Climate Change Bibliography


Within these subject areas: Economics/Business, Human rights, International/Comparative, Jurisdictional issues, Law/Policy/Politics, Popular press, and Science/Technology, articles, books, studies, working papers, etc., are arranged alphabetically by institutional author or individual authors’ last name.



Frank Ackerman & Lisa Heinzerling, Priceless: On Knowing the Price of Everything and the Value of Nothing (New York: The New Press, 2004) (“A timely and much needed corrective to the current infatuation with cost benefit analysis and the derelict logic used to defend it…”; one of the authors (Heinzerling) was the lead author of the plaintiffs’ briefs in Massachusetts v. EPA.).


Frank Ackerman & Elizabeth A. Stanton, The Cost of Climate Change: What We'll Pay if Global Warming Continues Unchecked (NRDC, May 2008). (“The 80 percent reduction in U.S. emissions needed to stop climate change may not come cheaply, but the cost of failing to act will be much greater. New research shows that if present trends continue, the total cost of global warming will be as high as 3.6 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). Four global warming impacts alone -- hurricane damage, real estate losses, energy costs, and water costs -- will come with a price tag of 1.8 percent of U.S. GDP, or almost $1.9 trillion annually (in today's dollars) by 2100.”)


Jonathan H. Adler, et al., Greenhouse Policy Without Regrets: A Free Market Approach to the Uncertain Risks of Climate Change (Washington, D.C.: Competitive Enterprise Institute, 2000).


Anderson, Ray C. & Robin White, Confessions of a Radical Industrialist: Profits, People, Purpose—Doing Business by Respecting the Earth (New York: St. Martin's Press, Sept. 15, 2009).


Heidi Bachram, Climate Fraud and Carbon Colonialism: The New Trade in Greenhouse Gases, 15 (4) Capitalism, Nature, Socialism 1 (Dec. 2004).


Bob Cavnar, Disaster on the Horizon: High Stakes, High Risks, and the Story Behind the Deepwater Well Blowout (Chelsea Green Publishing, 2010).


Karan Capoor & Philippe Ambrosi, State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2008 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, May 2008).


W. Bradnee Chambers, ed., Inter-Linkages: The Kyoto Protocol & the International Trade & Investment Regimes (New York: United Nations University Press, 2001).


Partha Dasgupta, A Challenge to Kyoto: Standard cost-benefit analysis may not apply to the economics of climate change , 449 (7159) Nature 143 (Sept. 13, 2007) (reviewing Bjørn Lomborg, Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist's Guide to Global Warming (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007)).


J. Delbeke, G.  Klaassen, T. van Ierland & P. Zapfel, The Role of Environmental Economics in Recent Policy Making at the European Commission, Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, Advance Access published online Nov. 25, 2009.


EIA (Energy Information Administration), Energy Market and Economic Impacts of a Proposal to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Intensity with a Cap and Trade System (Washington: Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, 2007).


Per-Anders Enkvist, Tomas Nauclér, and Jerker Rosander, A Cost Curve for Greenhouse Gas Reduction: A Global Study of the Size and Cost of Measures To Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Yields Important Insights for Businesses and Policy Makers, 2007 (1) McKinsey Quarterly, Feb. 21, 2007.  (Free registration is required to view articles.)


Environmental Defense Fund, Innovations Review: Making green the new business as usual (2008).


Daniel C. Esty & Andrew S. Winston, Green to Gold: How Smart Companies Use Environmental Strategy to Innovate, Create Value, and Build Competitive Advantage (Yale University Press, 2006) (reviewed in Nick Schulz, The Greening of Capitalism, 16 The New Atlantis 92 (Spring 2007)).


David Freestone & Charlotte Streck, eds., Legal Aspects of Carbon Trading: Kyoto, Copenhagen, and Beyond (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009).


William Freudenburg & Robert Gramling, Blowout in the Gulf: The BP Oil Spill Disaster and the Future of Energy in America (MIT Press, 2010).


General Accounting Office Report, Climate Change: An Analysis of Two Studies of Estimated Costs of Implementing the Kyoto Protocol (GAO-04-144R, Jan. 30, 2004).


Marc Gunther, Green is good, Fortune Magazine, Mar. 22, 2007). See also, in the same issue, 10 green giants: These companies have gone beyond what the law requires to operate in an environmentally responsible way.


James K. Hammitt, Global Climate Change: Benefit-Cost Analysis vs. the Precautionary Principle, 6 Human & Ecological Risk Assessment 387 (2000).


Jeremy Harding, What We’re about to Receive: Food Insecurity, 32 (9) London Review of Books 3 (13 May 2010) “A food supply [i.e., the UK’s] that depends on imports (90 per cent of the fruit we consume, 60 per cent of the vegetables) is vulnerable: food policy experts were advancing this view well before the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull. VFC – ‘Volcano Flight Chaos’, as the BBC referred to it – was no more than a beginner’s level test of food security.”


Mun S. Ho, Richard Morgenstern & Jhih-Shyang Shih, The Impact of Pricing Carbon on U.S. Industry (RFF Discussion Paper 08-37, Nov. 2008).


Saleemul Huq, et al., Editorial: Reducing risks to cities from disasters and climate change, 19(1) Environment & Urbanization 3 (April 2007).


Harry Hurt III, The Toxic Ten, (March, 2008) (“For all the environmental-speak coming out of American corporations these days, many remain polluters. A look at 10 companies that should be doing better.”)


