held in Islamabad between 4-6 January 2004. India prepared a Concept Paper for the Food Bank—which was discussed over several rounds of meetings of the Food Security Reserve Board and the Technical Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development (TCARD). The thirteenth SAARC summit held in Dhaka between 12-13 November 2005 reiterated the establishment of the Bank.
The SAARC Food Bank was established initially to provide emergency supplies to a nation facing a crisis resulting from a production shortfall or a natural calamity like a cyclone, flood, draught, earthquakes and other factors. The fourteenth SAARC summit held in New Delhi in 2007 approved the move to adopt a common approach to collective food security of the region and since then, the institutional progress andpolicy guidelines have much walked ahead to give it a functional character. The SAARC Food Bank is now operational and now the question is how to make it broad-based and responsive to the challenges of disaster mitigation that a member state may suffer from any of the calamities.
By March 2007, an Inter-Governmental Expert Group (IGEG) finalized the text of the Agreement for the establishment of the Food Bank, and the Agreement was signed at the fourteenth SAARC summit in New Delhi in April 2007. At the time of the establishment of the Food Bank, the total quantity of food grain was finalized at 241,580 metric tons (MT) from the original signatory member states. At that time, the contribution of Afghanistan was left to be added as it was about to join SAARC. At the first meeting of the Food Bank Board held in Colombo in October 2008, Afghanistan agreed to set its contribution at 1,420 MT of wheat. Thus, the total quantity stood at 243,000 MT. In 2009, the capacity of the food bank was raised to 486,000 MT from 243,000 MT.
The fourth Board Meeting of the SAARC Food Bank was held in Dhaka between 27-28 October 2011. This was a follow-up of the earlier three meetings, the first and the second of which were held in Colombo in October 2008 and February 2009 respectively, and the third one in Kabul in November 2009.
Meanwhile, as per the decision of the Eighth Food Bank Board meeting (Malé, 2-3 September 2015), SAARC Food Bank Information System (SFBIS) has been embedded in the SAARC Agriculture Centre (SAC)’s website. Additionally, “A Guide to the SAARC Food Bank” was published containing relevant data and references.
For more information about regional cooperation on agriculture, rural development, and food security, visit the Official Website of the SAARC.
SAARC Seed Bank: Since 15 June 2016, SAARC Seed Bank has come into force through the endorsement process in the Maldives. A Board was formed with delegates from all the member states, who sat for its first meeting in Dhaka on September 27-28, 2017. In line with the directions of the third meeting of the SAARC Agriculture Ministers, the Board has been working on identifying the crops following the SAC program of adaptive trials. It is also operating the strategic action plan, SoP, and a protocol for facilitating the exchange of seeds among the SAARC nationals. The second meeting of the Board is likely to be hosted in Afghanistan, or Bhutan.
Funding Mechanism: The South Asian Development Fund (SADF), a funding mechanism in SAARC, was formed in 1996 merging the SAARC Fund for Regional Projects (SFRP) and the SAARC Regional Fund. SADF’s objectives were to support industrial development, poverty alleviation, protection of the environment, human resource development, and promotion of social and infrastructure development projects in the SAARC region.
The South Asian Development Fund (SADF) was found to be inadequate when the SAARC Member States considered instituting various sectoral funding mechanisms, e.g., Poverty Alleviation Fund, Infrastructure Fund, South Asian Development Bank, Media Development Fund, Voluntary Fund for the Differently Able Persons during 2002-2005. In September 2005, the SAARC Financial Experts looked at the entire gamut of issues relating to funding of SAARC projects and programs; and, amongst others, agreed that instead of proliferating sectoral financing mechanisms, the SADF be reconstituted into the SAARC Development Fund (SDF). Furthermore, SDF would have a permanent Secretariat, with three windows (Social, Economic, and Infrastructure). The thirteenth SAARC summit held in Dhaka on 12-13 November 2005 finally decided to reconstitute the SADF into SDF to serve as the “umbrella financial mechanism” for all SAARC projects and programs.
To learn more about agriculture, rural development and food security, visit the Official Website of the SAARC.
9.2. Environment, Natural Disasters and Biotechnology
Biotechnology: The need to promote cooperation in the area of biotechnology has been recognized by the Heads of State at various SAARC summits since 1990. A Working Group on Biotechnology was established in 2004 as a part of the restructured SAARC Integrated Program of Action (SIPA) to coordinate regional cooperation in the area of biotechnology. The Working Group has met several times and in their third meeting, they considered and finalized a concept paper on a program of cooperation in the field of biotechnology between SAARC member states. The program provides for collaboration in the areas of medical biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, animal biotechnology, marine biotechnology, bioinformatics, plant tissue culture, genetically modified organisms and bio-safety, marker assisted selection, bio-fertilizer and bio-gas, vaccine production, genomics and proteomics, nano-biotechnology, RNA interference technology platform, stem cell research, and Industrial biotechnology. In line with the guidance of the Fourth Meeting of the Working Group on Biotechnology (Colombo, 27 April 2011), each member state submitted State-of-the-Art Reports on Biotechnology. It is noteworthy that Pakistan remains the Chair of the existing Working Group on Biotechnology since January 2012.
Environment, Climate Change and Natural Disasters: The environment has been an area of serious concern within the SAARC member states. Therefore, the Heads of State of SAARC nations have been reiterating the need for cooperation in this area. Some significant headway has also been achieved in this regard over the last two decades. A Regional Study on the Causes and Consequences of Natural Disasters and the Protection and Preservation of the Environment was commissioned by the leaders in 1987 and the study was completed in 1991. A Technical Committee on Environment was established in 1992 to examine the recommendations of the regional study, identify measures for immediate action, and decide on modalities for their implementation.
