Comparative Civil Procedure: A Guide to Primary and Secondary Sources

By Radu D. Popa & Mirela Roznovschi

A Guide to worldwide Primary and Secondary Sources by Radu D. Popa, Assistant Dean & Director of the NYU Law Library,  with the assistance of Mirela Roznovschi, Reference Librarian for International and Foreign Law.

Published January 2009
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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

The comparison of legal systems has for a long time been an essential branch of legal research and jurisprudence. It has become even more important and relevant in our era of globalization, an era in which there is no field of law that can base its knowledge exclusively on national ideas and rules of procedure. Peter Gottwald sees the comparison of legal systems leading “not only to a better knowledge of foreign law but also corresponding to the internationalization of law and jurisprudence, and the globalization of politics, of trade, commerce and private life style.” (Comparative Civil Procedure. 22 Ritsumeikan Law Review, 23 (2005).

The first part of this guide lists: general works of comparative civil procedure; basic books about the civil and common law systems; and encyclopedias and treatises covering several jurisdictions. The remainder of the guide is arranged by country. Depending upon the country, the sources listed may be in English or in the vernacular (or both in some cases). Under “Primary Sources” are listed codes of civil procedure and civil procedure statutes and, for civil law jurisdictions, basic treatises and commentaries. Under “Secondary Sources” are listed monographs, treatises and commentaries (for common law jurisdictions), which may also contain the text of civil procedure code sections and statutes. The section on “Secondary Sources” also contains collected jurisprudence, as well as a few journals. In order to locate titles in particular libraries, it is advisable to search online library catalogs or, for an overall search, the WorldCat. WESTLAW and LEXIS-NEXIS are also recommended. Please refer to the online directories for each service to determine the exact dates covered by these databases. For WESTLAW, the database identifier is always given. For LEXIS-NEXIS, the Library name is given, followed by the File Name, as in this example: INTLAW–AUSLAW. (For LEXIS-NEXIS, where multiple Libraries–Files are given, they all contain the same database.)

There are also files maintained by Mirela Roznovschi. These files provide links to Civil Codes, Civil Procedure and Jurisprudence. The outline of this site is attached at the end of the guide. In addition, whenever a paper source has an electronic equivalent, the hot link has been added for instant access. Codes, commentaries, and basic treatises for jurisdictions using languages other than English are cited most of the time in the vernacular language of the country. News reports are an excellent source of information about recent developments in the law of other countries. Although they do not generally contain the text of a new law, they may note the circumstances of its adoption, summarize it, and provide a citation to a source leading to the full text.

To locate news reports and other current information, consult:

  • WESTLAW. To find the database identifiers for news wires from around the world, follow this path in the WESTLAW Main Directory: –Newspapers, Magazines, and News Services –News wires and News Services –International and Foreign News Services.
  • LEXIS-NEXIS. Choose an appropriate file from the NEWS or WORLD library.
  • To find citations to articles in law journals/reviews, consult especially these two databases: Index to Legal Periodicals and Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals.

2. General and Multinational Sources

ALI/UNIDROIT Principles and Rules of Transnational Civil Procedure: Proposed Final Draft (March 9, 2004). Philadelphia: American Law Institute, 2004. Rome: UNIDROIT, 2004. This is the final result of the previously four proposed drafts.

Abraham, Henry Julian. The Judicial Process: An Introductory Analysis of the Courts of the United States, England, and France. 7th edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. Still a very useful introductory comparative companion.

Abuse of procedural rights: comparative standards of procedural fairness, 27-30 October 1998, Tulane Law School, New Orleans, Louisiana. Edited by Michele Taruffo. Boston: Kluwer International, 1999.

Andenaes, Mads Tonnesson. The Future of Transnational Civil Litigation: English Responses to the ALI/UNIDROIT Draft Principles and Rules of Transnational Civil Procedure. London: British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 2004. The book expands upon papers given at a quolloquium organized in London by the British Institute of International and Comparative Law. Interesting pro and cons about the perspective of a unified transantional civil procedure.

Born, Gary. International Civil Litigation in United States Courts. 4th edition. Austin:Wolters Kluwer Law and Bussines, 2007. Touches on civil procedure and jurisdictional matters.

Care, Jennifer Corrin. Civil procedure of the South Pacific. Suva, Fiji: JALS, 1998.
Covers civil procedure in Oceania.

Cappelletti, M. The Judicial Process in Comparative Perspective. Oxford; New York: Clarendon Press, 1989. A classic in the field.

Civil Litigation in Comparative Context. Edited by Oscar Chase, Helen Hershkoff, Linda Silberman, Yasuhei Taniguchi, Vincenzo Varano, Adrian A. S. Zuckerman. St. Paul: Thomson/West, 2007. Law professors from four different nations (i.e. England, Italy, Japan, and the United States), collaborated on this book, which explains, explores, and evaluates major civil litigation systems in the contemporary world. Surprisingly enough, the differences among the civil procedure regimes around the world are often greater than those of substantive law. This is probably the most comprehensive and up-to-date scholarly work in the field, covering comparative structure of the legal profession, organization of the courts, rules of evidence as well as torts, remedies, enforcement of judgments and transnational litigation. It provides a very original and meaningfull approach of the harmonization of civil procedures prospects and perils.

Civil Justice in crisis: comparative perspectives of civil procedure. Ed. by A. S. Zuckermann. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Civil procedure and conflicts in transnational perspective.

Civil Procedure. M. Cappelletti, ed. Tubingen: Mohr; New York: Oceana, 1973-. International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, vol. XVI.

Consolo, Claudio. Nuovi Problemi di Diritto Processuale Civile Internazionale. Milano: Giuffre, 2002. Broad perspective on the conflicts of law in the Italian civil procedure, together with general considerations about the civil procedure in international law.

Corneloup, Sabine. La publicite des situations juridiques: une approche franco-allemande du droit interne et du droit international prive. Paris: L.D.G.J.: 2003. Doctoral thesis.

Damaska, M. The Faces of Justice and State Authority: A Comparative Approach to the Legal Process. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.

De Vries, H. and Schneider, G. Civil Law and the Anglo-American Lawyer: A Case-Illustrated Introduction to Civil Law Institutions and Method. Dobbs Ferry: Oceana, 1975.

Elias, T. O. Judicial Process in the New Commonwealth. Lagos: University of Lagos Press, 1990. One of the few books dedicated to the reception of common law in Asia and Africa, the judicial process in Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean Area.

Encyclopedia of International Commercial Litigation. London; Boston: Graham & Trotman; Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991-. Loose-leaf. Broad coverage of the commercial world, including Japan, but not Australia, South Africa, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore because of the similarity of their judicial systems and procedures to those of England and Wales.

Epstein, D. and Snyder, J. International Litigation: A Guide to Jurisdiction, Practice and Strategy. 2nd edition. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Law & Business, 1994-. Loose-leaf.
Updated service, especially useful for practitioners.

Essays on transnational and comparative civil procedure = Scritti sul diritto processuale civile transnazionale e comparato. Ed. by Federico Carpi and M. A. Lupoi. Torino: Giappichelli, 2001. In English and Italian.

European Private Law beyond the Common Frame of Reference: Essays in Honour of Reinhard Zimmermann. Ed. By Antoni Vaquare y Alloy. Groningen: Europa Law Publishers, 2008. High class Festshfricht.

Fairchild, E. Comparative Criminal Justice Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993. Focuses upon criminal law; but Chapter 2, Families of Law, introduces civil law, common law, socialist law, and Islamic law; and Chapter 9, Courts and Trials contains some information about civil courts.

Foreign Courts: Civil Litigation in Foreign Legal Cultures. Ed. by Volkmar Gessner. Brookfield: Darmouth, 1996. Valuable American, German, and Italian perspectives on cross-border litigation.

Gessner, Volkmar. Foreign Courts: Civil litigation in Foreign Legal Cultures. Aldershot, England: Darmouth, 1996. Very fine comparative essays covering New York, Italy and Germany.

Glendon, M. and Gordon, M. Comparative Legal Traditions: Text, Materials, and Cases on the Civil Law, Common Law, and Socialist Law Traditions with Special Reference to French, West German, English, and Soviet Law. 3d edition. St. Paul: West 2007. Very useful work, thoroughly updated.

Graveson, R. One Law: On Jurisprudence and the Unification of Law: Selected Essays, Volume II. Amsterdam; New York; Oxford: North-Holland Publishing Co., 1977. A classic work.

In Honorem Mauro Cappelletti (1927-2004): tribute to an international procedural lawyer. The Hague: Kluwer International, 2005. A festschrift honoring one of the most important scholars in the field. Six eminent scholars (MarcelStorme, NicoloThocker, Federico Campi, Sir Jack Jacob, Lawrence M. Friedman, and John Henry Merryman) focus on Cappelletti’s personality and analyse the significance of his scientific work. An unpublished lecture by Mauro Cappelletti and a selected bibliography close this book.

International civil procedure. Shelby R. Grubbs and P. M. North, Editors. The Hague: Kluwer International, 2003.

International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law. Vo. 16: Civil Procedure. Ed. By Mauro Cappelletti. Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1973-. This is a monumental work and a must in any comparative approach.

International Judicial Assistance in Civil Matters. Ed. by Dennis Campbell. Ardsley, N.Y.: Transnational Publishers, 1999. Civil procedure and conflicts in international law. Country by country approach.

Kodilinye, Gilbert. Commonwealth Caribbean Civil Procedure. London: Cavendish Pub., 1999.

Kreindler, Richard H. Transantional Litigation: a Basic Primer. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana Publications, 1998. Deals mainly with conflicts and civil procedure in international law.

Kropholler, J. Europaisches Zivilprozessrecht: Kommentar zum EuGVU und Lugano-Ubereinkomen. Schriftenreihe Recht der internationalen Wirtschaft, bd. 22. Heidelberg: Verlagsgesellschaft Recht und Wirtschaft, 2002. Discusses Germany and the European Community. This 6th edition incorporates all the developments after the Lugano Convention.

Law and Judicial Systems of Nations. 4th revised edition. C. Rhyne, ed. Washington, D.C.: World Peace through Law Center, 2002. Covers more than 100 nations in a handy, compact format.

Law and Legal Culture in Comparative Perspective. Edited by Gunther Doeker-Mach and Klaus A. Ziegert. Stuttgart: Steiner, 2004, Brillinat collected work.