Fred Krupp & Miriam Horn, Earth: The Sequel: The Race to Reinvent Energy and Stop Global Warming (New York: W. W. Norton, 2008). (“Environmental Defense Fund president Krupp and journalist Horn proffer a business-centric prescription for alleviating climate change, coupling the market force of capitalism with technological innovation and entrepreneurial inventiveness. The authors argue in favor of strict federal carbon caps, which would induce innovators to explore new ways to control carbon dioxide emissions. The book notes the global and historical successes of cap and trade mechanisms, such as the Clean Air Act of 1990.” From Publishers Weekly.)


Jonathan Lash & Fred Wellington, Competitive Advantage on a Warming Planet, 85 (3) Harvard Business Review 94 (Mar. 2007). (“Climate change affects your company’s competitive landscape in ways you might not realize. Here’s how to map your risks—and opportunities.”)


Peter Lehner & Bob Deans, In Deep Water: The Anatomy of a Disaster, the Fate of the Gulf, and Ending Our Oil Addiction (The Experiment, 2010).


Joel Makower, Strategies for the Green Economy: Opportunities and Challenges in the New World of Business (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008).


Lesley K. McAllister, Putting Persuasion Back in the Equation: Compliance in Cap and Trade Programs, 24 Pace Environmental Law Review 299 (2007).


Gilbert E. Metcalf, Designing a Carbon Tax to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Review of Environmental Economics and Policy (published online in advance of print Nov. 6, 2008).


Manfred Milinski, et al., The collective-risk social dilemma and the prevention of simulated dangerous climate change, 105 (7) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2291 (Feb. 19, 2008).


Portia M. E. Mills & Mark P. Mills, A Regulatory Burden: The Compliance Dimension of Regulating CO2 as a Pollutant (U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Sept. 2008). (“Estimates of the costs of restricting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have generally focused on the penalties arising from the associated direct or indirect increases in the cost of energy. Since hydrocarbons provide 85 percent of all U.S. energy, such fuel-cost penalties could be substantial and widespread. But generally missing from economic analyses to date is inclusion of the regulatory and bureaucratic costs from complying with and enforcing federal pollution laws should the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulate CO2 and other greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act (CAA).”)


William D. Nordhaus, A Question of Balance: Weighing the Options on Global Warming Policies (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008). (“This book uses the tools of economics and mathematical modeling to analyze efficient and inefficient approaches to slowing global warming. It describes a small but comprehensive model of the economy and climate called the DICE-2007 model, for Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy.”)


J. Robinson, J. Barton, C. Dodwell, M. Heydon and L. Milton, Climate Change Law: Emissions Trading in the EU and UK (London: Cameron May, 2006). (From the publishers: “Climate Change Law has been written by the team of UK Government lawyers who negotiated the relevant EU legislation, drafted the UK domestic legislation and advised on the UK implementation of the EU emissions trading scheme.”)


Peter M. Senge, Bryan Smith, Sara Schley, Joe Laur & Nina Kruschwitz, The Necessary Revolution: How Individuals and Organizations Are Working Together To Create a Sustainable World (Doubleday, 2008). 


James Gustave Speth, The Bridge at the Edge of the World: Capitalism, the Environment, and Crossing from Crisis to Sustainability (Yale Univ. Press, Mar. 10, 2009).


Robert N. Stavins,  A Meaningful U.S. Cap-and-Trade System to Address Climate Change, 32 Harvard Environmental Law Review 293 (2008).


Loren C. Steffy, Drowning in Oil: BP & the Reckless Pursuit of Profit (McGraw-Hill, 2010).


Sir Nicholas Stern, The Stern Review Report on the Economics of Climate Change (2006).


Richard B. Stewart, Benedict Kingsbury & Bryce Rudyk, eds., Climate Finance: Regulatory and Funding Strategies for Climate Change and Global Development (New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, 2009).


Charlotte Streck, Robert O'Sullivan, Toby Janson-Smith & Richard G. Tarasofsky, eds., Climate Change and Forests: Emerging Policy and Market Opportunities (Brookings Institution Press, 2008). (“Although this collection includes many voices, most belong to a single camp that favours market-based instruments for encouraging changes in land use towards carbon storage.” Michael Obersteiner, Storing carbon in forests, 458 Nature 151 (Mar. 12, 2009).


Symposium, Balancing the Risks: Managing Technology and Dangerous Climate Change, 8 (3) Issues in Legal Scholarship (2009) (“This symposium issue covers a range of issues in U.S. and international law that are raised by technologies including carbon capture and sequestration, geo-engineering, and nuclear power.”).


Symposium, The Business of Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for Multinational Business Enterprises, 20 Pacific McGeorge Global Business & Development Law Journal 1 (2007). 


Symposium, The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review and Its Critics, 2 (1) Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 45 (Winter 2008).


Terry Tamminen, Lives Per Gallon: The True Cost of Our Oil Addiction (Washington: Island Press/Shearwater Books, 2006).


Richard Thaler & Cass Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008). (“Thaler and Sunstein offer a groundbreaking discussion of how to apply the science of choice to nudge people toward decisions that can improve their lives without restricting their freedom of choice.”)


Eric Toder, Energy Taxation: Principles and Interests (Tax Policy Center, 2007).


U.S. Government, Disaster in the Gulf - British Petroleum (BP) Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico: Impacts on Wildlife, Fisheries, Cleanup Efforts, Investigation (Ringbound Book and DVD-ROM) (Progressive Management, 2010).


Michael J. Zimmer, Carbon Tax: Ready for Prime Time?, 8 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT LAW & POLICY 67 (Winter 2008).


Human rights

Simon Caney, Cosmopolitan Justice, Responsibility, and Global Climate Change, 18 Leiden Journal of International Law 747 (2005).