SAARC Environment Ministers have been regularly meeting to further enhance regional cooperation in the area of environment, climate change, and natural disasters since 1992. SAARC Environment Action Plan adopted by the Third Meeting of the SAARC Environment Ministers (Male, 15-16 October 1997) identified some of the key concerns of member states and set out the parameters and modalities for regional cooperation. Another Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change was held in Dhaka on 3 July 2008 adopted the Dhaka Declaration and SAARC Action Plan on Climate Change.
The establishment of regional centers such as the SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre in the Maldives, the SAARC Forestry Centre in Bhutan, the SAARC Disaster Management Centre in India, and the SAARC Meteorological Research Centre in Bangladesh constitutes a framework of SAARC Institutions which address diverse aspects of the environment, climate change, and natural disasters.
Since then onwards, SAARC has had numerous important initiatives, action plans, statements, and so on. They are, inter alia, SAARC Environment Action Plan (1997); Dhaka Declaration and SAARC Action Plan on Climate Change (2008); Delhi Statement on Cooperation in Environment (2009); Thimphu Statement on Climate Change (2010); SAARC Convention on Cooperation on Environment (2010); SAARC Agreement on Rapid Response to Natural Disasters (2011) etc. Additionally, SAARC signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with various bodies including the South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme (SACEP) in July 2004; United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in June 2007; the United Nations International Strategy on Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) in September 2008 and Asia Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC). Moreover, SAARC performs the role of an accredited Observer of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) since COP 16 (Cancun, Mexico, 29 November-10 December 2010), and accordingly, presented SAARC’s positions on global climate change.
More information on regional cooperation on environment, natural disasters, and biotechnology within the SAARC region can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
9.3. Education, Security and Culture
Education: The SAARC principles recognize literacy as one of the major fundamental human rights that can be obtained through education. Hence, in numerous forums, the leaders of the SAARC have emphasized to enhance the literacy level by a quarter by fostering quality education. The leaders of the region declared 1996 as the 'SAARC Literacy Year'. The SAARC leaders emphasized especially on vocational education and training and accordingly directed their education ministers to prepare useful strategies for ensuring quality education having the aim of raising the standards of South Asian educational systems for serving better the youth of the region. SAARC countries have been cooperating in the development of various dimensions of human resources. SAARC Human Resource Development Centre in Islamabad used to undertake research, impart training, and disseminate information on HRD issues, and advise member states on HRD related policies and strategies. However, in its eighteenth summit held in Kathmandu between 26-27 November 2014, a decision was taken to close down this Centre.
At the thirteenth SAARC summit held in November 2005 in Dhaka, India proposed to create a Centre of Excellence, in the form of South Asian University, which can provide world class facilities and professional faculty to students and researchers drawn from every country of the region. With this aim, South Asian University (SAU) was established by the eight-member nations of SAARC in New Delhi, India. SAU started its operations in the academic year 2010. The university now offers post-graduate and doctoral programs in various disciplines that include Development Economics, Computer Science, Biotechnology, Mathematics, Sociology, International Relations, and Law. SAU attracts students from all member nations, and its degrees are recognized by all eight SAARC countries.
Moreover, the SAARC Chair, Fellowship, and Scholarship Scheme were instituted in 1987 which facilitates the exchange of ideas through interaction among students, scholars, and academics in the SAARC countries. For additional information on SAARC Chair, Fellowship, and Scholarship, visit the Official Website of SAARC.
See also the New Delhi Declaration on Education
Security Aspects: Regional cooperation in the areas of security among the SAARC member states has seen significant development. A good number of milestones have been achieved through successful coordination among the SAARC member countries in the fields of drug and drug related crimes, terrorism, and police matters. In particular, SAARC has identified widespread security-related challenges ranging from terrorism to cyber-crimes, trafficking of drugs, children and women to transnational organized crimes etc. Terming them as common social evils, SAARC always endeavors to find out effective solutions to those problems for ensuring safety, security, economic and social growth, and principally, the future of all ages in the region. To eradicate these social challenges from the region, SAARC is continuously trying to increase the system for monitoring, exchanging knowledge, technology, and so on. The leaders of SAARC declared the year 1989 as the ‘SAARC Year for Combating Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking’.
For more information on regional cooperation on security aspects within the SAARC region, visit the Official Website of the SAARC.
Culture: The Head of States at the thirteenth SAARC Summit held in Dhaka in November 2005 recognized the role of culture in bringing the peoples of South Asia closer. They also realized that culture could play a major role in promoting relations and understanding among South Asian countries. With this backdrop, the Ministers of Culture of the SAARC member states adopted the SAARC Agenda for Culture in their second meeting on 31 October 2007 with the following activities: promotion of SAARC culture online, launching of a SAARC website on culture, production of cultural source materials on South Asia, cooperation with other organizations, establish linkage between culture and other sectors in attaining social and economic development, cooperation in the field of product development and promotion of cultural products, and SAARC exchange programs on culture.
At the eighteenth SAARC Summit, 2014, the SAARC leaders decided to implement its cultural agenda and promote a cultural trail concerning the major Buddhist historical places in the region. Additionally, they also agreed to adopt appropriate means for the protection and restitution of all cultural properties, sites, and heritage, and prepare a list of those along with an operating manual. They further admitted facilitating access to the persons visiting major famous and sacred religious sites of Islam, Hinduism, Christianity, and so on. However, the regional organization declared the year 2016 as the ‘SAARC Year of Cultural Heritage’ and asked the concerned body to prepare an action plan for its success.