Law and Reality: Essays on National and International Procedural Law in Honour of Cornelis Carel Albert Voskuil. Dordrecht; Boston: M. Nijhoff, 1992. Comprehensive festschrift featuring essays by great authors in the field.

Lawson, F. A Common Lawyer Looks at the Civil Law. The Thomas M. Cooley Lectures, Fifth Series. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Law School, 1953. A classic.

The Legal Professions in the New Europe: A Handbook for Practitioners. A. Tyrrell and Z. Yaqub, eds. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1996. 2nd edition. An introduction to the legal profession in the member states of the European Community and to the relevant Community law. Also addresses U.S. lawyers in Europe.

Legal Traditions and Systems: An International Handbook. A. Katz, Ed. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. Africa; Benelux Nations; Canada; Australia and New Zealand; Eastern Europe; Federal Republic of Germany; France; India, Pakistan and Bangladesh; Italy; Japan; Latin America; Middle East; People’s Republic of China; Scandinavia; Southeast Asia; Soviet Union; Spain; United Kingdom; United States.

Lowenfeld, Andreas F. International litigation and arbitration: selected treaties, statutes and rules. 3d ed. St. Paul, Minn.: West Group, 2006. A classic coming from a great scholar in the field.

Lowenfeld, Andreas F. International Litigation and the Quest for reasonableness: essays in private international law. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Merryman, J.H. The Civil Law Tradition: An Introduction to the Legal
Systems of Western Europe and Latin America. 2nd ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985. A classic book.

Modern Legal Systems Cyclopaedia. K.R. Redden, ed. Buffalo: Hein, 1984-. Loose-leaf. Arranged by regions of the world, then country-by-country.

Platto, Charles, ed. Trial and Court Procedures Worldwide. London; Boston: Graham & Trotman, 1991. Covers briefly Asia and South Pacific, Europe, UK, North and South America.

Platto, Charles, ed. Civil Appeal Procedures Worldwide. London; Boston: Graham & Trotman, 1992. More than 25 jurisdictions are briefly covered.

Rayroux, Francois. Amerikanisches Civil Jury Trial und Antitrust-, Products Liability – und Derivative Suits: vergleichende Aspekte. Zurich: Schulthess, 1994. Comparative approach involving civil procedure rules in American and Swiss law.

Reinmann, Mathias. The Reception of Continental Ideas in the Common Law World, 1820-1920. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 1993. Excellent analysis of the intellectual turmoil in the field, covering the most important century of the modern world. A source not to be missed by any scholar.

Reforming the Civil Justice System. Ed. by Larry Kramer. New York: New York University Press, 1996. Collected papers presented as part of the Institute of Judicial Administration’s Research Conference on Civil Justice Reform in the 90th, held in New York, October 1993.

Ruiter, D. W. P. Legal Institutions. Dordrecht; Boston: Kluwer Academic Press, 2001. Doctrinal, methodological, and philosophical approach.

Silva Silva, Jorge Alberto. Derecho internacional sobre el processo: processo civil y commercial. Mexico: McGraw-Hill, 1997. Conflicts and civil procedure in transnational context.

Snijders, H. And Boer, M. Access to Civil Procedure Abroad. Munchen: Beck; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1996. Emphasis on the European Union countries.

Stein, P. Legal Institutions: The Development of Dispute Settlements.  London: Butterworths, 1984.

Stein, P. I fondamenti del diritto europeo: profili sostanziali e processuali dell’evoluzione dei sistemi giuridici. A cura di Anna De Vita, Maria Donata Panforti e Vincenzo Varano. Milano: Giuffre, 1995. This is the Italian version of the previous entry, revised and updated.

Steinhardt, Ralph G. International litigation: cases and materials on the rise of intermestic law. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis, 2002. Very original, interesting approach emphasizing the merger of international and domestic law (intermestic).

Toward Comparative Law in the 21st Century. Ed. By Nihon Hikakyho Kenkyujo. Tokyo: Chuo University Press, 1998. This is a very fine collection of essays and analytical essays compiled for the 50th anniversary of the Instituteof Comparative Law in Japan. Conreibutions in English, French, German, and Japanese.

Transnational Aspects of Civil Procedure. Texts in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish. World Law Conference. Law in Motion: Recent Developments in Civil Procedure, Constitutional, Contract, Environmental, Family & Succession, Intellectual Property, Labour, Medical, Social Security, Transport Law. The Hague; Cambridge: Kluwer Law International, 1997.

Transnational Litigation: a Practitioner’s Guide. Ed. by Richard H. Kreindler. Loose-leaf. Dobbs Ferry: Oceana Publications, 1997-. Up-to-date practitioner’s guide covering transnational civil procedure.

Trends in the Enforcement of Non-Money Judgments and Orders: The First International Colloquium on the Law of Civil Procedure, June 1985, Faculty of Law, University of Lund. Deventer, Netherlands; Boston: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1988.

Unity of Civil Procedural Law and Its National Divergences. International Symposium of Civil Procedural Law, 1993, Lubin, Poland. Lubin: Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 1994.

Varano, Vincenzo. Comparative Law Course, Fall 1994: Cases and Materials. [S.l.]: [S.n.], 1994. Collected materials for the class offered in the NYU School of Law Global program.

Vareilles-Sommieres, Pascal de. Forum Shopping in the European Judicial Area. Oxford; Portland: Hart Publishers, 2007. Extremely important opinions about a new phenomenon within the rules of Civil Procedure in the European Union.

Von Mehren, A.T. Law in the United States: A General and Comparative View. Deventer: Kluwer, 1988. A classic.

Von Mehren, A.T. The Civil Law System: Cases and Materials for the Comparative Study of Law. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1957. Another classic.

Von Mehren, A.T. The Civil Law System: An Introduction to the Comparative Study of Law. 2nd ed. Boston: Little, Brown, 1977.

Walter, Gerhard. International Litigation: Past Experiences and Future Perspectives. Bruxelles: Bruylant, 2000. Civil procedure and unification of civil law in the European Union countries.

Weintraub, Russel J. International litigation and arbitration: practice and planning. 3rd ed. Durham, N.C.: Carolina academic Press, 2001. Cases and materials in the field of civil procedure, jurisdiction in international law, and arbitration.

Zimmerman, Reinhard and Mathias Reinman. The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Quite unique encyclopedia of comparative law, with special emphasis on civil law and procedure, private law, and comparative legal cultures.

3. National Codes, Statutes and Commentaries

Civil Procedure has traditionally been governed by lex fori (the law of the state where the proceedings take place). Therefore, primary and secondary sources for this subject should be researched by jurisdiction. The comparative dimension is implicit in this approach. But there are also, especially lately, more and more explicit works of comparative civil procedure. It is true that, for a long period of time, we witnessed resistence against such works. Some scholars claimed that the character of lex fori or lois politiques is not transferable from one country to another. The attempt to use foreign procedural models would have been, then, a misuse of comparative law. As Gottwald (loc. Cit, p. 24) very well notices: “If this opinion were true civil procedure would be the only branch of law not open for comparative studies. Just the opposite is true. Since 1950 twelve World Congresses of Procedural Law were organized dealing with nearly all essential subjects and problems of procedural law”.

The best source for a substantial outline of more than twenty jurisdictions is:

International Encyclopaedia of Laws. Civil Procedure. Ed. by Paul Lemmens. Deventer: Kluwer Law and Taxation, 1994-. Loose-leaf. 4 volumes. So far the following countries are covered: Australia, Austria, Canada, P.R. of China, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Kenya, Lithuania, Morocco, Peru, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Uruguay, U.S.A., and Venezuela. For each country the authors use a slightly similar structure: delimitation of the subject mater, sources of civil procedure law, judicial organization, the legal profession, the courts, jurisdiction, proceedings, evidence, enforcement of judgments, and arbitration. For each monographic study there is a bibliography and an index. Updating is done when needed (i.e., when critical changes occur).

Another valuable source, especially from the bibliographic viewpoint, is: Foreign Law: current sources of codes and basic legislation in jurisdictions of the world. Edited by Tom Reynolds and Arthuro Flores. Loose-leaf. Littleton, Colo.: Rothman, 1989-. The service is updated when needed and covers the following regions and jurisdictions: Andean Community, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Canada, Caribbean, Cayman Island, Central America, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Islands, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Latin America, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Cristopher-Nevis (St. Kitts), St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Surinam, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Uruguay, and Venezuela (in volume I). Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Belarus, Bulgaria, Channel Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, European Union, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guernsey, Hungary, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia (in volumes II, II-A, and II-B). Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, People’s Republic, Cote d’Ivoire, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somali Republic, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe (in volume III). Afghanistan,, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, China People’s Republic, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Republic of (South Korea), Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Tuvalu, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Vietnam (in volume II-A). The service can be used for updating information, as there is also an online version. Civil Procedure topics are covered for each country under the following headings: Civil Procedure, Administration of Justice, Evidence, and Conflict of Laws. The authors provide citation to codes, official gazettes, statutory instruments, and regulatory material, in the vernacular and, when available, in English or French translations.

3.1. Argentina

Primary Sources

Codigo de prociedimento civil y commercial anotado con jurisprudencia. Buenos Aires: Errapar, 2004.

Commentario al Codigo procesal civil y comercial de la nacion y leyes complementarias. Buenos Aires: Abeledo-Perrot, 1998. 2 volumes. Commentaries by Enrique M. Falcon.

Secondary Sources

De Santo, V. El Proceso Civil. 3 vols. Buenos Aires: Editorial Universidad, 1982-. Updated 1984.

Frondizi, Roman Julio. La sentencia civil: tema y variaciones. La Plata: Libreria Editorial Platense, 1994.  Civil Judgments in Argentina.

Morello, Augusto Mario. Lectura procesal de temas sustanciales. La Plata: Libreria Editora Platense, 2000.

3.2. Australia

Primary Sources

Australian Current Law. Legislation. Monthly with annual updates. Butterworths, 1991-.


Secondary Sources

Cairns, Bernard. Australian Civil Procedure. 7th ed. North Ryde, NSW: LBC Information Services, 2007.

Expert Evidence: Law, Practice, Procedure, and Advocacy. 3rd. ed. Ian R Freckelton and Hugh Selby, Editors. Pyrmont, Lawbook Co., 2005

3.3. Austria

Primary Sources

Das Osterreichische Recht. Wien: Osterreichischer Gewerbeverlag, 1948-. Loose-leaf. 9 volumes. Official compilation of Austrian law. Monthly updates.