John H. Knox, Linking Human Rights and Climate Change at the United Nations, 33 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 477 (2009) (citing OHCHR, Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Relationship Between Climate Change and Human Rights, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/10/61 (Jan. 15, 2009), available here).


Sara C. Aminzadeh, NOTE: A Moral Imperative: The Human Rights Implications of Climate Change, 30 Hastings Int'l & Comp. L. Rev. 231 (2007).



René W. Aubourg, David H. Good & Kerry Krutilla, Debt, Democratization, and Development in Latin America: How Policy Can Affect Global Warming, 27 (1) Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 7 (2008).


Derek R. Bell, Environmental Refugees: What Rights? Which Duties?, 10(2) Res Publica 135 (2004).


Alex DeSherbinin, et al., The vulnerability of global cities to climate hazards, 19(1) Environment & Urbanization 39 (April 2007).


Meinhard Doelle, From Hot Air to Action? Climate Change, Compliance and the Future of International Environmental Law (Toronto, Ont.: Thomson/Carswell, 2005) (reviewed by Michael Mehling, in 16 (3) Review of European Community & International Environmental Law 373 (2007)).


Raymond E. Gullison, et al., Tropical Forests and Climate Policy, Science Express, May 10, 2007.


Trevor Houser, et. al, Leveling the Carbon Playing Field: International Competition and U.S. Climate Policy Design (Washington, DC: The Peterson Institute, 2008).


McKinsey & Co., Roads toward a low-carbon future: Reducing CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles in the global road transportation system (May 2009).


R.J. Nicholls et al., Ranking Port Cities with High Exposure and Vulnerability to Climate Extremes: Exposure Estimates (OECD Environment Working Paper 1, ENV/WKP(2007) 1. Paris: OECD (Nov. 19, 2008)) (part of an OECD project on Cities and Climate Change). [1] (“For present-day conditions (2005), the top ten cities in terms of exposed population are estimated to be Mumbai, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Miami, Ho Chi Minh City, Kolkata, Greater New York, Osaka-Kobe, Alexandria and New Orleans; almost equally split between developed and developing countries.” Id. at 3.)


Akifumi Ogino, et al., Evaluating environmental impacts of the Japanese beef cow–calf system by the life cycle assessment method, 78 (4) Animal Science Journal 424 (August 2007). (The article shows that “a kilogram of beef is responsible for the equivalent of the amount of CO2 emitted by the average European car every 250 kilometers, and burns enough energy to light a 100-watt bulb for nearly 20 days.” [2])


R.T. Pierrehumbert, Climate Change: A Catastrophe in Slow Motion, 6 Chicago Journal of International Law 573 (Winter 2006).


U. Thara Srinivasan, et al., The debt of nations and the distribution of ecological impacts from human activities, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Published online before print, Jan. 22, 2008).


Symposium, The Business of Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities for Multinational Business Enterprises, 20 Pacific McGeorge Global Business & Development Law Journal 1 (2007). 


United Nations Human Development Report 2007, Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world (Nov. 27, 2007) (The lead author, Kevin Watkins, stated: "Rich countries need to demonstrate leadership by making deep, early cuts. They need to put in place a framework for finance and technology transfer, providing developing countries with the resources they need to make a low carbon transition.")[3]


David Wheeler & Kevin Ummel, Another Inconvenient Truth: A Carbon-Intensive South Faces Environmental Disaster, No Matter What the North Does (Center for Global Development Working Paper Number 134, Dec. 2007). (From the abstract: “This paper critically examines a view of global warming that is common among developing countries (the South) and many in the development community: Developed countries (the North) caused climate change, the North should address the problem by dramatically reducing its own carbon emissions, and the South should be left free to develop along a carbon-intensive path until it is much richer. Our results indicate that this view cannot withstand empirical scrutiny and is, in fact, dangerous for the South itself.”)


Jurisdictional issues

Jonathan H. Adler, When Is Two a Crowd? The Impact of Federal Action on State Environmental Regulation, 31 Harvard Environmental  Law Review 67 (2007).


John Bailey, Institute for Local Self-Reliance, Lessons from the Pioneers: Tackling Global Warming at the Local Level (Jan. 2007).


Judi Brawer & Matthew Vespa, Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: The Role of Local Government in Minimizing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from New Development, 44 Idaho Law Review 589 (2008).


James Bushnell, Carla Peterman, & Catherine Wolfram, California’s Greenhouse Gas Policies: Local Solutions to a Global Problem?, CSEM WP-166 (April 9, 2007). [4]


Cinnamon Carlarne, Notes from a Climate Change Pressure-Cooker: Sub-Federal Attempts at Transformation Meet National Resistance in the USA, 40 Connecticut Law Review 1351 (2008).


Ann E. Carlson, Federalism, Preemption, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 37 University of California at Davis Law Review 281 (2003).


Cary Coglianese & Jocelyn D'Ambrosio, Policymaking under Pressure: The Perils of Incremental Responses to Climate Change Response, 40 Connecticut Law Review 1411 (2008).


Kevin L. Doran, U.S. Sub-Federal Climate Change Initiatives: An Irrational Means to a Rational End 26th Edition Symposium Issue: Global Climate Change: Individual, Private Sector, and State Responses, 26 Virginia Environmental Law Journal 189 (2008).


Maggie Eldridge, Bill Prindle, Dan York & Steve Nadel, The State Energy Efficiency Scorecard for 2006 (Released in June 2007, this report by ACEEE developed “a comprehensive ranking of state energy efficiency policies and identified exemplary programs and policies within each policy category. The report ranks states based on their progress in eight energy efficiency policy categories.…” California, Vermont, Connecticut were the highest ranking states, tying at 33 out of a possible 44 points.)