More information on regional cooperation on the culture within the SAARC region can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
9.4. Economic Trade, and Finance
Economic Cooperation: One of the key objectives of SAARC is to accelerate economic growth and social progress in the region. Keeping this in mind, SAARC leaders adopted the South Asian Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA) and South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA). The SAFTA Agreement was signed on 6 January 2004 and came into effect on 1 January 2006. The Agreement on SAPTA was signed on 11 April 1993 and entered into force on 7 December 1995. The establishment of the South Asian Standard Organization, the holding of the SAARC trade fair in different venues of SAARC Member States, agreements on trade in services, and agreement for the avoidance of double taxation are some of the milestone achievements in trade and an economic area within SAARC Member States.
- South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA)SAARC Agreement on Trade in Services (SATIS)
- South Asian Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA)South Asian Standard Organization (SARSO)
- SAARC Arbitration Council (SARCO)
- SAARC Trade Fairs
- Avoidance of Double Taxation
At the 18th SAARC summit, held in Kathmandu between 26-27 November 2014, the leaders of SAARC showed their firm determination to extend regional unity for stability, prosperity, and peace in the region by raising cooperation in the field of culture, finance, trade, investment, security, energy, connectivity, infrastructure, implementing most prioritized activities, programs projects in an output-oriented manner within a specified time frame. Further, the leaders affirmed their commitment to establishing the South Asian Economic Union (SAEU) by turning through a Free Trade Area. They also wished to form a Common Economic, Monetary or, a Customs Union, and achieve the prevailing preferential opportunities under SAFTA and SATIS.
The Heads of State or Government of SAARC renewed their promise toward regional connectivity persistently through the development and renovation of all sorts of communication links, namely, airways, highways, railways, waterways, energy grids, and so on for ensuring smooth transnational exchange of services, goods, technology, capital, and people. They further stressed the necessity of connecting the people of this region with the people of other Asian regions and other international communities as a whole. Finally, the leaders welcomed two development projects, viz, the SAARC Motor Vehicles Agreement, and the SAARC Regional Railways Agreement.
More information on the regional Economic Cooperation of SAARC can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
Cooperation in the Field of Finance: To enhance the cooperation among the SAARC Member States regarding financial matters and economic development, the finance ministers of SAARC nations have been regularly meeting. Several milestones have been accomplished toward greater cooperation in financial issues within the SAARC region. A SAARC-ADB Inception Workshop for the SAARC Studies on Trade, Economics and Finance was held at the SAARC Secretariat on 23-24 June 2011 about the Study on Economic Integration within SAARC countries. Another SAARC workshop on Public Debt Management was held at the SAARC Secretariat on 26 December 2011. A SAARC Expert Group on Development of Capital Markets in South Asia was also held at the SAARC Secretariat on 27 December 2011.
To promote cooperation among central banks and finance ministries in SAARC member countries through staff visits and regular exchange of information, the SAARCFINANCE was established on 9 September, 1998 as a regional network of the SAARC Central Bank Governors and Finance Secretaries. Harmonizing the banking legislation and practices within the region and establishing a more efficient payment system within the SAARC region are among the primary objectives of SAARCFINANCE. With this end in view, the SAARC Payment Council (SPC) was launched by SAARCFINANCE in 2008.
The SAARCFINANCE also welcomes the sharing of opinions on the effect of the contemporary global financial crisis and its impacts on the SAARC economy. Currently, SAARCFINANCE has determined to organize two meetings in a year, one is to be within the region and the second one will be at Washington during the year-end meetings of the World Bank. The highest regulatory body of SAARCFINANCE is its Chair, and the present Chairperson of SAARCFINANCE is Sri Lanka.
To learn more information on cooperation in financial issues within SAARC, visit the Official Website of SAARC.
9.5. Energy, Transport, Science and Technology
The South Asian region is energy deficient as it does not have enough oil and gas reserves to meet its needs and thus, depends heavily on imports. Most of the member states cannot generate sufficient electricity to meet their demands. Therefore, securing sustainable energy supplies to meet energy needs at affordable prices has become a major energy policy imperative of member states of SAARC.
The process of regional cooperation in the energy sector began in January 2000 with the establishment of a Technical Committee on Energy. The Technical Committee on Energy met twice. Thereafter, recognizing that this vital area requires focused attention, the CoM approved the creation of a specialized Working Group on Energy in January 2004.
In the thirteenth SAARC summit, it was decided to establish the SAARC Energy Centre in Islamabad to promote the development of energy resources, including hydropower; and energy trade in the region; to develop renewable and alternative energy resources; and promote energy efficiency and conservation in the region. The Centre which was established in 2006 has become fully operational. During the eighteenth SAARC summit, 2014, the SAARC leaders warmly greeted the SAARC Framework Agreement for Energy Cooperation (Electricity). The governments of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Bhutan have endorsed the treaty so far.
Transport: At the twelfth SAARC summit, held in Islamabad in 2004, the SAARC leaders insisted on acceleration and stable economic growth for strengthening the transport, transition, and communication links over the realm. Consequently, SAARC Regional Multimodal Transport Study (SRMTS) started operating with the technical and financial aid of the ADB aiming at enhancing transport connectivity among the SAARC nations. SRMTS runs in two phases; phase-I is on the operation by the national experts, and regional experts, on the other hand, operate the phase-II.
Science and Technology: At the thirteenth summit held in Dhaka on 13 November 2005, the SAARC leaders decided to give priority attention to encouraging regional cooperation in the areas of science and technology to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century.
Accordingly, the first meeting of the Ministers of Science and Technology took place in New Delhi on 16 September 2008. A five-year (2008-2013) SAARC Plan of Action on Science and Technology was finalized during the meeting. The Plan of Action identifies areas of (i) Cooperation in the field of science and technology, (ii) Standardization and laboratory testing, (iii) Themes for cooperation, and (iv) Project development. The Ministers also approved some short-term activities to be carried out during the year 2009.