Fine Kommentar. Zivilgerichtliches Verfahren. Wien: Orac, 2000.
Forms and commentaries in Execution (Law) and Bankruptcy.

Rechberger, Walter Hans. Grundriss des osterreichischen Zivilprozessrechts: Erkenntnisverfahren. 6, erg. Aufl. Wien: Manz, 2003.

Zivilprozessgesetze: EGJN, JN, EGZPO, ZPO, MRK, B-VG, Nebengesetze. Wien: Manz, 1998. Illustrates the law as per January 20 1998.

Zivilgerichtliches Verfahren. Wien, Orac: 1983-. („Kodex des osterreichischen Rechts“). Published by LexisNexis from 2005 on.

3.4. Belgium

Primary Sources

Les Codes Belges. 33e ed. Bruxelles: Etablissements Emile Bruylant, 1975-. Looseleaf.
Vol. 1, Code Judiciaire, part 4: De la procédure civile. Updated three times a year.

Code judiciare: principales conventions internationals en matière de procedure civile et dispositions de droit judiciare contenues dans des texts particuliers. 3e ed. Alphonse Kohl et Guy Block, éditeurs. Bruxelles: Bruylant, 2000.

Secondary Sources

Fettweiss, A. Manuel de procédure civile. 2e ed. Liège: Faculté de droit de Liège, 1987.

Traité élémentaire de droit judiciaire privé. La procédure civile. Ed. By Pierre Rouard. Bruxelles: Bruylant, 1973-. Annual.

3.5. Brazil

Primary Sources

Codigo de processo civil interpretado. Antonio Carlos Marcato, coordinator. Sao Paolo: Editora Atlas, 2005.

Secondary Sources

Komatsu, Roque. Da invalidade no processo civil. Sao Paolo: Revista dos Tribunais, 1991. Nullity in Brazilian civil procedure.

3.6. Canada

Primary Sources

Acts of the Parliament of Canada. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer and Controller of Stationary, 1951-.

Revised Statutes of Canada, 1985. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer for Canada, 1985. Updated by supplements.

Canadian Current Law. Legislation. Agincourt, Ont.: Carswell Legal Publications, 1990-.
Eight times a year with annual cumulation.

LEXIS. CANADA–CANLEG. CODES–CANLEG. INTLAW–CANLEG. Consolidated statutes and consolidated regulations in the same file. They are also available as separate files: CANADA–CANSTA. CODES–CANSTA. INTLAW–CANSTA. CANADA–CANREG. CODES–CANREG. INTLAW–CANREG.

Secondary Sources

Abrams, Linda and Kevin P. McGuinness. Canadian Civil Procedure Law. Markham, Ont.: LexisNexis, 2008.

Advocate’s Quarterly (“A Canadian journal for the practitioners of civil litigation”). Agincourt, Ont.: Canada Law Book, 1977- Quarterly.

The Canadian Institute’s 2nd annual advanced forum on civil procedure & evidence. Toronto: Canadian Institute (1985- ). This is an irregular publication by the well-respected Canadian Institute

Civil Courts in Canada. Ottawa: Ministery of Supply and Services Canada, 1985. Text in English and French.

The Civil Litigation Process: Cases and Materials. Ed. by Janet Walker and Garry D. Watson. 6th edition. Toronto: Edmond Montgomery Publications, 2005.

Preparation and Presentation of a Civil Action. Ed. by Roger E Salhany. Toronto: Butterworths, 2000.

Gall, G. The Canadian Legal System. 4th edition. Toronto: Carswell, 2004.

Van Kessel, Robert J. Summary Judgements and dispositions before trial. Toronto: Butterworths, 2002.

  • Alberta

Primary Sources


  • British Columbia

Primary Sources

LEXIS. CANADA–BCLEG. CODES–BCLEG. INTLAW–BCLEG. Consolidated statutes with the regulations in the same file. They are also available as separate files: CANADA–BCSTA. CODES–BCSTA. INTLAW–BCSTA. CANADA–BCREG. CODES–BCREG. INTLAW–BCREG.

  • Ontario

Primary Sources

LEXIS. CANADA–ONTLEG. CODES–ONTLEG. INTLAW–ONTLEG. Consolidated statutes and consolidated regulations in the same file. They are also available as separate files: CANADA–ONTSTA. CODES–ONTSTA. INTLAW–ONTSTA. CANADA–ONTREG. CODES–ONTREG. INTLAW–ONTREG.

Secondary Sources

Ontario Civil Practice 199-. Toronto, Ontario: Carswell, 1990-. Annual. Contains text of Courts of Justice Act, Rules and Forms, in addition to commentary and case notes.

  • Quebéc

Primary Sources

Code de Procédure Civile de Québec. Montreal: Wilson & Lafleur, 1985-. Loose-leaf. Text in French and English.

Code de Procédure Civile=Code of Civil Procedure. Cowansville, Quebec: Editions Y. Blais, 1997-. Text in French and English. Supplements updating the main volume.

Code de Procédure Civile=Code of Civil Procedure, Montréal: Editions Themis, 1990-. Bilingual. Annual.

Civil Code of Québec. Québec: Québec Official Publisher, 1991. Book Seven, Evidence, sec. 2803-. Book Ten, Private International Law, sec. 3076-.

3.7. Central and Eastern Europe

Primary Sources

Central and Eastern European Legal Materials. Ed. By V. Pechota. Ardsley-on-Hudson, NY: Transnational Juris Publications, 1990-. Loose-leaf. Covers all the former socialist republics. Fine English translations of legislation in force.

WESTLAW. INT-EEURROPE. Selected commercial laws and regulations (in English).

LEXIS. INTLAW has country by country coverage. Not always full text of laws is available.

3.8. Chile

Primary Sources

Codigo de procedimiento civil. 7th edition. Santiago: LexisNexis 2007. Official edition approved by the Ministry of Justice, with index and jurisprudence.

Secondary Source

Diaz Uribe, Claudio. Curso de derecho procesal civil. Santiago: Editorial ConoSur: LexisNexis, 2004. Two volumes.

Schopf, Adrián.; García, William. La responsabilidad extracontractual en la jurisprudencia. Santiago: Lexis Nexis, 2007.

3.9. Czech Republic

Primary Sources

Civil Procedure Code = Obcansky soudni rad. Prague: Trade Links, 1999. Bilingual edition.

Obcansky soudni rad: pravni stav k 1. Lednu 2001. Praha: Beck, 2000. Text in Czech.

3.10. Denmark

Primary Sources

Denmark Karnovs lovsamling. København : Karnov, 1978- . This is the official running compilation of Danish Laws and Codes.

Secondary Sources

Gomard, Bernhard. Civilprocessen. Kobenhavn: Gad Jura, 2000. Fifth edition of a much respected Danish book covering all the aspects of the law on civil procedure and the courts.

Schultz-Lorentzen, Nina. Civilret. 6th ed. Copenhagen: Greens Jura, 2002. In Danish. Special emphasis on Damages and Contracts.

Werlauff, Erik. Civil Procedure in Denmark. Copenhagen: DJOF; Norwell: Kluwer International, 2001. This book has been originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws.

3.11. Ecuador

Primary Sources

Codigo de procedimiento civil: legislacion conexa. 7ma ed. Quito: Corporacion de Estudios y Publicaciones, 2001

Secondary Sources

Troya Cevallos, J.A. Elementos de derecho procesal civil: doctrina, legislacion y jurisprudencia ecuatorianas, legislacion comparada. 2 vols. Quito: Universidad Catolica, 1978.

3.12. El Salvador

Primary Sources

Codigo civil; Codigo de procedimientos civiles. San Salvador: Editorial Lis, 2001. Updated by supplements.

Recopilacion de leyes civiles: Constitucion, Codigos de familia, civil, procedimientos civiles, Ley procesal de familia, leyes notariales y leyes afines. 19a ed. San Salvador: Editorial Juridica Salvadoreana, 2001.

3.13. European Union

Primary Sources

Depository libraries for EC/EU materials receive the Official Journal, L and C Series, the COM documents, and other print and Internet resources.

LEXIS. EURCOM–JOCE. Journal officiel in French.

EURCOM–LEGIS. Legislation from the official CELEX database.

EURCOM–PREP. Preparatory legislative texts, etc.

EURCOM–ECLAW. Combines LEGIS, PREP and other files.

Butterworths European Court Practice. London Butterworths, 1993.

Contentieux Communautaire. Jean Boulois et al. Editors. Paris: Dalloz, 2001.

European Civil Practice. A. Layton and Hugh Mercer, General Editors. 2nd ed. London: Thomson/Sweet & Maxwell, 2004. Excellent source with commentaries including the Brussels-Lugano regime.

Secondary Sources

Cumming, George. Civil Procedure Used for Enforcement of EC Competition Law by English, French and German Courts. Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer International, 2007. Very comprehensive and compact.

Delicostopoulos, Ioannis S. Le procés civil à l’épreuve du droit processuel européen. Paris: L.G.D.J., 2003. Doctoral thesis.

Diritto privato europeo e categorie civilistiche. Ed. by Nicolo Lipari. Napoli: Edizioni scientifiche italiane, 1998.

Edel, Frederic. The Length of Civil and Criminal Proceedings in the Case-Law of the European Court of Human Rights. 2nd ed. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publications, 2007.

European Traditions in Civil Procedure. Ed. By C. H. van Rhee. Antwerpen: Intersentia, 2005. Explores the main trends in several European jurisdictions during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Grolimund, Pascal. Drittstaatenproblematik des europaischen Zivilverfahrensrechts. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2000.

International Litigation Procedure. London: The European Law Centre at Sweet & Maxwell, 1990-. Six times a year.

Lipari, Nicolo. Diritto privato europeo. Padova: CEDAM, 1997. 2 vols. Proceedings of a conference held in Rome, May 9-10, 1997.

Rapprochement du droit judiciare de l’Union européenne/Approximation of Judiciary in the European Union. Ed. By Storme, Michael and Huss, A. Dordrecht; Boston: M. Nijhoff, 1994.

Snijders, Henricus Joseph and Margreet de Boer. Acces to civil procedure abroad. Munchen: C. H. Beck; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1996.