Kirsten H. Engel, Mitigating Global Climate Change in the United States: A Regional Approach, 14 New York University Environmental Law Journal 54 (2005).


Robert L. Glicksman & Richard E. Levy, A Collective Action Perspective on Ceiling Preemption by Federal Environmental Regulation: The Case of Global Climate Change, 102 Northwestern University Law Review 579 (2008).


Michael Hanemann, California's New Greenhouse Gas Laws, 2 (1) Review of Environmental Economics and Policy 114 (Winter 2008).


Robert K. Huffman & Jonathan M. Weisgall,  Climate Change and the States: Constitutional Issues Arising from State Climate Protection Leadership, 8 Sustainable Development Law & Policy 6 (Winter 2008).


Douglas A. Kysar & Bernadette A. Meyler, Like a Nation State, 55 UCLA Law Review 1621 (2008).


Joseph Allan MacDougald, Why Climate Law Must Be Federal: The Clash between Commerce Clause Jurisprudence and State Greenhouse Gas Trading Systems, 40 Connecticut Law Review 1431 (2008).


Note: The Compact Clause and the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, 120 Harvard Law Review 1958 (2007).


Osofsky, Hari M., Multiscalar Governance and Climate Change: Reflections on the Role of States and Cities at Copenhagen, 25 Maryland Journal of International Law 64 (2010).


Patrick Parenteau, Lead, Follow, or Get Out of the Way: The States Tackle Climate Change with Little Help from Washington, 40 Connecticut Law Review 1453 (2008).


Barry G. Rabe, Mikael Roman & Arthur N.Dobelis, State Competition as a Source Driving Climate Change Mitigation, 14 New York University Environmental Law Journal 1 (2005).


Symposium, Facing Climate Change: Opportunities and Tools for States, 14 Widener Law Journal 1 (2004).


Symposium, Global Climate Change: Individual, Private Sector, and State Responses, 26 Virginia Environmental Law Journal 1 (2008).


Note: Matthew Visick, If Not Now, When - The California Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006: California's Final Steps Toward Comprehensive Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Regulation, 13 Hastings W.-Nw. J. Envt'l L. & Pol'y 249 (2007). 


Jonathan Baert Wiener, Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context, 108 Yale Law Journal 677 (1999). (“The question addressed in this Article is whether differences between the legal frameworks now in force at the national versus global levels imply different considerations for instrument choice.” Id. at 681.) 


Jonathan Baert Wiener, On the Political Economy of Global Environmental Regulation, 87 Georgetown Law Journal 749 (1999).


Jonathan B. Wiener, Think Globally, Act Globally: The Limits of Local Climate Policies, 155 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1961 (2007), in Symposium, Responses to Global Warming: The Law, Economics, and Science of Climate Change, 155 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1353 (2007).



Chris Abbott, An Uncertain Future: Law Enforcement, National Security and Climate Change (Oxford Research Group Briefing Paper, Jan. 2008).


Joseph Aldy & Robert N. Stavins, eds., Architectures for Agreement: Addressing Global Climate Change in the Post-Kyoto World (Cambridge University Press, 2007).


Frances Beinecke & Bob Deans, Clean Energy Common Sense: An American Call to Action on Global Climate Change (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Dec. 2009).


Rosina M. Bierbaum & Peter H. Raven, et al., eds., Confronting Climate Change: Avoiding the Unmanageable and Managing the Unavoidable (Report of the Scientific Expert Group on Climate Change and Sustainable Development, Feb. 2007). (See also, Rosina M. Bierbaum & Peter H. Raven, Editorial: A Two-Pronged Climate Strategy, 316 (5821) Science 17 (April 6, 2007).)


Daniel Bodansky & Elliot Diringer, Towards an Integrated Multi-Track Climate Framework (Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Dec. 2007).

Cynthia J. Burbank & Nick Nigro, Primer on Federal Surface Transportation Authorization and the Highway Trust Fund (Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Feb. 2011).


Cynthia J. Burbank & Nick Nigro, Saving Oil and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions through U.S. Federal Transportation Policy (Pew Center on Global Climate Change, Feb. 2011). (Amy Phillips, Climate Change: Pew Report Says Transportation Law Offers Way to Cut Oil Use, Greenhouse Gases, 32 BNA Daily Environment Report A-10 (Feb. 16, 2011))


Alan Carlin, Global Climate Control: Is There a Better Strategy Than Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions?, National Center for Environmental Economics, Working Paper #06-04, September, 2006.


Maurie J. Cohen, "The Death of Environmentalism": Introduction to the Symposium, 19 (1) Organization & Environment 74 (March 2006). Other articles in the symposium: Robert J. Brulle & J. Craig Jenkins, Spinning Our Way To Sustainability? at page 82; Riley E. Dunlap, Show Us the Data: The Questionable Empirical Foundations of "The Death of Environmentalism" Thesis at page 88; and Lynnette Zelezny & Megan Bailey, A Call for Women To Lead a Different Environmental Movement, at page 103.


Committee on the Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards, National Research Council, Effectiveness and Impact of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards, 2002.


Riley E. Dunlap, The State of Environmentalism in the U.S.: Diagnosis: Neither Dead nor Rejuvenated, The Gallup Poll, April 19, 2007.


Gregg Easterbrook, Global Warming: Who Loses—and Who Wins?, Atlantic Monthly (April 2007). (“Climate change in the next century (and beyond) could be enormously disruptive, spreading disease and sparking wars. It could also be a windfall for some people, businesses, and nations. A guide to how we all might get along in a warming world.”)