The second meeting of the Ministers of Science and Technology was held in Colombo on 24 November 2009. At that meeting, the implementation of the SAARC Action Plan was reviewed, and several short-term activities were approved for implementation. The Ministers expressed their firm commitment to the prioritization of initiatives in Science and Technology in the region for a prosperous South Asia.
More information on regional cooperation in science and technology within SAARC can be found on the Official Website of SAARC.
9.6. Information and Poverty Alleviation
Poverty Alleviation: Since the inception of SAARC, its Member States have been working together to alleviate poverty in the region. The SAARC leaders at the sixth summit held in Colombo in 1991 established an Independent South Asian Commission on Poverty Alleviation (ISACPA) and the Commission provided a conceptual framework for poverty alleviation through social mobilization and empowerment in South Asia.
To eradicate poverty from the region through concerted efforts of the member states of SAARC, a few programs have been undertaken e.g. a three-tier mechanism, a two-tier mechanism, a Plan of Action on Poverty Alleviation, and the declaration of SAARC Decade of Poverty Alleviation (2006-2015). SAARC Development Goals (SDG) have also been introduced to set appropriate targets for the Member States and call for the attainment of those targets in the scheduled timeframe. This area of cooperation runs based on the following mechanisms: (a) ministerial meeting, (b) senior officials meeting, and (c) inter-governmental expert group meeting.
From 2017 onwards, SAARC has decided to replace the Regional Poverty Profile with the SAARC Development Report. Meanwhile, on the eve of the eighteenth SAARC summit, the SAARC leaders repeated their firm devotion to establishing a poverty-free South Asia by implementing its action plans in the sector through its ministerial and secretary-level mechanisms.
More information on regional cooperation on poverty alleviation within SAARC can be found on the Official Website of SAARC.
Information and Communication Technology: Communication plays a vital role in building regional cooperation. Hence, the issue of communication has been given proper importance within the SAARC framework. The Heads of State of SAARC countries stressed the importance of developing infrastructure and adequate communications networks among member states to reinforce the process of economic cooperation during the ninth SAARC summit held in Male in 1997.
To enhance the collaboration among the Member States of SAARC concerning communication, the communication ministers of SAARC countries have been meeting regularly and several programs have been initiated. A Plan of Action on Telecommunications was adopted in the first conference of SAARC Communication ministers held in May 1998 to promote cooperation among member states in the field of telecommunication on a sustained basis.
A Revised SAARC Plan of Action on Telecommunications was adopted in 2004 to promote cooperation in the enhancement of telecommunication links, utilizing information technologies within the SAARC region, and minimizing disparities within and among member states in the telecommunication field. The Working Group on Telecommunications and ICT was established by the CoM in January 2004. The working group holds several meetings and discussed various aspects of regional cooperation on communication.
The third meeting of the working group was held in Ghaziabad, India in March, 2009 and the group made deliberations on the up-gradation of regional telecom infrastructure and agreed in principle that the capacity of the existing inter-country links needs to be increased; that the maximizing the use of terrestrial system such as optical fiber, microwave link and that the growth of telecom traffic, both voice and data meant for SAARC countries will require to remain within the region.
The group also discussed issues like cross-border interference of radio signals, revision of accounting rates and collection charges among SAARC countries, multilateral utilization of terrestrial communications routes among SAARC countries, and cyber security etc.
A working group was formed to monitor relevant activities within the SAARC framework and to strengthen regional cooperation in that respective matter. For more information on working groups, visit the Official Website of the SAARC.
9.7. Social Affairs
Acceleration of social progress through active collaboration and mutual assistance amongst member states was a primary objective of SAARC. The focus on social affairs titled “the Health and Population Activities” was one of the five primary areas of cooperation recognized by the SAARC from its very inception. Moreover, some other regional projects are progressing through the SAARC Development Fund (SDF) for facilitating social development programs in the region. SAARC promotes social agenda in the region mainly through cooperation in the following areas:
- Gender Related Issues
- Children and Youth
- Health and Population Activities
- SAARC Social Charter
For more information on Social Affairs, visit the Official Website of the SAARC.
9.8. Human Resource Development and Tourism
Regional cooperation in the tourism industry is one of the innovations of SAARC. The Heads of State of SAARC countries during the second summit held in Bangalore in 1986 underlined that concrete steps should be taken to facilitate tourism in the region. A Technical Committee on Tourism was created in 1991. During the first meeting of the Technical Committee on Tourism held in Colombo in October 1991, an Action Plan on Tourism was formulated. The twenty-fourth session of the CoM held in Islamabad on 2-3 January 2004 approved the establishment of the Working Group on Tourism.
The Working Group on Tourism prepared a Plan of Activities which includes the promotion of SAARC as a common tourist destination, to encourage the private sector in promoting regional cooperation in tourism, human resource development, promotion of South Asian identity through tourism, and cultural and eco-tourism development. The Working Group was authorized to periodically review the implementation of this Action Plan.
The last Ministers’ Meeting was held in Kathmandu in January 2011, which preceded the Fourth Working Group Meeting. The second meeting of Tourism Ministers (Bangladesh, 2006) adopted the SAARC Action Plan on Promotion of Tourism, which continued since then. The Action Plan includes a joint pro-active marketing or promotional campaign of the SAARC landmass as a composite destination in the international markets. The Action Plan also emphasizes the role of the private sector of the SAARC region in the promotion and development of tourism both intra-regionally and internationally. The Fifth Working Group on Tourism which was held in New Delhi on 25-26 November 2015, among others, insisted on the implementation of the SAARC Action Plan on Promotion of Tourism in the region.