Tylor, Tim. European litigation handbook. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1995.

3.14. France

Primary Sources

Code de procédure civile 2005. Paris: Litec, 2004.

Les formules Dalloz, procédure civile. Paris: Dalloz, 1996-. Rev. ed. of Formulaire de procédure civile. 1983-1994. Official forms in loose-leaf format.

Nouveau code de procédure civile: Code de procédure civile, Code de l’organisation judiciare, voies d’execution. 93e ed. Paris: Dalloz, 2001. Irregular. Text of the code, jurisprudence, and annotations by Serge Guinchard.

Couchez, Gerard. Procédure civile. 11e ed. rev. Paris: Dalloz, 2000.

Repertoire de procédure civile. 2e ed. Paris: Dalloz, 1978-. Loose-leaf.

The French Code of Civil Procedure in English. Dobbs Ferry: Oceana, 2004-. Unique running edition of the French Code of Civil Proceeding in English. Annual.

Journal officiel beginning with Dec. 1955 (in French).

All of the Codes officiels as published in the Journal officiel (in French).

Secondary Sources

Bléry, Corinne. L’efficacité substantielle des jugements civils. Paris: L.G.D.J., 2000. Civil judgments in France.

Bore, Jacques et Louis Bore. La cassation en matière civile. 3e ed. Paris: Dalloz, 2003. Detailed, thorough approach of apellate procedure in France.

Dadomo, C. and Farran, S. The French Legal System. 2nd edition. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1996.

David, R. and de Vries, H. The French Legal System: An Introduction to Civil Law Systems. New York: Oceana, 1958. Classic work.

Doing Business in France. New York: Matthew Bender, 1983-. Loose-leaf. Chapter 19: Dispute Settlement (courts and arbitration).

Droit judiciaire privé. 4th ed. Paris: LexisNexis/Litec, 2004. Conflicts and distribution of justice in France.

Droit et pratique de la cassation en matière civile. 2ème ed. Paris: Litec, 2003. This is a very practical approach of the appellate procedure in France.

Droit et pratique de la procédure civile. 3d ed. Serge Guinchard, Ed. Paris: Dalloz, 2002. Law and practice in civil procedure, by one of the most respected French specialists.

Gallet, Jean-Louis. La procédure civile devant la cour d’appel. Paris: Litec, 2003. Practical approach in a series dedicated to the law firms.

La Procédure en tous ses états: mélanges en l’honneur de Jean Buffet. Paris: Petites affiches, 2004. This Festchrift contains reamarkable treatises on several aspects of the French civil procedure.

Larguier, Jean. Procédure civile: droit judiciaire privé. 17e ed. Paris; Dalloz, 2000. Outline of French civil procedure in conflict of laws.

Lefort, Cristophe. Procédure civile. 2nd ed. Paris: Dalloz, 2007. Excellent manual in the series Cours Dalloz.

Perrot, R. Institutions judiciaires. 3d ed. Paris: Montchrestien, 1989.

Pinsseau, H. L’Organisation judiciaire de la France. Paris: Documentation Francaise, 1985.

Vincent, J., et al. La Justice et ses institutions. 4th ed. Paris: Dalloz, 1996.

3.15. Germany

Primary Sources

The German Code Commercial Code & Code of Civil Procedure, in English. Translated from German by Charles E. Stewart. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 2001.

Albers, Jan (Baumbach, Adolf et al.). Zivilprozessordnung: mit Gerrichtsverfassungsgesetz und anderen Nebengesetzen. 61 Aufl. Munchen: Beck (Beck’sche Kurz-Kommentare). Annual.

Musialek, Hans-Joachim. Grundkurs ZPO: eine Darstellung zur Vermittlung von Grundlagenwissen im Zivilprozessrecht. 5., neubearbeite Aufl. Munchen: Beck, 2000. Handy textbook.

Paulus, Cristoph G. Zivilprozessrecht: Erkenntnisverfahren und Zwangsvollstreckung. 2., aktualisierte Aufl. Berlin; New York: Springer Verlag, 2000.

Stein – Jonas. Kommentar zur Zivilprozessordnung. 20 Aufl. Tubingen: Mohr, 1977-. 10 vols. Set completed in 1993. Includes full text of the German Code of Civil Procedure.

Secondary Sources

Archiv fur die civilistische Praxis. Tubingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1818-. Six issues a year.

Baur, F. and Walter, G. Einfuhrung in das Recht der Bundesrepublik  Deutschland. 6 Auflage. Munchen: C. H. Beck, 1992.

Einführung in das Zivilrecht : einschliesslich BGB – allgemeiner Teil / von Dieter Schwab. Heidelberg : C.F. Müller Jur. Verlag, 1997. Good introductory work.

Entscheidungen des Bundesgerichtshofes in Zivilsachen. Koln: C. Heymann, 1991-. Updated annualy (three volumes per year). Case law.

Goebel, Joachim. Rechtssprache un kreativer Dissens. Berlin: Dunker & Humblot, 2001. Emphasis on Discovery in the German Civil Procedure.

Fraga Novelle, Ana Maria. Die Wirkungen der Beschlusse im Zivilprozesstrecht. Berlin: Dunker & Humblot, 2000. Doctoral thesis focusing on Judgments.

Graef, Ralph Oliver. Judicial Activism in Civil Proceedings: A Comparison between English and German Civil Procedural Approaches. Sinzheim: Pro Universitate Verlag, 1996.

Jauernig, Othmar. Zivilprozessrecht: ein Studienbuch. 24 Aufl. Munchen: Beck, 2003.

Murray, Peter L. German Civil Justice. Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2004. The book is intended to be an entry-level treatise for English-speakers law academics, students, and lawyers.

Koch, Harald. Civil Procedure in Germany. Munchen: Beck; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1998. Compact, handy introduction to the German Civil Procedure.

Rutzel, Stefan. Commercial Dispute Resolution in Germany: Litigation, Arbitration, Mediation. Munchen: Beck, 2005. Published in the series German Law Accessible, the volumeincludes excerpts of the Code of civil procedure, the Judicature Act, and the Acts of the Implementation of the Hague Conventions. Statutory and regulatory materials are in German and English, in parallel columns.

Zeitschrift fur Zivilprozessrecht. Koln: Heymann, 1950-. Quarterly.

3.16. Great Britain

Primary Sources

Civil Procedure rules: practice directions, pre-action protocols and forms. London: The Stationery Office, 2000-. Loose-leaf. 3 volumes + 1 computer optical disc.

The Civil Court Practice. London: Butterworths, 1999-. Annual volume kept up to date between editions by supplements and volumes of forms. Also known as “Green book”.

Civil Procedure: the civil procedure rules, 1999. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1999. “A White Book Service”.

Halsbury’s Laws of England: Current Service. London: Butterworths, 1973-. Loose-leaf updated by monthly supplements.

The Supreme Court Practice. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1994-. Main volumes and cumulative supplements.

A companian to this service is: Civil Procedure. Forms volumes. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2002-

LEXIS. ENGGEN–STATIS. UK–STATIS. CODES–UKCODE. INTLAW–ENGLAW Current General Public Acts and Statutory Instruments of England and Wales.

Secondary Sources

Andrews, Neil. English Civil Procedure: Fundamentals of the New Civil Justice System. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Very comprehensive, up-to-date approach. Covers England and Wales.

Clore, Johnatan. Civil Litigation. (London Guildhall-Cavendish legal practice course companion). London: Cavendish, 1998.

Foskett, David. Settlement Under the Civil Procedure Rules. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1999. Handbook.

Goulding, Simon. Odgers on Civil Court Actions. 24th edition. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1996. (This is a revised edition of Odgers on High Court Pleading and Practice).

Grainger, Ian et al. The civil procedure rules in action. 2nd ed. London: Cavendish Pub., 2000.

Greene, David. The new civil procedure rules. London: Butterworths, 1999.

Hall, Robert et al. A Practical Guide to Civil Litigation. 2nd ed. Bristol: Jordans, 2005. Main focus on actions and defenses.

Halsbury’s Laws of England. 4th edition. Kept up to date by current service bulletins and cumulative supplements. Legal encyclopedia. London: Butterworths, 1974-

Jacob, J.I.H. The Fabric of English Civil Justice. London: Stevens& Sons, 1987.

Jolowicz, J. A. On Civil Procedure. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Martin Partington. An introduction to the English legal system. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000 (Chapters on civil procedure in the High Court).

O’Hare, John. Civil Litigation. 13th ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2007. Focus on action and defenses.

The Reform of Civil Procedure: Essays on “Access to Justice”. Ed. by A. Zuckermann and R. Cranston, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Sime, Stuart. A Practical Approach to Civil Procedure. 8th edition. London: Blackstone, 2005.

Zander, Michael. Cases and Materials on the English Legal System. 6th  edition. London: Weindelfeld and Nicolson, 1992.

Zuckerman, A. Civil Procedure. London: LexisNexis, 2003.

Zuckerman, A. Zuckerman on Civil Procedure : Principles of Practice. 2nd ed. London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2006.

3.17. Hong Kong

Primary Sources

Halsbury’s Laws of Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Butterworths, 1995-. Updated annually. Volume 5 contains the Code of Civil Procedure. Volum 5 deals with the organization of the court, the court system, and conflicts of laws.

Hong Kong Civil Procedure. Annual. Hong Kong: Sweet & Maxwell Asia, 2007-. Updated by Cummulative supplements and the Hong Kong Civil Procedure News.

Secondary Sources

Cameron, Camille.  Principles and practice of civil procedure in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Sweet & Maxwell Asia, 2001.

Camperell-Moffat, Audrey. Magistrate’s Court Manual. Hong Kong: Sweet & Maxwell Asia, 2003

Civil Justice Reform: Fianl Report. Hong Kong: Governmental Logistics Department, 2004. Elaborated by the Chef Justice’s Working Party on Civil Justice Reform, this 2 volume collection of documents is a very valuable resource.

Rapinet, Crispin. Civil litigation. 3rd ed. Hong Kong: Sweet & Maxwell Asia, 2002.

Wilkinson, Michael. The Student Guide to Civil Procedure in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: LexisNexis, 2002.

3.18. India

Primary Sources

Current Indian Statutes. Chandigarh: Punjab Law Reporter, 1948-. Annual. 