Editorial: Towards a real-world understanding of less ecologically damaging patterns of urban development, 18 (2) Environment & Urbanization 267 (Oct. 2006).


David Freestone and Charlotte Streck, eds., Legal Aspects of Implementing the Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms: Making Kyoto Work (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).


Howard Friel, The Lomborg Deception: Setting the Record Straight About Global Warming (Yale Univ. Press, 2010) (“In this major assessment of leading climate-change skeptic Bjørn Lomborg [see infra], Howard Friel meticulously deconstructs the Danish statistician’s claim that global warming is ‘no catastrophe’ by exposing the systematic misrepresentations and partial accounting that are at the core of climate skepticism.”)


Michael B. Gerrard, ed., Global Climate Change and U.S. Law (Chicago: American Bar Association, 2007). [5]


Alexander Gillespie, Climate Change, Ozone Depletion and Air Pollution: Legal Commentaries with Policy and Science Considerations (Leiden: Brill, 2006).


Al Gore, An Inconvenient Truth: The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming and What We Can Do About It (Rodale Books, 2006).


Al Gore, Our Choice: A Plan to Solve the Climate Crisis (Rodale Books, 2009) (“...printed on 100 percent recycled paper for a savings of 1,513 trees and 126,000 pounds of carbon dioxide; all associated CO2 emissions offset through the CarbonNeutral Co.; all profits to the Alliance for Climate Protection, which he founded in 2006 and to which he donated his 2007 Nobel Peace Prize money.” Sharon Begley, The Evolution Of An Eco-Prophet: Al Gore's views on climate change are advancing as rapidly as the phenomenon itself, Newsweek, Oct. 31, 2009 (magazine issued Nov. 9, 2009).


Hannah Choi Granade, et al., Unlocking Energy Efficiency in the U.S. Economy (McKinsey Global Energy and Materials, July 2009).


Jeffery Greenblatt, Clean Energy 2030 (, Oct. 1, 2008) (the report “provides a potential path to weaning the U.S. off of coal and oil for electricity generation by 2030 (with some remaining use of natural gas as well as nuclear), and cutting oil use for cars by 38%.”).


James K. Hammitt, Global Climate Change: Benefit-Cost Analysis vs. the Precautionary Principle, 6 Human & Ecological Risk Assessment 387 (2000).


Lisa Heinzerling, Climate Change, Human Health, and the Post-Cautionary Principle, 96 Georgetown Law Journal 445 (2008).


Dale Jamieson, Climate Change, Responsibility, and Justice, 16 (3) Science and Engineering Ethics 431 (2010) (“In order to see anthropogenic climate change as clearly involving moral wrongs and global injustices, we will have to revise some central concepts in these domains. Moreover, climate change threatens another value (‘‘respect for nature’’) that cannot easily be taken up by concerns of global justice or moral responsibility.”)


Donald Kaniaru, Rajendra Shende & Durwood Zaelke,  Landmark Agreement to Strengthen Montreal Protocol Provides Powerful Climate Mitigation, 8 Sustainable Development Law & Policy 46 (Winter 2008).


Amanda Little, Power Trip: From Oil Wells to Solar Cells—Our Ride to the Renewable Future (Harper, Oct. 2009).


Ryan Lizza, The Political Scene: As the World Burns: How the Senate and the White House missed their best chance to deal with climate change, The New Yorker, Oct. 11, 2010 (the inside scoop on the Kerry, Graham, and Lieberman climate change bill and its intersection with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.)


Bjørn Lomborg, Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist’s Guide to Global Warming (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2007).


Bjørn Lomborg, The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001). See Misleading math about the earth [science defends itself against The skeptical environmentalist by B. Lomborg], 286 (1) Scientific American 61-71 (Jan. 2002).


Todd O. Maiden & Eric M. McLaughlin, Climate Change Litigation: Trends and Developments, 38 (14) BNA Environment Reporter 832 (April 6, 2007). (Published prior to the release of Massachusetts v. EPA, the article summarizes climate change cases filed in U.S. courts.)


Joanna D. Malaczynski & Timothy P. Duane, Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Vehicle Miles Traveled: Integrating the California Environmental Quality Act with the California Global Warming Solutions Act, 36 Ecology Law Quarterly 71 (2009).


Gordon McGranahan, et al., The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones, 19(1) Environment & Urbanization 17 (April 2007).


Bill McKibben, Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet (Times Books, 2010).


G. Tracy Mehan, III, Energy, Climate Change, and Sustainable Water Management, 38 (48) BNA Environment Reporter 2637 (Dec. 7, 2007).


Bert Metz, Controlling Climate Change (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2010).


Patrick J. Michaels, Meltdown: The Predictable Distortion of Global Warming by Scientists, Politicians, and the Media (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 2004).


Patrick J. Michaels & Robert C. Balling, Jr., The Satanic Gases: Clearing the Air about Global Warming (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 2000).


Iain Murray, Eco-Censorship: The Effort to Thwart the Climate Change Debate, 14 The New Atlantis 134 (Fall, 2006).


C. Nellemann, S. Hain & J. Alder, Eds., Rapid Response Assessment: In Dead Water – Merging of climate change with pollution, over-harvest, and infestations in the world’s fishing grounds (UNEP, Feb. 2008).


Peter Newman, The Environmental Impact of Cities, 18 (2) Environment & Urbanization 275 (Oct. 2006) (click link for pdf).


Robert R. Nordhaus & Kyle W. Danish, Assessing the Options for Designing a Mandatory U.S. Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, 32 Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review 97 (2005).