SAARC attaches a high priority to the promotion of people-to-people contact in the region and to fostering mutual understanding and goodwill among the peoples of South Asia. While it is an inter-governmental Association, successive Summits have emphasized the importance of promoting people-to-people contact at all levels outside the State sector. To realize this objective, several initiatives have taken place. With a view of enriching and supplementing inter-governmental regional efforts in promoting socio-economic and cultural development in the SAARC Region, the association encourages interface and interaction across the region among professional bodies, the private corporate sector, civil society groups, and creative artists. To further facilitate and acknowledge their work, the Association grants formal recognition to these bodies under two specific categories i.e. SAARC Apex Bodies and SAARC Recognized Bodies. Currently, there are six SAARC Apex Bodies and 18 SAARC Recognized Bodies.
More information on regional cooperation on human resource development and tourism within SAARC can be found on the Official Website of the organization.
10. Designated SAARC Decades and Years
10.1. Designated SAARC Decades
1991-2000: SAARC Decade of the Girl Child
2001-2010: SAARC Decade of the Rights of the Child
2006-2015: SAARC Decade of Poverty Alleviation
2010-2020: SAARC Decade of Intra-regional Connectivity
10.2. Designated SAARC Years
1989: SAARC Year of Combating Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking
1990: SAARC Year of Girl Child
1991: SAARC Year of Shelter
1992: SAARC Year of Environment
1993: SAARC Year of Disabled Persons
1994: SAARC Year of the Youth
1995: SAARC Year of Poverty Eradication
1996: SAARC Year of Literacy
1997: SAARC Year of Participatory Governance
1999: SAARC Year of Biodiversity
2002-2003: SAARC Year of Contribution of Youth to Environment
2004: SAARC Awareness Year for TB and HIV/AIDS
2006: South Asia Tourism Year
2007: Green South Asia Year
11. SAARC Regional Centers
With a view to strengthening and promoting regional cooperation, SAARC aimed at establishing a good number of regional centers since 1989 with certain specific agendas and mandates. These regional centers perform the scheduled activities and always endeavor to establish themselves as the centers of excellence in their concerned fields. Generally, these centers are run by the governing boards holding delegates from all the member nations, including the Secretary-General and the Ministry of Foreign/External Affairs of the host nation of the SAARC. Whereas the director of each center serves as the member secretary to the governing board, which submits reports to the programming committee. The following are the regional centers of the SAARC.
SAARC Agriculture Centre (SAC), Dhaka: This was the first-ever center established by SAARC in 1989 in Dhaka, having the aim of providing up-to-date, appropriate, and free access to information and learning resources to all the agriculture professionals of the region for achieving the desired goals by sharing the agricultural experience and information through the adoption of the proper ICT technologies, administration practices, and standards. For more information about SAC, visit the Official Website of the SAARC.
SAARC Energy Centre (SEC), Islamabad: The SAARC Energy Centre was founded in 2006 in Islamabad, aimed at envisaging a motivation for economic cooperation and growth in the SAARC region through the launching, coordinating, and promoting regional, joint, and combined initiatives encompassing energy. The center would facilitate technical support to the SAARC Working Group on Energy, and it will promote stimulating the synthesis of energy policies within the region by offering related information, cutting-edge technology, and proficiency. The details about SEC can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
SAARC Cultural Centre (SCC), Colombo, Sri Lanka: The SAARC Cultural Centre was established in 2009 in Colombo having the mandate of promoting regional solidarity by way of cultural integration and intercultural conversation for the preservation of the cultural heritage of the region as a part of the SAARC Agenda for Culture. More about the center can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
SAARC Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS Centre (STAC), Kathmandu: This particular centre was set up in Kathmandu in 1992 with the vision of preventing and controlling the disease tuberculosis in the SAARC region through the combined efforts of the member states. Additionally, the centre would exchange the relevant information, conduct research, try building capacity and execute projects, and assemble, organize, investigate, and disseminates knowledge on the newest advancements and findings on tuberculosis in the region and beyond. To follow details about the STAC, visit the Official Website of the SAARC.
SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC), India: This center was re-built in November 2016 for exercising the extended roles by merging some four preceding SAARC Centers viz. (1) SAARC Disaster Management Centre (SDMC – New Delhi, India); (2) SAARC Meteorological Research Centre (SMRC – Dhaka, Bangladesh); (3) SAARC Forestry Centre (SFC – Thimphu, Bhutan); (4) SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre (SCZMC – Male, Maldives), having the mandates of supporting the member states in the initiatives of disaster risk reduction by the application of latest scientific and technological knowledge, multiple disciplinary skills, and sharing of best practices, capacity, joint research, networking in line with the global and regional priority list.
In its eighteenth summit, held in Kathmandu between 26-27 November 2014, a decision was taken to merge SAARC Forestry Centre in Bhutan, SAARC Disaster Management Centre in New Delhi, SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre in the Maldives and SAARC Meteorological Research Centre in Dhaka and to set up the SAARC Environment and Disaster Management Centre. For additional information on this issue, visit the Official Website of the SAARC.
SAARC Standards Organization (SARSO): SARSO was established as a body to achieve and enhance coordination and cooperation among member states of SAARC in the field of standardization. The purpose of making this platform is to develop harmonized standards to facilitate intra-regional trade. Having its office in Dhaka, the organization started functioning in 2014 to remove the technical barrier in trade and cooperating in the growing flow of goods and services. Using international standards in the SAARC region was another motto of SARSO. For additional information about SARSO, visit the website of SARSO.
SAARC Arbitration Council (SARCO): SARCO was established to be the most important center of excellence for conducting arbitration in the region. The idea was to offer fair, inexpensive, expeditious, and ruled-based awards to settle disputes between the parties. Located in Islamabad, it is an inter-governmental organization to offer a legal framework for peacefully settling disputes of investment, trade, commerce, industry, banking, and other legal nature of disputes. Based on the referral of member states or people, SARCO will engage in arbitration and conciliation. For additional information about SARCO, visit the website of SARCO.