Secondary Sources

Bakshi, P. M. Mulla on the Code of Civil Procedure: Act V of 1908. 15th ed. Bombay: Tripathi, 1995-1997. Very fine Commentary in three volumes with a Supplement from 1999.

Dembowsky, Hans. Taking the State to Court. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Deals mainly with civil procedure in the field of citizen suits.

3.19. Israel

Primary Sources

Civil Law Procedure Regulations: 5744-1984. 7th ed. Haifa: A.G. Publications, 2005.

Secondary Sources

Class Actions: Procedural regulations and Law Provisions Excerpted from Specific Enactmens. Haifa: A. G. Publications, 1997.

3.20. Italy

Primary Sources

Beltramo, M. The Italian Civil Code and complementary legislation . New revised edition. Oceana, 1991. 2 vols. Loose-leaf. Booklet 6: Evidence.

Codice di procedura civile. 2a ed. Milano: Giufrre, 2000.

Codice di procedura civile: annotato con la giurisprudenza. Giovanni Novelli; Stefano Petitti, editori. 2a ed. aggiornata al 14 maggio 2003. Milano: Giuffre, 2003.

Codice di procedura civile e norme complementari. Elio Fazzalari; Luiso Francesco Paolo, editori. 8a ed. aggiornata al 1 Luglio 2001. Milano: Giuffre, 2001.

Codice di procedura civile: con il commento della giurisprudenza della Cassazione: aggiornamento legislativo al 10 ottobre 2000, aggiornamento giurisprudenziale al maggio 2005. 14a ed. Ed. Mario Battaglini. Milano: Giuffre, 2005.

Codice di procedura civile: annotato con la giurisprudenza. Ed. Franco Cipriani and Giampiero Balena. Napoli: Edizioni scientifiche italiane, 1999.

Formulario annotato del codice di procedura civile. Sergio Menchini;  Nappi Pasquali;  Donatella Bonauiuti;  Alessio Zaccaria;  Giorgio Cian;  Alberto Trabucchi, Editori. 3a ed. Padova: Cedam, 2004.

Le leggi complementari al Codice di procedura civile: annotate con la giurisprudenza. 3a ed. Ed. by Mario Battaglini and Stefano Petitti. Milano: Giuffre: 2006.

Mandrioli, Crisanto. Diritto processuale civile. 14a ed. 4 volumes. Torino: Giappichelli, 2002.

Montesano, Luigi. Trattato di diritto processuale civile. Padova: CEDAM, 2001-. Essential treatise, multi-volume set covering all the aspects of civil procedure in Italy.

Satta, Salvatore. Diritto processuale civile. Ed. by Carmine Punzi. Appendice di aggiornamento alla13a ed. Padova: CEDAM, 2007. A classic Italian textbook.

Trabucchi, Alberto. Istituzioni di diritto civile. 40a ed. Aggiornata con le riforme e la giurisprudenza. Padova: CEDAM, 2001.

Secondary Sources

Amirante, Francesco. La cassazione civile. 2 volumes. Torino: UTET, 1998. Civil procedures practice of the Italian highest court.

Barreca, Lino. La pubblica amministrazione parte nel processo civile: manuale teorico pratico del processo civile di cognizione in cui e parte la  P. A. Milano: Giuffre, 1994.

Bellagamba, Gianni. I procedimenti cautelari e possessori: rassegna della giurisprudenza sulla nuova disciplina. 2a ed. Milano: Giuffre, 1999.

Caretti, Paolo, and Ugo De Siervo. Istituzioni di diritto pubblico. 3a ed. Torino: G. Giappichelli, 1996.

Cappelletti, M. and Perillo, J. Civil Procedure in Italy. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1965. A classic in the field.

Cappelletti, M., Merryman, J. and Perillo, J. The Italian Legal System: An  Introduction. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1967. Like the previous, this is an excellent book for the English speaker.

Caputo, Eduardo. La nuova normativa sul processo civile: commenti agli  articoli del codice modificati dalle leggi 353/90 e 374/91. 3.ed. Padova: CEDAM, 2000.

Carpi, Federico et al. Commentario breve al Codice di procedura civile. 6a ed. Padova: CEDAM, 2006.

Certoma, G.L. The Italian Legal System. London: Butterworths, 1985. Chapter 6: The Resolution of Disputes: Civil, Criminal, and Administrative Procedure.

Comoglio, Luigi Paolo et al. Lezioni sul processo civile. Bologna: Mulino, 2000. Comprehensive two volume set.

Consolo, Claudio. Nuovi problemi di diritto processuale civile internazionale. Milano: Giuffre, 2002.

Consolo, Claudio et al. Commentario alla riforma del processo civile.  Milano: Giuffre, 1996.

De Stefano, Franco. L’istruzione della causa nel nuovo processo civile. Padova: CEDAM, 1999.

Giarrusso, Sabino. Manuale pratico del giudice di pace: I principi e la tecnica del processo di cognizione. 2a ed. Padova: CEDAM, 2002. 2 volumes. Deals with justices of peace and courts of first instance.

Giustizia civile. Milano: Giuffre, 1953-. Monthly.

Guarnieri, Carlo. La democrazia giudiziaria. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1997.

Istituzioni di diritto pubblico. 8. Paolo Barile; Enzo Cheli;  Stefano Grassi, Editori. Padova: CEDAM, 1998

Language and rules of Italian private law : an introduction / Giovanni Iudica; Paolo Zatti; John Funck; Stefano Liebman; Alberto Monti, Editori. Padova: CEDAM, 2005.

Le riforme della giustizia civile. 2a ed. Torino: UTET, 2000.  Collected legal essays on the reformation of the Italian Civil Procedure.

Lugo, Andrea. Manuale di diritto processuale civile. 16a ed. aggiornata al 31 marzo 2006 con tutte le leggi di riforma. Ed. Claudio De Angelis. Milano: Giuffre, 2006. Solid university textbook.

Luiso, Francesco Paolo. Diritto processuale civile. 2a ed. Milano: Giuffre, 1999. 4 volumes.

Mandrioli, Crisanto. Corso di diritto processuale civile. 10a ed. v.1. Nozioni introductive e disposizioni generali–v.2. Il processo di cognizione. Torino: Giappichelli, 1995-. Updated upon changes in the law.

Molfese, Giuseppe.Ricorso e controricorso per Cassazione in materia civile. Padova: CEDAM, 2001. Appelate procedure in civil matters at the highest court.

Monteleone, Girolamo Alessandro. Diritto processuale civile. 2a ed.
Padova: CEDAM, 2000.

Montesano, Luigi. Diritto processuale civile. Ea ed. Torino: Giappichelli, 1999-2000. 4 volumes.

Pizzorusso, A. L’organizzazione della giustizia in Italia: la magistratura nel sistema politico e istituzionale. Torino: Einaudi, 1990. Still a very useful and authoritative overview on the organization and function of the courts.

I Progetti di Riforma del Processo Civile (1866-1935). G. Tarzia and B. Cavallone, eds. Universita di Milano. Istituto di Diritto Processuale  Civile; 11. Milano: Giuffre, 1989. Collected legislative history.

Il sistema italiano di diritto internazionale privato: rassegna della giurisprudenza. Gianni Bellagamba e Giuseppe Cariti, editori. Milano: Giuffre, 2000. Conflict of laws and the courts. Commented giurisprudence.

Il progetto di riforma organica del processo civile: atti del Convegno nazionale organizzato della Camera civile: Milano, 18-19 Aprile 1997. Milano: Giuffre, 1998.

Italian Yearbook of Civil Procedure. Milano: Giuffre, 1991-.

Pocar, Fausto. Il nuovo diritto internazionale privato italiano. Milano: Giuffre, 1997.

Le recenti riforme del processo civile: valutazioni e prospettive, atti del XIX Convegno Nazionale, Salerno-Palermo 1992. Milano: Giuffre, 1994.

The Reforms of Civil Procedure in Comparative Perspective: an international conference dedicated to Mauro Cappelletti, Florence, 12-13 December, 2003. Trocker, Nicolò.; Varano, Vincenzo, Editori. Torino : G. Giappichelli, 2005

Rivello, Pier Paolo. Il giudice unico nel processo civile e penale. Torino: UTET, 2000.

Rivista di diritto internazionale privato e processuale. Padova: CEDAM 1965-. Quarterly.

Rivista di diritto processuale. Padova: CEDAM, 1946-. Quarterly.

Rivista trimestriale di diritto e procedura civile. Milano: A. Giuffre, 1947-. Quarterly.

Taruffo, Michele. Il vertice ambiguo: saggi sulla cassazione civile. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1991.

Taruffo, Michele. Le riforme della giustizia civile. 2. ed. Padova: CEDAM, 2000

Tarzia, G. Lineamenti del nuovo processo civile di cognizione. Ristampa con aggiornamento. Milano: Guiffre, 1996.

Terrusi, Francesco. Il ricorso per Cassazione nel processo civile. Torino: UTET, 2004. Appelate procedure in civil matters at the highest court.

Varano, V. and Pizzorusso, A., eds. L’Influenza dei Valori Costituzionali  Sui Sistemi Giuridici Contemporanei. Studi di Diritto Comparato; 25. Milano: Giuffre Editore, 1985. 2 vols.

3.21. Japan

Primary Sources

EHS Law Bulletin Series. Tokyo: Eibun-Horei-Sha, 1952-. Looseleaf. Vol. II, part L-Z, No. 2300: Civil Procedure Code. This claims to be the official authorized translation of Japanese laws (specialists rather prefer Kitagawa’s version in English)

Minji soshoto (German). Das Japanische Zivilprozessrecht: Zivilprozessgesetz und Zivilprozessverorderung nach der Reform von 1996. Engleitet und ubersetzt von Christopher Heath und Anja Petersen. Tubingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2002.

Secondary Sources

Davis, Joseph, Oda H., and Takaishi, Y. Dispute Resolution in Japan. The  Hague; Cambridge: Kluwer Law International, 1996.

Doing Business in Japan. New York: Matthew Bender, 1980-. Looseleaf. Edited by Zantaro Kitagawa. Vol. 7, part XIV, chapter 10: Civil Litigation. Known as “Kitagawa” this set offers a legal treatise on the laws of Japan as well as fine translated legislation.

Hattori, T. Civil Procedure in Japan. 2nd ed. Ed. by Taniguchi Reich-Miyake. Yonkers, N.Y.: Juris Publications, 2000-. Loose-leaf.