David Orr, Down to the Wire: Confronting Climate Collapse (Oxford University Press, Sept. 2009).


Eric Pooley, The Climate War: True Believers, Power Brokers, and the Fight to Save the Earth (Hyperion, 2010) (The chief political correspondent for Time Magazine writes a “meticulously researched insider account” of the battle over global warming legislation, as it is “waged in Capitol Hill back rooms and Wall Street boardrooms.”)


Eric A. Posner, & Cass R. Sunstein, Climate Change Justice, 96 Georgetown Law Journal 1565 (2008).


Presidential Climate Action Project, State of the Climate: An assessment of climate change and policy in the United States (Jan. 24, 2008). (The Presidential Climate Action Project is “an initiative of the University of Colorado, Denver, to develop a 100-day climate action plan for the next administration beginning in January 2009.”)


Christopher Pyke & Kit Batten, Full Disclosure: An Executive Order to Require Consideration of Global Warming Under the National Environmental Policy Act (Center for American Progress, May 2008). (The report “called for an executive order to clarify federal agency responsibility to review the global warming impact of their actions as part of these statements and said federal agencies should be required to quantify and disclose the greenhouse gas emissions that would result from their actions.” See BNA Environmental Due Diligence Memo, May 14, 2008).


Nick Robins, Robert Clover & Charanjit Singh, Building a green recovery: Governments allocate USD470bn – and counting…., HSBC Climate Change/Global Research, May 22, 2009.


David Schoenbrod & Melissa Witte, Rescuing the Clean Air Act from Obsolescence, 2 AEI Energy and Environment Outlook (March 2011).


Michael Shellenberger & Ted Nordhaus, The Death of Environmentalism: Global Warming Politics in a Post-Environmental World (2004).


S. Fred Singer, The Kyoto Protocol: A Post-Mortem, 4 The New Atlantis 66 (Winter, 2004).


Kevin Smith, The Carbon Neutral Myth: Offset Indulgences for your Climate Sins (Transnational Institute, Feb. 2007).


Special Report: The Environment: Death and Rebirth, 16 (10) The American Prospect A1 (Oct. 2005).


David Schoenbrod, Richard B. Stewart & Katrina M. Wyman, Breaking the Logjam: Environmental Protection That Will Work (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010).


Robert N. Stavins, A Portfolio of Domestic Commitments: Implementing Common but Differentiated Responsibilities (Policy Brief, Harvard Project on International Climate Agreements, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, Oct. 19, 2009) (“International negotiations are focused on developing a climate policy framework for the post-2012 period, when the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period will have ended. In addition to negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), other intergovernmental outlets, including the G20 and the Major Economies Forum, are trying to reach common ground among the world's major emitters of greenhouse gases. To date, these efforts have not produced a politically, economically, and environmentally viable structure for a future climate agreement. An effective, but more flexible and politically palatable approach could be an international agreement on a ‘portfolio of domestic commitments.’ Under such an agreement, nations would agree to honor commitments to greenhouse gas emission reductions laid out in their own domestic laws and regulations.”).


Henning Steinfeld, et al., Livestock's role in climate change and air pollution, in Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options (Livestock, Environment and Development Initiative of the U.N. FAO, 2006) (In March 2010, the BBC reported that the methodology of the report was wrong in chapter 3 where it claimed that meat production was responsible for 18% of global GHG emissions.[6])


Richard Stewart, Benedict Kingsbury & Bryce Rudyk, Climate Finance: Regulatory and Funding Strategies for Climate Change and Global Development (N.Y.University Press, 2009) (freely available in pdf at


Richard B. Stewart & Jonathan B. Wiener, Reconstructing Climate Policy: Beyond Kyoto (Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 2003).


Symposium, Changing Climates: Adapting Law and Policy to a Transforming World, 55 UCLA Law Review 1479 (2008).


Symposium, Climate Change Liability and the Allocation of Risk, 43A Stanford Journal of International Law 3 (2007).


Symposium, Framework for a Post-Kyoto Climate Change Agreement, 8 SUSTAINABLE Development Law & Policy (Winter 2008).


Symposium, The New Regulatory Climate: Greenhouse Gas Regulation in the Obama Administration, 18 N.Y.U. Environmental Law Journal (2010).


Symposium, Responses to Global Warming: The Law, Economics, and Science of Climate Change, 155 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1353 (2007).


Topos Partnership, with Cara Pike & Meredith Herr, CLIMATE CROSSROADS A Research-Based Framing Guide: For Global Warming Advocates From Global Warming Advocates (Oct. 2009).


Guus J.M. Velders, et al., The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate, 104 (12) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 4814 (Mar. 20, 2007). (The report shows that reductions in ozone-depleting gases since the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which applies both to developed and developing nations, have been over 5 times as effective as the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which affects only industrial nations, in cutting emissions of GHG. See Keith Bradsher, Moving Faster on Refrigerant Chemicals, N.Y. Times, Mar. 15, 2007, at C1. [7]).


David G. Victor, The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).


Popular Press

Shaila Dewan, Feeling Warmth, Subtropical Plants Move North, N.Y. Times, May 3, 2007, at A1.


James Fallows, Dirty Coal, Clean Future, The Atlantic, Dec. 2010. (“To environmentalists, “clean coal” is an insulting oxymoron. But for now, the only way to meet the world’s energy needs, and to arrest climate change before it produces irreversible cataclysm, is to use coal—dirty, sooty, toxic coal—in more-sustainable ways. The good news is that new technologies are making this possible.”)


Thomas L. Friedman, The Power of Green, N.Y. Times, April 15, 2007, at § 6, 40.