The following regional centers are presently in function:
- SAARC Agriculture Centre, Dhaka
- SAARC Tuberculosis Centre, Kathmandu
- SAARC Energy Centre, Islamabad
- SAARC Cultural Centre, Colombo
12. SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme
The SAARC Visa Exemption Scheme was introduced in 1992 with the view of encouraging people-to-people contact among the SAARC member states. The leaders at the fourth summit which was held in Islamabad in December 1988 decided that certain categories of dignitaries should be entitled to a special travel document, which would exempt them from visas while travelling within the region. It was decided that twenty-four categories of entitled persons, which include dignitaries, judges of higher courts, parliamentarians, senior officials, businessmen, journalists, sportsmen, etc. will be entitled to avail of this visa exemption facility.
Later in February 2011, a meeting of the SAARC foreign ministers revisited the scheme approved a proposal to exempt 24 categories of people from visa requirements and agreed on a liberalized scheme under which select journalists, businesspersons, and sportspersons can be given long-term multi-entry visas after prior clearance.
Usually, the respective member states issued this visa sticker to the privileged classes of persons for a term not exceeding one year. All procedures and their implementation are examined and monitored regularly by the immigration authorities of the concerned nations of the SAARC. Additional information about Visa Exemption Scheme can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
13. Awards and Scholarships
A number of awards have been instituted under the auspices of SAARC to encourage individuals and organizations in furthering the objectives of SAARC. SAARC Award was instituted at the twelfth SAARC summit held in Islamabad in January 2004 to recognize and encourage outstanding individuals and organizations within the region. The SAARC Award comprises a gold medal, a letter of citation, and a purse of USD 25,000.
The SAARC Youth Awards Scheme was introduced in 1996 to promote extraordinary young talents and encourage the overall development of the youth in the region. This awards scheme is open for all nationals of the SAARC region between 20-35 years of age during the time of selection. The Award consists of a citation in English, a Gold Medal, and a cash prize of USD 3,000.
SAARC Regional Award for Young Scientists and Senior Scientists were introduced respectively in 1982 and 1997 to encourage young and senior scientists of the region to work in the field of Meteorology. The Award comprises a citation, a bronze medal , and a sum of money worth about USD 500. So far, 14 young scientists from the different nationals of the SAARC region have been able to receive the award. More information can be found here about SAARC Awards and here about Youth Awards.
Scholarship: Started in 1987, the SAARC Chair, Fellowship and Scholarship Scheme aims at providing increased cross-pollination of thoughts through an effective interaction among academics, scholars, students, and so forth in the region. From the very inception of the scheme, scholars from various fields of the SAARC region have been benefitting through these scholarships. Other than these, sometimes individual states and numerous bodies of SAARC offer multiple scholarships for the SAARC nationals under the name of SAARC. Among all these scholarships, SAARC Agriculture PhD Scholarship by the SAARC Agriculture Centre, and South Asian University Scholarships/Financial Support Program are notable, and both of them are usually offered each year for the SAARC nationals. For additional information on SAARC Scholarships, visit the Official Website of the SAARC (downloadable file).
14. SAARC Observer States
SAARC has nine observer countries, who can, on the invitation, attend the opening and closing sessions of SAARC summits and engage themselves in some productive, demand, and objective oriented cooperation in several priority areas ranging from communication, connectivity, agriculture, public health, energy, environment to economic cooperation. Currently, the following nations are the SAARC observers:
- European Union
- Republic of Korea
15. Relationship Between SAARC and Other International/Intergovernmental/Regional Organizations
SAARC-UNCTAD Memorandum of Understanding on the Trade Analysis and Information System (TRAINS) was signed on February 1993. Under this agreement, UNCTAD provides the SAARC Secretariat, on a regular basis, an updated copy of TRAINS CD-ROM containing the latest data on trade control measures prevailing in developed and developing countries. The SAARC Secretariat in turn updates trade control measures prevailing in the SAARC Member States regularly and forwards the same to the UNCTAD Secretariat, on computer floppies for incorporation in the updated versions of TRAINS CD-ROM.
A Framework Agreement for Cooperation between SAARC and ESCAP was signed in February 1994. The agreement provides for cooperation on development issues through joint studies, workshops, and seminars and exchange of information and documentation in poverty alleviation, human resource development, trade promotion, foreign direct investment, environmental protection and prevention of drug trafficking, infrastructure development, etc.
A Cooperation Agreement between SAARC and UNICEF was signed on 10 December 1993. The agreement envisages cooperation in implementing the relevant SAARC decisions relating to children through an annual agenda, which includes joint studies, exchange of documentation, and monitoring of implementation.
A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed by the SAARC Secretary-General and Executive Director of Asia Pacific Telecommunity (APT) on 4 February 1994 to initiate cooperation between the two organizations to accelerate economic and social development in the region through the promotion of telecommunication. SAARC and APT will exchange information, publications, and documents on their respective activities in this field. They will also exchange technical and operational details of plans for the improvement of the national, regional, and international telecommunications network.
A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between SAARC and UNDP was signed by the SAARC Secretary-General and Administrator of UNDP in July 1995. The MOU embodies a general agreement for broad-based collaboration with the aims and purposes of promoting sustainable human development for attaining poverty elimination, preservation and protection of the environment, regeneration of natural resources, employment creation, and the goals of women in development; undertakes periodic consultation for joint activities, publishing studies on priority concerns, and exchanging relevant reports.