3.22. Korea (South)

Primary Sources

Statutes of the Republic of Korea. Seoul: Korea Legislation Research Institute, 1997-. Loose-leaf.

Song, Sang-hyon. Minsa sosongpop (Law of Korean Civil Procedure) 6th ed. Seul: Pagyongsa, 1999.

3.23. Mexico

Primary Sources

Codigo de procedimientos civiles para el Distrito Federal. Mexico: Editorial Sista, 2001.

Codigo de procedimientos civiles para el Distrito Federal: comentado en cuanto a sus efectos processales, concordato con los codigos adjetivos de los Estados de la Republica Mexicana, con jurisprudencias y ejecutorias relacionadas; Ley organica del Tribunal Superior de Justicia del Distrito Federal. Mexico: Cardenas Editor, 1999. Concordances between the Code of civil procedure and other Mexican codes, commentary and jurisprudence (case law).

Hernandez Fuentes, Raul Benito. Codigo de procedimientos civiles para el Distrito Federal: comentado en cuanto a sus efectos procesales, concordato con los codigos adjetivos de los Estados de la Republica Mexicana, con la jurisprudencias y ejecutorias relacionadas; Ley organica del Tribunal Superior de Justicia del Distrito Federal. Mexico: Cardenas Editor, 1999. A commentary with concordances and cross-references to appropriate jurisprudence.

Ley de amparo: Ley organica del poder judicial de la Federacion y Codigo  federal de procedimientos civiles. Tercera edicion, segunda reimpresion. Mexico: Editorial Pac, 1998.

Ley organica del Tribunal Superior de Justicia del Distrito Federal. 2a ed., corr. y actualizada. Mexico: Tribunal Superior de la Justicia, 1999.

Nueva legislacion de amparo reformada: doctrina, textos y jurisprudencia. Mexico: Editorial Porrua, 1997-. Ongoing service on courts and civil procedure in general.

Perez Palma, Rafael. Guia de derecho procesal civil: comentarios doctrinales jurisprudenciales y pragmaticos articulo por articulo, al Codigo de procedimientos civiles para el Distrito Federal. 9a. ed. Mexico: Cardenas editor, 2001. 2 volumes. This is the most comprehensive commentary and analysis article by article of the Code of civil procedure, with concordances and jurisprudence cross references.

Secondary Sources

Alcala-Zamora y Castillo, Niceto. Proceso, autocomposicion y autodefensa : contribucion al estudio de los fines del proceso. 3. ed. Mexico, D.F.: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones Juridicas, 2000. Doctrinal approach of the trial in civil procedure.

Becerra Bautista, Jose. El processo civil en Mexico. Mexico: Editorial Jus,  1962-. Updated 1996.

Casolungo Mendez, Rene. Guia per el estudio de derecho procesal civil. Mexico: Oxford University Press, 1998. Manual.

Gonzales Sosa, Ramiro. Formulario de juicios civiles y mercantiles. Mexico: Oxford University Press, 2000. Manual focusing on civil procedure and commercial law.

Ramos, Eusebio. Pronuario tematizado: de juicios civiles mercantiles, quiebra y suspension de pagos, formularios, jurisprudencia y tesis sobresalientes. Mexico: Editorial Sista, 1999.

Recursos en materia civil: doctrina, jurisprudencia y pratica fornse. Puebla: OGS Editores, 2002. Appelate procedure. Manual for lawyers.

Silva Silva, Jorge Alberto. Derecho internacional sobre el proceso:  procesos civil y comercial. Mexico: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

Federal laws, regulations, decrees, manuals, etc.

WESTLAW. MEXCODE (English) and CODMEX (Spanish). Civil and Commercial Codes. MEXLAW (English) and LEYMEX (Spanish). Selected commercial laws, codes, decrees, and regulations.

3.24. The Netherlands

Primary Sources

The Netherlands Civil Evidence Act 1988. Deventer; Boston: Kluwer Law and Taxation, 1992.

Secondary Sources

Schuit, S.R. Dutch Business Law: Legal, Accounting and Tax Aspects of Doing Business in the Netherlands. 3d ed. Deventer, Netherlands; Boston: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1989-. Loose-leaf. Chapter 2: Judicial Structure; Legal and Administrative Proceedings; Arbitration.

Stein, P. A. Compendium van het burgerlijk procesrecht. Deventer : Kluwer, 2000.

3.25. New Zealand

Primary Sources

Reprinted Statutes of New Zealand. Wellington: Government Printer, 1979-. Annual.

Secondary Sources

Beck, Andrew. Principles of civil procedure. Wellington, N.Z.: Brookers, 2001.

3.26. The People’s Republic of China

Primary Sources

The Civil Procedure Law and Court Rules of the People’s Republic of China. Ed. By Wei Lo. Buffalo: W. S. Hein, 2006. Text of laws and court rules in English and Chinese. Includes an English-Chinese glossary of civil procedure terms.

Statutes and Regulations of the People’s Republic of China. Hong Kong: University of East Asia Press and Institute of Chinese Law Publishers Ltd., 1987-90. 10 vols. No. 820308, Civil Procedure Law, 1982.

LEXIS. ASIAPC–CHINAL. INTLAWL–CHINAL. WORLD–CHINAL. Selected laws and regulations in English.

Secondary Sources

Chen, A. An Introduction to the Legal System of the People’s Republic of China. Singapore: Butterworths Asia, 1992. Civil procedure: chapter 9, pp.  168-75.

Luo, Wei. The civil procedure law and court rules of the People’s Republic of China. Buffalo, N.Y. : W. S. Hein, 2006. The best available book in English covering the law and the rules of civil procedure.

Zheng, Henry R. China’s Civil and Commercial Law. Singapore; St. Paul: Butterworth’s, 1988. Chapter VI: Private International Law, sec. 6.2:  Procedural Law.

3.27. Peru

Primary Sources

Codigo de procedimientos civiles. 1st ed. Lima:Editorial Inkari, 1977.

Ticona Postigo, Victor L. Analisis y comentarios al Codigo processal civil. 4th ed. Lima: Editorial San Marco, 1998. Refers to the Code of 1984.

Secondary Sources

Idrogo Delgado, Teofilo. Principios fundamentales de derecho procesal civil. 2nd ed. Trujillo: Marsol, 1999.

3.28. Romania

Primary Sources

Codul de procedura civila: comentat si adnotat. Bucuresti: ALL Beck, 2001-. Updated when needed.

Codul de procedura civila roman: adnotat: cu trimiteri la articole normative speciale corespondente. Bucuresti, Sigma, 2001. Fine edition of the Code with full annotations and concordances to old legislation and new secondary legislation.

Deleanu, Ion. Tratat de procedura civila. Arad: Editura Servo-Sat, 2001. Basic treatise in two volumes.

Secondary Sources

Culegere de practica judiciara a Tribunalului Bucuresti 1993-1997: dreptul civil, dreptul familiei, dreptul muncii, dreptul procesual civil. Bucuresti: ALL Beck, 1998. Collected jurisprudence of the capital city tribunal.

3.29. Russia and Former Soviet Republics

Primary Sources

Grazhdanskii protsessualnyi kodeks RSFSR: ofitsialnyi tekst po sostoianiiu na fevralia 2001 goda. Moskva: Izd-vo Norma, 2001. This is the official version of the Code in Russian.

Russia and the Republics Legal Materials. Ardsley-on-Hudson, NY: Transnational Juris Publications, 1990-. Russian Federation vol. ** contains Code of Arbitral Procedure, March 5, 1992, which applies to the Court of Arbitration (adjudicates disputes between business entities, as contrasted with the regular civil courts for disputes to which at least one party is non-business). New laws are permanently added.

LEXIS. INTLAW–RUSLEG Selected laws and decrees (in English).

WESTLAW. RUSLINE (English). New laws, regulations, decrees, instructions, reports, and legal announcements.

Secondary Sources

Feldbrugge, F.J.M. Russian Law: The End of the Soviet System and the Role of Law. Dordrecht; Boston: M. Nijhoff, 1993. Sec. 21.4: Civil Procedure and Arbitration, pp. 208-11.

Reforming justice in Russia, 1864-1996: power, culture, and the limits of legal order. Ed. By Solomon, Peter R. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

3.30. South Africa

Primary Sources

The Supreme Court Act and the Magistrates’ Courts Act and rules. Cape Town : Juta, 2000-. Annual.

Statutes of the Republic of South Africa, 1910-date. Durban: Butterworth & Co., Ltd., 1967-. Loose-leaf. Vol. 10 includes section on courts and vol. 13 a section on evidence, and each section has a subject index.

3.31. Spain

Primary Sources

Codigo civil: concordado con importantes notas jurisprudenciale y comentarios. Madrid: Dykinson, 2002. Includes concordances with the new law of civil procedure.

Commentarios a la Ley de enjuiciamento civil: cinco anos de vigecia. Madrid: La Ley, grupo Wolters Kluwer, 2006. Very fine commentary of the law of civil procedures 5 years after its entry into force.

Enjuiciamento civil: textos legales y concordancias. Madrid: Civitas, 2003.

Ley de 1/2000, de 7 de enero, de enjuiciamiento civil comparada con la Ley de enjuiciamento civil de 1881. Madril: Editorial Colex, 2001.

Ley de enjuiciamiento civil (2000). Madrid: La Ley-Actualidad, 2004.

Ley de enjuiciamiento civil. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2007.

Cordon Moreno, Faustino. Comentarios a la Ley de enjuiciamiento civil. Elcano: Aranzadi, 2001. Fine commentary of the new law of civil procedure in two volumes.

Formularios de la Nueva Ley de Enjuiciamiento de 2000 (Ley 1/2000, de 7 de enero. BOE del 8; correccion de errores BOE del 14 de abril). Valencia: Ediciones Revista General de Derecho, 2000.

Oliva Santos, Andres de la. Comentarios a la Ley de enjuiciamiento civil. 1a ed. Madrid: Civitas, 2001.

Pico i Junoy, Joan. La aplicacion judicial de la nueva ley de enjuciamiento civil. Barcelona: Bosch Editor, 2002.

Secondary Sources

Alonso-Cuevillas y Sarol, Jaime. La competencia jurisdictional internacional de los tribunals espanoles del orden civil. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2005. On the international jurisdictional competence of Spanish civil courts.