Justin Gillis, A Scientist, His Work and a Climate Reckoning, N.Y. Times, Dec. 21, 2010 (discussing the work of Charles David Keeling).


Charles Homans, Hot Air: Why don’t TV weathermen believe in climate change?, 48(5) Columbia Journalism Review 24 (Jan./Feb. 2010) (“The future of climate change policy rests to a not insubstantial degree on the well-tailored shoulders of the local weatherman.”).


Mike Hulme, Chaotic World of Climate Truth, BBC News, Nov. 4, 2006. (“As activists organized by the group Stop Climate Chaos gather in London to demand action, one of Britain's top climate scientists says the language of chaos and catastrophe has got out of hand.”)


Jeffrey Kluger, et al., Cover Package: Global Warming: Be Worried. Be Very Worried. Articles: Global Warming Heats Up; Feeling The Heat; A Science Adviser Unmuzzled; The Greenest Bank; How to Seize the Initiative; An Ice-Free Passage; The Climate Crusaders; Scourge of the Gas Guzzlers; How It Affects Your Health; Vicious Cycles; The Impact of Asia’s Giants, Time Magazine, April 3, 2006.


Elizabeth Kolbert, Annals of Science: The Climate of Man–I: Disappearing Islands, Thawing Permafrost, Melting Polar Ice. How the Earth is Changing, The New Yorker, April 25, 2005; The Climate of Man–II: The Curse of Akkad, The New Yorker, May 2, 2005; & The Climate of Man–III: What Can Be Done?, The New Yorker, May 9, 2005 (no longer available on the Web). See infra, Kolbert, Field Notes.


Elizabeth Kolbert, Annals of Science: The Darkening Sea: What Carbon Emissions Are Doing to the Ocean, The New Yorker, Nov. 20, 2006 (no longer available on the Web).


Elizabeth Kolbert, Field Notes from a Catastrophe: Man, Nature, and Climate Change (New York: Bloomsbury USA, 2006). (“Expanding on a three-part series for the New Yorker, Kolbert … lets facts rather than polemics tell the story: in essence, it's that Earth is now nearly as warm as it has been at any time in the last 420,000 years and is on the precipice of an unprecedented "climate regime, one with which modern humans have had no prior experience." From Publishers Weekly.)


Elizabeth Kolbert, Book Review: Running on Fumes: Does the “car of the future” have a future?, The New Yorker (Nov. 5, 2007).


Mark Lynas, Six Degrees: Our Future on a Hotter Planet (Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2008).


The Nation, Surviving the Climate Crisis: What Must Be Done, May 7, 2007.


New York Times’ Web site has an annotated collection of Times articles on global warming back to February, 1990.


New York Times’ Web site also has an annotated collection of articles in a series entitled The Energy Challenge, examining “the ways in which the world is, and is not, moving toward a more energy efficient, environmentally benign future.”


Andrew C. Revkin, A New Middle Stance Emerges in Debate over Climate, N.Y. Times, Jan. 1, 2007, at A16.


Andrew C. Revkin, Wealth and Poverty, Drought and Flood: Reports From Four Fronts in the War on Warming, N.Y. Times, April 3, 2007, at F4.


Special Report: Leadership and the Environment: Green Issues, Newsweek, April 16, 2007.


Stephen H. Schneider, Science as a Contact Sport: Inside the Battle to Save Earth's Climate (National Geographic, 2009).


Vijay Vaitheeswaran & Iain Carson, Zoom: The Global Race To Fuel the Car of the Future (New York: Twelve, 2007).


Gabrielle Walker & David King, The Hot Topic: What We Can Do About Global Warming (Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt, 2008). See also review article by David S. Reay, Climate change for the masses, 452 Nature 31 (Mar. 6, 2008).



Jonathan H. Adler, Devaluing Science, 17 The New Atlantis 111 (Summer 2007) (reviewing Pielke, Jr., The Honest Broker, see infra).


John B. Anderson, Ice Sheet Stability and Sea-Level Rise, 315 (5820) Science 1803 (Mar. 30, 2007).    


David Archer, The Long Thaw: How Humans Are Changing the Next 100,000 Years of Earth's Climate            (Princeton University Press, 2009).


G. Bala, et al., Combined Climate and Carbon-Cycle Effects of Large-Scale Deforestation, 104 (16) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 6550 (April 17, 2007). (The report shows that forests in northern climates may actually contribute to global warming and that only tropical forests help to reduce it.)


Gary Braasch, Earth Under Fire: How Global Warming Is Changing the World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007). See review article by Martin Parry, A novel view of a warming world: In the growing clamour over global warming, eye-witness accounts of a changing world stand out, 2 Nature Reports Climate Change 33 (Mar. 2008).


Catherine Brahic, CO2 Being Pushed Deep into the Oceans,, Feb. 12, 2007.


Peter G. Brewer, Evaluating a technological fix for climate, 104 (24) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 9915 (June 12, 2007).


Wallace S. Broecker &  Robert Kunzig, Fixing Climate: What Past Climate Changes Reveal About the Current Threat — and How to Counter It (New York: Hill and Wang, 2008). See review article by Chris Turney, Learning from climates past, 453 Nature 158 (May 8, 2008).


Edward J. Brook, Atmospheric Science: Tiny Bubbles Tell All, 310 Science 1285 (Nov. 25, 2005).


Ulf Büntgen, et al., 2500 Years of European Climate Variability and Human Susceptibility, 331 Science 578 (Feb. 4, 2011).