SAARC Secretary-General and United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) Executive Director signed an MOU on 18 August 1995 to coordinate their efforts in combating drug trafficking and drug abuse in the region. The memorandum contains provisions for mutual consultation and exchange of information between the two organizations. In addition, the two organizations have agreed to seek each other's technical cooperation in pursuing their respective drug control activities in areas of drug supply and demand reduction to assist in the development and implementation of activities, such as human resource development, improving regional cooperation on drug intelligence through the SAARC Drug Offences Monitoring Desk, the establishment of a networking arrangement among existing institutions in drug abuse prevention, etc.
15.7. Colombo Plan
SAARC has also entered into cooperation arrangements with the Colombo Plan Bureau for the promotion of the role of SAARC NGOs in anti-narcotic activities. In this context, representatives of NGOs from seven countries attended a meeting of the SAARC Forum on the role of NGOs in Drug Demand Reduction in Dhaka on 10-13 April 1995. Efforts are also underway to establish a working relationship between the SAARC Secretariat and the Colombo Plan Bureau on training facilities in the region.
A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between SAARC and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has been finalized and signed accordingly.
The EU has been an observer of SAARC since 2006. The EU prefers project based cooperation and engagement with SAARC in communication, energy, environment, public health, agriculture, and economic cooperation. EU prefers connectivity to seek development in the region and SAARC should play a key role to this end.
Cooperation with Agencies/Organizations with whom SAARC has MoUs
- Asian Development Bank (ADB)
- Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre (ADPC)
- Asia Pacific Telecommunity (APT)
- Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
- Centre for Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific (CIRDAP)
- Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)
- European Commission (EC)
- Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
- Government of Japan (JICA, JENESYS-2018)
- International Bank for Reconstruction and Development & International Development Association
- International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
- National Metrology Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany (PTB)
- South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme (SACEP)
- UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)
- United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
- United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP)
- United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
- United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP)
- United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN/ISDR)
- United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
- UN Women
- World Health Organization (WHO)
- World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
Cooperation with Agencies/Organizations with whom SAARC does not have MoUs
- Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR)
- International Co-op Alliance – Asia & Pacific (ICA – AP)
- International Organization for Migration (IOM)
- Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
- United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
- United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
- United States Forest Service (USFS)
- United Nations Office for Coordination on Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA)
- Universal Postal Union (UPU)/Asia Pacific Postal Union (APPU)
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
More information on SAARC’s relationship with other international/intergovernmental/regional organizations can be found in the External Relations of the SAARC.
16. SAARC NGOs
16.1. Association of SAARC Speakers and Parliamentarians
The speakers of the parliaments of SAARC Countries first met in Sri Lanka in June 1992 and resolved to set up an association of SAARC speakers and parliamentarians. They met in Kathmandu in November 1992 and The First South Asian Festival held in India (October 1992) with participation from all member countries was a unique event that focused on the rich cultural heritage of South Asia formally launched the "Association of SAARC Speakers and Parliamentarians" and adopted the charter of the association. The Speakers Council, which is the apex body of the association, finalized and ratified the draft rules of the Association prepared by the Parliamentary Secretaries-General in January 1994. Since then they have met periodically and addressed issues of common interest to member countries. The Heads of State at their seventh summit held in Dhaka in April 1993 welcomed the initiative of the Speakers of Parliaments of SAARC Countries in forming the Association.
16.2. SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCI)
The SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry (SCCI) was recognized by SAARC in December 1992. The establishment of SCCI is a significant development and it will act as a dynamic instrument for the promotion of regional cooperation in the areas of trade and economic relations. SCCI has its headquarters in Karachi and national units in seven SAARC countries.
The SAARC Chamber has been instrumental in disseminating information about the content, scope, and potential of the Framework Agreement on SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA) among the business community in the region. In view of expanding activities of the SCCI in the field of promoting trade both within and outside the SAARC region, SAARC has decided to continue its recognition of SCCI for five years.
More information on the SAARC Chamber of Commerce and Industry can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
SAARCLAW - an Association for persons of the legal communities of the SAARC countries, established in 1991 with its headquarters in Colombo was recognized by SAARC as a regional apex body in July 1994. Established with the twin objectives of bringing together the legal communities within the region for closer cooperation and developing law as a source of social change for development, SAARCLAW has been convening periodic conferences covering important areas of common interest to member countries. Since its establishment, SAARCLAW has organized regional conferences in different parts of the region. More information on SAARCLAW can be found on the Official Website of the SAARC.
17. Key Documents
- SAARC Charter
- SAARC Charter of Democracy
- SAARC Social Charter
- SAARC Convention on Combating and Prevention of Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution
- Convention on Promotion of Welfare of ChildrenSAARC Agreement on Rapid Response to Natural Disasters
- SAARC Convention on Mutual Assistance on Criminal Matters
- SAARC Convention on Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances
- SAARC Regional Convention on Suppression of Terrorism
- SAARC Additional Protocol to the SAARC Regional Convention on Suppression of Terrorism
- Agreement for Establishment of SAARC Arbitration Council
- SAARC Final Agreement on Avoidance of Double TaxationSAARC Final Agreement on Customs Matters
- SAARC Convention on Cooperation on Environment
- Charter of SAARC Development Fund
- Agreement on Establishing the SAARC Food Bank
- Agreement for Establishing the SAARC Food Security Reserve
- Agreement on Establishing the SAARC Seed Bank
- Agreement On SAARC Preferential Trading Arrangement (SAPTA)
- Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)Agreement on the Establishment of South Asian Regional Standards Organization (SARSO)
- Headquarter Agreement between Nepal and SAARC
- Agreement for Establishment of South Asian University
- SAARC Plan of Action on Poverty Alleviation
18. SAARC During COVID-19
COVID-19 challenged global order and functions of international organisations were also at stake. SAARC within its limited sphere continued its engagement and used virtual platforms whenever required necessary. The impact of COVID-19 in this region with one-fifth of the global population was devastating. The poor healthcare system in the region received enormous barriers in managing and offering service to the patients. Being one of the marginalized regions in terms of economic and health condition parameters, the organization urged its active involvement to work with the nations in the region. SAARC was in line with the heads of the states in participating in dialogues and developing ideas to extend the collaboration. In several rounds of meetings by heads of the states, planning wings and health ministries of the region, the SAARC secretary shared his viewpoints to challenge the crisis through cooperation, collaboration and regional best practice. SAARC facilitated for development of regional best practices related to COVID-19. One of the remarkable impacts SAARC made during COVID was facilitating the head of the states to virtually gather and set strategies about how to combat COVID challenges. On 15 March 2020, just after COVID started affecting millions in the region, India proposed before leaders to work together. In the video conference, South Asian heads of state emphasized on fund creation to mitigate the challenges. In the following month, SAARC health ministers joined in a video conference again and shared each country's experience of dealing with the COVID pandemic. They emphasized regional cooperation and solidarity in the years to come.