Bellido Pnades, Rafael. El proceso civil sobre competencia desleal y propriedad industrial: approximacion a la incidencia de la LEC de Ley de marcas de 2001. Implications of the new laws of civil procedures and trade-marks on antitrust and intellectual property issues.

Buendia Canovas, Alejandro. La casacion civil: studio doctrinal sobre los fines casacionales. Madrid: Dijusa Editorial, 2006.

Fernandez Lopez. Mercedes. La carga de la prueba en la practica judicial civil. Madrid: La Ley, drupo Wolters Kluwer, 2006. Burden of proof in civil practice.

El processo civil: parte general, el juicio verbal y el juicio ordinario. Madrid: Editorial Dykinson, 2003.

Etxeberria Guridi, Jose Francisco. Las facultades judiciales en materia probatoria en la LEC. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2003. Emphasis on evidence.

Garcia-Rostan Calvin, Gemma. El recusrso de apelacion en el proceso civil. Madrid: Colex, 2001. Appellate procedure in the context of the new law of civil procedure.

Gutierrez-Alviz Conradi, Faustino. Exposicion de la nueva Ley de enjuiciamiento civil. Vaalencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2001. Proceedings of a conference held on nov. 21-30, 2000at the University of Sevilla.

Introduccion a la nueva Ley de enjuiciamiento civil: desde la praxis profesional. Barcelona: P. Brosa Y Asociados, 2001.

La application practica de la Ley de enjuiciamento civil de 2000: libro de estudio. Valencia:Tirant lo Blanch, 2003.

Lopez Simo, Francisco. Disposiciones generales sobre la prueba: analisis de los articulos 281 a 298 y concordantes de la Ley 1/200. Madrid: La ley, 2001. Evidence in context, with concordances.

Lucchi Lopez-Tapia, Yolanda de. Las cauciones procesales en la nueva ley de enjuiciamento civil. 1a ed. Madrid: Civitas, 2001.

Marquina Castella, Margarita and Teresa Ramos. Una interpretacion judicial de la Ley de enjuiciamiento civil. Eclano: Aranzadi, 2002. Focus on remedies.

Montero Aroca, Juan. De la legitimacion en el proceso civil. Barcelona: Bosch, 2007.

Montero Aroca, Juan. Los recursos en el proceso civil. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2001.

Montero Aroca, Juan. Tratado de juicio verbal. Navarra: Aranzadi, 2003.

Nieva Fenoll, Jorge. El recurso de cassacion civil. Barcelona: Ariel, 2003. Appelate procedure.

Oromi i Vall-llovera, Susana. El recusrso de apelacion en el proceso civil. Barcelona: Atelier, 2002. Appelate procedure in the context of the new law.

Pico i Junoy, Joan. Esquemas del nuevo poceso civil.Madrid: La Ley, 2001.

Pino Abad, Miguel. La tacha de testigos en su evolucion historica hasta la nueva Ley de enjuicemiento civil. Cordoba: Universidad de Cordoba, 2002. Witnesses and evidence in the context of the new law.

Practicas de derecho procesal civil: casos, jurysprudencia y formularios segun LEC 1-2000. Madrid: Edisofer, 2004.

Ramos Mendez, Francisco. Guia para una transicion ordenada a la Ley de enjuiciamiento civil. Barcelona: Bosch, 2000.

Ramos Mendez, Francisco. El sistema procesal espanol. 5a ed. Barcelona : Jose Maria Bosch Editor, 2000.

Reyes Lopez, Javier. De la prueba, los recursos, las medidas cautelares y otras disposiciones de la LEC 1/2000: esquemas.

Rocha Garcia, Ernesto. Los procedimientos especiales en la nueva Ley de enjuiciamiento civil. Granada: Editorial Comares, 2001.

3.32. Sweden

Primary Sources

Sveriges rikes lag. Imprint Stockholm: Norstedt, 1983-. Annual. Official source of law in Sweden.

Secondary Sources

An Introduction to Swedish Law. 2d ed. Stockholm, Sweden: Norstedts, 1988. Chapter 4: Procedure.

Scholtz, Tibor. Naturalexekution in skandinavischen Rechten. Berlin: Dunker & Humblot, 1995.

3.33. Switzerland

Primary Sources

Recueil systématique du droit fédéral. Berne: Chancellerie fédérale suisse, 1974-. Looseleaf. Procédure civile, in vol. 02(3), ch. 0.27. (German version also available)

Schupbach, Henri-Robert. Traité de procédure civile. Zurich: Schulthess, 1995-.

Secondary Sources

Business Law Guide to Switzerland. Wiesbaden, Germany: CCH Europe, 1991. English. Civil Litigation and Judicial Assistance in Civil Matters, p.541-. Civil Procedure, p. 546-. Summarizes and cites relevant articles of the Code of Procedure Civile.

Bronniman, C. Jurgen. Die Behauptungs- und Substantierungslast in schweizerischen Zivilprozessrecht. Bern: Stampfli & Cie., 1989.

Kofmel, S. Das Recht auf Beweiss im Zivilverfahren. Bern: Stampfli, 1992.

Meier, Isaak. Internationales Zivilprozessrecht: ein Studienbuch. Zurich: Schulthess Verlag, 1994.

Vogel, Oscar. Grundriss des Zivilprozessrecchts und des internazionalen Zivilprozessrechts des Scweitz. Bern: Stampfli, 2001.

3.34. Uruguay

Primary Sources

Codigo general del proceso de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay: Ley 15,982 de 18-X-1998. 7th ed. Montevideo: Fundacion de Cultura Universitaria, 2000.

4. Internet Databases: Civil Codes, Civil Procedure & Jurisprudence

4.1. General Databases

4.2. Argentina

4.3. Australia

4.4. Austria

  • Republic Oesterreich Bundeskanzleramt – Rechtsinformatiossystem – RIS: Republic of Austria – Office of the Federal Chancellor – Legal Information System. Published by the Austrian Government.  Official site with full text of laws in the vernacular, but no official pagination. It provides federal law, law of the individual states, Parliamentary materials and Constitutional and Administrative Court decisions. RIS offers former versions of laws: fill in the wanted date in the field “Fassung vom.” 
  • RDB Die Rechtsdatenbank: A fee-based database providing full texts of laws, codes, decisions of all supreme courts and appellate courts, and legal literature. This unique feature makes RDB essential for legal research in any domain of Austria’s law.

4.5. Belgium

  • Juridat: Links to the Official Gazette (Moniteur Belge), Cour de Cassation – Supreme Court and other domestic courts; laws (searchable), and consolidated legislation (searchable).
  • Justel, Judoc, E-justice (different names for the same database)
    Full-text databases of laws and cases. Can be reached via http:// the offiicial website of the Belgian Courts; — the website of the Federal Justice Department; and — the Supreme Court.
  • Official Gazette–Staatsblad– Moniteur Belge
    Published daily on the website of the Federal Justice Department (formerly the Ministry of Justice).
  • BelgiumLex is a portal giving an overview of all governmental legal databases, pointing to the various databases from the Justice Department, the Parliament and the highest courts. It points to new databases like Reflex from the Council of State. Reflex is a legislation database without full text, but providing the complete history of every article of a law in all its details. To get to the full text, links are established between Reflex and the Juridat Consolidated Legislation database.  This idea of linking the various governmental databases is an important feature of BelgiumLex.

4.6. Brazil

4.7. Canada

  • CANLII: A database in the field of public and free distribution of primary legal material. Canada’s main source of free access to primary legal materials.
  • Index of Laws: Offered by the Canadian Department of Justice. Consolidated statutes and regulations.
  • Quicklaw (Lexis/Nexis): Canadian Legal Materials. Fee-based database.
  • Carswell/Westlaw: Canadian materials including the Abridgement, are now on Westlaw. Contains all cases, the Canadian Encyclopedic Digest, the Abridgment, Journals & Periodicals, Cases – Including the Abridgement, Legislation & Regulations, Current Awareness, Texts & Treatises, by Practice Area. This is the path in Westlaw: All Databases > International/ Worldwide Materials > North America > Regional Materials. It is called the LawSource. A password to Westlaw is required.
  • Lexis: Fee-based. Contains consolidated statutes and consolidated regulations, case law, commentaries and treatises, treaties and international agreements.

4.8. Central and Eastern Europe

  • Law in Transition states LexInfoSys: Prepared by the German Technical Assistance Agency (GTZ) in cooperation with the University of Bremen, Faculty of Law. The site contains a comprehensive database for those requiring direct access to the current legislation of the transition states of the Caucasus, Central Asia, Moldova and Mongolia. The laws are usually available in Russian or in the language of the country. The texts contain information on the status, responsible body and consultation agencies, enforcement and other relevant information.
  • Slavic Research Center — Slavic-Eurasian Studies Web: Housed at Hokkaido University; it contains resources for Russian studies and post-Soviet countries resources for East European Studies in English and Japanese.

4.9. Chile

4.10. Czech Republic

4.11. Denmark

  • The official versions of new statutory laws appear in the official journal Lovtidende A (1871- ).
  • Contains all Danish rules and regulations.
  • Maintained by the Faculty of law, University of Copenhagen, contains an updated list of some (unofficial) translated Danish statutes.
  • The main gateway to legal information resources. The site provides an overview as well as instructions in researching Danish legal resources.
  • Retsinformation: Provides access to written statutory and regulatory legal sources.

4.12. Ecuador

4.13. El Salvador

4.14. European Union

  • Europa: The official Web site of the European Union. It provides access to official EU documents. See Europa’s list of databases.
  • EurLex: The portal to European law; free legal database maintained by the European Commission that contains the most current EU legal information, the full-text of treaties, legislation, court decisions, and other official documents. Consolidated versions of legislation available in the
  • Directory of Legislation in Force.
  • PreLex: Contains the documents issued at each step of the legislative process.
  • LexisNexis: EUR-Lex European Union Cases, European Court of Justice Cases Selected By Butterworth, European Court Cases Selected By Butterworths, EC Decisions Relating to Competition, Human Rights Cases, Legislation & Regulations, Commentaries & Treatises, Treaties & International Agreements. Fee-based database.
  • Lawtel EU: Legal database with fast, easy, intuitive access to the law. Offers a unique range of information from case law to legislation.
  • Westlaw: All Cases, All Legislation, All Materials, Official Journal C Series, Treaties, Preparatory Acts, Cases, Legislation & Regulations, Current Awareness, Journals & Periodicals, By Practice Area. Fee-based database.