The COVID pandemic severely caused repercussions to the education sector. To learn one another’s experience about how to continue the education sector functioning, SAARC education ministers joined in a virtual meeting on 8 October 2020. SAARC secretary general emphasized SDG-4. Similarly, SAARC planning ministers also held virtual meetings to share their experience in COVID and SDG implementation. The ministers discussed to improve situations of poverty, food security, hunger, health, education, inequality and financing for sustainable development. SAARC nations are supposed to share best practices during COVID-19. In the SAARC repository, only the best practice of Maldives is available. This reflects the indifference of other nations towards regional cooperation.
19. Concluding Remarks
Since its establishment in 1985, the SAARC has aimed to enhance economic integration among all its member states, even though they have achieved few of their desired goals compared to some other regional organizations, such as the EU or ASEAN; regardless of having the geographical proximity, or common membership of WTO.
There remains another stumbling block in the SAARC Charter itself, which states, “Bilateral and contentious issues shall be excluded from the deliberations.” History reveals the most pressing issues in the region have often been excluded in the past on this ground, and unsurprisingly, they may also be excluded in the days to come. Moreover, due to the shaky political and economic ties among the nations, most of the SAARC countries try to pursue their expected goals bilaterally avoiding the common goals of the organization.
Thomas Thornton rightfully argued that the success of a regional organization depends significantly on the balanced relations among its members. Due to the lack of balance in power, in most cases, SAARC’s achievements are found only on paper. The performance and contribution of the organization during the first thirty years were praiseworthy. In the last eight years, the organization has done nothing impactful but rather performed minor ceremonial and symbolic functions. The failure to hold the summit during this period projects an indifferent approach of the member states towards strengthening SAARC.
In a region encompassing more than 1.7 billion population, the absence of an effective regional organization obstructs collective growth, complicates the life of commons, deteriorates tensions among neighbours, worsens bilateral relations and undermines progress. The role of BIMSTEC, although many consider an alternative to SAARC, is positive towards regional progress. The role of SAARC and its proactive contribution cannot be complemented by other organizations. SAARC still has the potential to emerge as an efficient and result-producing regional organization, which can be achieved by the common intentions, action plans, and effective implementations of all schemes and projects thereof.
See, for a more detailed discussion, Thomas Perry Thornton, Regional Organization in Conflict Management, 518 The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, (1991), p. l36.
20. Selected Bibliography
Books and Book Chapters
- Emanual Nahar, SAARC: Problems and Prospects, New Delhi, Sehgal Publishers Service, 1991.
- E. Sudhakar, SAARC: Origin, Growth and Future, New Delhi, Gyan Publishing House, 1994.
- S. N. Raghavan, Regional Economic Cooperation Among SAARC Countries, New Delhi, Allied Publishers Limited, 1995.
- Lawrence Saez, The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC): An emerging collaboration architecture, Routledge, 2011.
- Shahid Javed Burki, South Asia in the New World Order: The Role of Regional Cooperation, Routledge, 2011.
- M.H. Syed, Encyclopedia of SAARC Nations, New Delhi, Kalpaz Publications, 2012.
- Md. Rizwanul Islam, Economic Integration in South Asia: Charting a Legal Roadmap, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012.
- R. Sidda Goud, Manisha Mookherjee, India-Sri Lanka Relations Strengthening SAARC, New Delhi, Allied Publishers Private Limited, 2013.
- Pawan Kumar Singh, ASEAN, BRIC, SAARC and India, New Delhi, Maxford Books, 2013.
- Zahid Shahab Ahmed. Regionalism and regional security in South Asia: the role of SAARC. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2013.
- Wolf, S.O., Casaca, P., Flanagan, A.J., Rodrigues, C. (Eds.), The Merits of Regional Cooperation: The Case of South Asia, Springer, 2014.
- Srabani Roy Choudhury, Japan-SAARC Partnership: a Way Ahead, New Delhi, Pentagon Press, 2014.
- Emanual Nahar, Sheveta Sehgal, SAARC in Contemporary World: Issues and Concerns, New Delhi, Swastik Publications, 2014.
- Niharika Tiwari, Preferential trade agreements in South Asia and SAARC, New Delhi, Ruby Press & Co. 2014.
- Noman Haider, Radical regional cooperation: ASEAN and SAARC, New Delhi, Axis Books, 2014.
- Jyoti Shankar Singh, Political and Economic Development among SAARC countries, Patna, Janaki Prakashan, 2014.
- Ema Simha, Political and Economical Aspects of SAARC, New Delhi, Advance Learner Press, 2014
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