4.15. France

  • Legifrance: The governmental portal to French law on the Internet, with a very user-friendly access to the legislation, regulations and case law, directly or through many links to other public websites such as the Parliament, the Court of Appeal or the State Council. Translations of French acts is one of the features of Legifrance. The Civil Code in English as well as the Code of Civil Procedure.
  • Le Journaux officiels: Summaries for the last five days. The site makes available a graphic reproduction of the Lois and Decretes (TIFF images). From 1998 Journal Officiel (Official Journal) could be found in Legifrance. Try also Recherches dans le Journal Officiel de la République Française.
  • Administrative database. The official gateway to the French civil service. The site has practical guides classified by theme, a civil service directory and public web sites directories, links to texts of laws, and public reports. Interfaces in German, English, and Spanish.

4.16. Germany

  • Juris: Das Juristische Information system fur die Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Laws, codes, cases, articles. Fee-based database. It covers federal and state laws, rules and regulations, EU law, case law, journal articles, press announcements on high court decisions, industrial bargaining agreements, and technology law. It holds also previous versions of federal laws and ordinances.
  • Beck-online: Fee-based legal database service. Contains federal laws, statutes and ordinances, state laws, older versions of laws.
  • Das Deutsche Bundesrecht: Fee-based. It offers coverage of current federal laws, based on Bundesgesetzblatt I, as well as select ordinances.
  • LexisNexis Recht: Covers federal law, a wide selection of EU laws, and laws of the 16 federal states.
  • Makrolog – Recht für Deutschland: Fee-based. Consolidated federal statutes.
  • Legios: Contains German federal and state statutes. Fee-based.
  • German Federal Government and Gesetze im Internet (Statutes on the Internet): Online major laws. Free access. Also included English translation of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch).
  • German Law in English: German Law Archive contains selected civil law statutes in English.

4.17. Great Britain

  • Acts of Parliament (1996-present) and Statutory Instruments (1997-present)
  • Butterworths Direct: Full text of statutes, laws, and jurisprudence. Fee based database.
  • BOPCRIS, the British Official Publications Collaborative Reader Information Service: You can use this web site to search and browse information from British Official Publications over the period 1688-1995.
  • British and Irish Legal Information Institute: Comprehensive access to freely available British and Irish public legal information. Includes cases and legislations.
  • Current Legal Information: The site is run by Sweet and Maxwell.  It is a fee-based resource containing Legal Journals Index, Financial Journals Index and CLI Current Law Service, Current Law Cases, BADGER Grey Paper Index, Current Law Case Citator, Current Law Legislation Citator and Inns of Court Catalogues.
  • Lawtel: Legal database with fast, easy, intuitive access to the law. Offers a unique range of information from case law to legislation. IP access.
  • Lexis: ENGGEN–STATIS. UK–STATIS. CODES–UKCODE. INTLAW–ENGLAW Current General Public Acts and Statutory Instruments of England and Wales.
  • Westlaw: Statues and Statutory Instruments. All Databases > Topical Materials by Area of Practice International Law (see also International/Worldwide Materials) > Laws by Country > United Kingdom.
  • The UK Statute Law Database: The UK Statute Law Database (SLD) is the official revised edition of the primary legislation of the United Kingdom. The content of SLD is available for private use free of charge, but please see the Crown Copyright notice.

4.18. Hong Kong

4.19. India

  • INCODIS: India Code Information System is the official database of the  Government of India. Contains all statutes enacted by the Parliament. Relevant precedents and amendments are retrieved in an up-to-date form.
  • JUDIS: The Judgment Information System is a combination of  fee based and free of charge. JUDIS contains all reportable judgments of the Supreme Court of India and other regional courts from 1950 to the present (online and CD-ROM).  JUDIS contains Acts and Headnotes for the judgments delivered up to 1993 only. From 1994 onwards the judgments do not have Acts and Headnotes.
  • Manupatra: IP access. Resources for legal, tax and regulatory issues in India. Contains full-text cases (pdf), legislation, rules, ordinances, circulars, treaties, forms, practice directions, etc.

4.20. Israel

  • The Knesset: Selected Parliament Acts. The Existing Basic Laws and Summary of the Laws. Full texts of Basic Laws that are in the Process of Enactment.
  • Israeli Supreme Court: Cases in Hebrew and English.
  • Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Treaties, bilateral agreements.
  • Takdinet: Provides access to case laws and legislations mainly in Hebrew. However, in many cases a court verdict or legislation might include a citation from a law or ruling in English. IP access. Indexes available for free.

4.21. Italy

4.22. Japan

4.23. Korea (South)

  • LAWnB is one of the most reputable database service companies. It comprises complete statutes, recently revised laws, proposed bills, treaties, legal terminology, and cases of the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court and other lower courts.
  • Korean Legal Research Resources on the Internet: This is probably the most useful website which provides the general explanation and detailed legal resources for Korean legal research in English.

4.24. Mexico

  • Institute for Legal Studies (Instituto de Investigaciones Juridicas, UNAM): The site offers a comprehensive collection of primary and secondary materials. The materials are in Spanish and are updated on a regular basis.
  • Jurisprudencia Mexicana (Grupo Universal de Derecho A.C., Instituto de Investigaciones Juridicas de la UMAN): Cases.
  • Legis: Contains links to full-text primary materials. Fee-based.
  • Lexis: Fee-based. Leyes Federales – Federal laws. Updated monthly.
  • National Law Center for Inter-American Free Trade: IP access. The site has laws, regulations, decrees, standards and secondary resources. It also has access to the “Diario Oficial” on a daily basis.

4.25. The Netherlands

  • An excellent source for laws, cases, and administrative decisions. This is the official Dutch judiciary site. The database is the electronic information desk through which the judicial authorities inform citizens, the academic community and the press about important court rulings, topical matters, and additional functions of the judiciary. Services expanded with Mijn Rechtspraak (My Judiciary) that gives the user the ability to receive faster overviews rulings. Vernacular. An English interface was added.
  • Legislation and cases in vernacular.
  • The Civil Code (Burgerlijk Wetboek): Vernacular.

4.26. New Zealand

  • Australasian Legal Information Institute/NZLII: Law, legislation, and courts. Full-text primary and secondary legal resources.
  • Knowledge Basket: Contains all Acts of New Zealand. The Acts database can be browsed for free (Acts only not Bills) or searched using Verity Topic for a fee.
  • LINX: Contains New Zealand case law, journal articles and textbooks from 1986 – to the present. There are some cases that date back to 1983. The most comprehensive coverage of New Zealand case law & commentary.
  • New Zealand Legislation: Free access to legislation (not official). Free online access to up-to-date electronic versions of Acts and Statutory Regulations. The website offers a basic, searchable, unofficial electronic access to New Zealand legislation. It will be replaced by a more comprehensive database, which will include Bills before Parliament, early next year. The site allows users to navigate through Statutes, Regulations, and linked legislation references. Users can search for selected words or phrases, or specific pieces of legislation by name or section number.

4.27. People’s Republic of China

  • LawInfoChina: Developed by the Legal Information Center of Peking University Law School.  Its retrieval system comes in two versions-English and Chinese-both of which can be accessed via its website.  Contains the full text versions of laws and regulations.
  • China Law & Practice: Via Proquest, 2002-; via Thomson Gale (Bobst) and Open URL, 2001-: The printed publication is known as “Asia Law and Practice”. Publishes news, a law digest, business law bulletins, archives, and lists of events. Online from 2002- IP access.
  • China Law Reference Service Online: Chinese legal materials in English at Baker & McKenzie. It is more a digest than a full-text database. CLRS contains news on the latest PRC regulations relevant to business, an advanced search facility that allows searching by keyword, year, category, region and translation. There is also updated news providing information on the PRC law, and details of all major business laws since 1980s.  CLRS is a major resource for newly enacted laws.

4.28. Peru

4.29. Romania

  • DSCLEX: Full text database of  Romanian Legislation. A combination of fee-based and free of charge.  Selective Acts of the Supreme Court of Justice, a list of repealed acts, rules, and regulations as being  published in the Official Journal, Monitorul Oficial. Codes (see Codul Civil) and  laws from 1998 to the present are available. Vernacular and a selective interface with laws in English. (User registration required).
  • INDACO: Contains the LegeStart service. It provides more than 37000 documents in full-text: laws, decrees, regulations. A combination of  fee-based and free access. Vernacular.
  • The Ministry of Justice: Its Portal LexExpert contains laws from 1863 to present and jurisprudence (cases) by courts (Constitutional Court,  city courts, regional courts, etc) and by topics of law in the vernacular.
  • Monitorul Oficial (Official Gazette).
  • Buletinul Oficial (the Romanian Gazette)
  • The Civil Code (Roamanian)
  • The Code of Civil Procedure (Romanian)

4.30. Russian and Former Soviet Republics

4.31. South Africa

  • Polity and SA Government: South African Legislation. Full text of laws and regulations.
  • JUTASTAT: Fee-based database. Contains the English Reports 1260 – 1865 ; Juta’s Daily Law Reports ; S A Law Reports 1947 to date; Index & Ann. to the SA Law Reports ; Digest of S A Law; S A Statutes & Regulations ; S A Appellate Division; S A Environmental Legislation ; S A Criminal Law Reports ;  S A Tax Library; Case Law of Zimbabwe ; Botswana Law Reports ; Statutes of Zimbabwe; Tanzania Law Reports; Zambia Law Reports ; Namibian Law Reports; Laws of Jamaica, and many others.

4.32. Spain

4.33. Sweden

  • Swedish Government: Swedish legislation translated into English.
  • Lagrummet: Official gateway to Swedish legal information. The portal has links to legal sources provided by the government, parliament, courts and government agencies.
  • Dokument. Sveriges riksdag: Swedish Parliament. Full text of the Swedish Codes and Statutes.
  • Rättsbanken: Fee based, full text database of statutes, case law, preparatory legislative materials and references to legal literature.
  • Notisum: Gateway to statutes and cases. Some content is provided free of cost.
  • Norstedts Juridik: Contains full text of statutes, reports of cases, texts analysing and commenting on major codes of law.

4.34. Switzerland

4.35. Uruguay