Alison Cassady, The Carbon Boom: State and National Trends in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Since 1990 (Environment Maryland Research and Policy Center, April 2007). The report showed that “[o]n a per-capita basis, the United States emitted twice as much carbon dioxide as Japan or the United Kingdom, more than five times as much as China, and 19 times as much as India, according to the Energy Information Administration.” [8]


Anny Cazenave, How Fast Are the Ice Sheets Melting?, 314 Science 1250 (Nov. 24, 2006).


J. L. Chen, et al., Satellite Gravity Measurements Confirm Accelerated Melting of Greenland Ice Sheet, 313 Science 1958 (Sept. 29, 2006).


Committee to Assess Fuel Economy Technologies for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles; National Research

Council; Transportation Research Board, Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel

Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (National Academies Press, Mar. 31, 2010). (Available from NAP for free registration, the over 400-page report was requested by the Energy Independence and Security Act (Pub. L. No. 110-140) in 2007.) [9]


Aiguo Dai, Drought under global warming: a review, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, n/a. doi: 10.1002/wcc.81.


John DeCicco & Freda Fung, Global Warming on the Road: The Climate Impact of America’s Automobiles (Environmental Defense, 2006).


Curtis A. Deutsch, et al., Impacts of climate warming on terrestrial ectotherms across latitude, 105 (18) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 6668 (May 6, 2008). 


Julian A. Dowdeswell, Atmospheric Science: The Greenland Ice Sheet and Global Sea-Level Rise, 311 Science 963 (Feb. 17, 2006).


EPA Climate Change Division, Climate Change Indicators in the United States (80 pp, 13.2MB) (April 27, 2010). [10]


Tim Flannery, The Weather Makers: How Man Is Changing the Climate and What It Means for Life on Earth (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006).


Pierre Friedlingstein, A steep road to climate stabilization, 451 Nature 297 (supp., Jan. 17, 2008).


Jan Fuglestvedt, et al., Climate forcing from the transport sectors, 105 (2) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 454 (Jan. 15, 2008).


Herbert Girardet, ed., Surviving the Century: Facing Climate Chaos and Other Global Challenges (Sterling, VA : Earthscan Publications, Ltd., 2007).


Jeff Goodell, How to Cool the Planet: Geoengineering and the Audacious Quest to Fix Earth's Climate (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010).


James Hansen et al., Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study, 7 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 2287-2312 (2007). This paper was written by nearly 50 NASA and Columbia University scientists who concluded that “global temperature is nearing the level of dangerous climate effects [and] … that little time remains to achieve the international cooperation needed to avoid widespread undesirable consequences.” Id. at 2308. In apparent response, Michael Griffin, the administrator of NASA, said in an interview with National Public Radio on May 31st that he is not sure that global warming “is a problem we must wrestle with.”[11]


James Hansen et al., Global Temperature Change, 103 (39) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 14288 (Sept. 26, 2006).


James E. Hansen, The Greenhouse Effect: Impacts on Current Global Temperature and Regional Heat Waves in The Challenge of Global Warming (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, Dean Edwin Abrahamson, ed., 1989).


James Hansen, Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth about the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance To Save Humanity (Bloomsbury USA: 2009) See also Keith Kloor, The eye of the storm: Outspoken climate scientist James Hansen has just completed his first book, due for release in December, 3 Nature Reports Climate Change 139 (Nov. 26, 2009).


James Hansen et al., Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?, 2 Open Atmos. Sci. J. 217 (2008).

See also, James Hansen, Never-give-up fighting spirit: lessons from a grandchild, GRIST, Dec. 1, 2009.     


Katharine Hayhoe, et al., Emissions Pathways, Climate Change, and Impacts on California, 101(34) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12422 (published online Aug. 16, 2004 and current as of December 2006).


Richard Heinberg, Searching for a Miracle: ‘Net Energy’ Limits & the Fate of Industrial Society (Post Carbon Institute & International Forum on Globalization, Sept. 2009) (the report concludes that “there is no clear practical scenario by which we can replace the energy from today’s conventional sources with sufficient energy from alternative sources to sustain industrial society at its present scale of operations.”).


Edgar G. Hertwich & Glen P. Peters, Carbon Footprint of Nations: A Global, Trade-Linked Analysis, 43 (16) Environmental Science & Technology 6414 (2009).


Daniel Hoornweg, Lorraine Sugar & Claudia Lorena Trejos Gomez, Cities and greenhouse gas emissions: moving forward, XX (X) Environment and Urbanization 1 (2011) (study showing that CO2 emissions for residents of more dense cities can be half those of suburban residents).


Solomon M. Hsiang, Temperatures and cyclones strongly associated with economic production in the Caribbean and Central America, 107 (35) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 15367–15372 (Aug. 31, 2010).


Mark Z. Jacobson, Enhancement of Local Air Pollution by Urban CO2  Domes, Environmental Science and Technology, Mar. 10, 2010 (“Data suggest that domes of high CO2 levels form over cities. Despite our knowledge of these domes for over a decade, no study has contemplated their effects on air pollution or health. In fact, all air pollution regulations worldwide assume arbitrarily that such domes have no local health impact, and carbon policy proposals, such as “cap and trade”, implicitly assume that CO2 impacts are the same regardless of where emissions occur. Here, it is found ... that local CO2  emissions in isolation may increase local ozone and particulate matter. Although health impacts of such changes are uncertain, they are of concern, and it is estimated that [] local CO2 emissions may increase premature mortality by 50−100 and 300−1000/yr in California and the U.S., respectively.”).


Mark Z. Jacobson & Mark A. Delucchi, A Path to Sustainable Energy By 2030, 301 (5) Scientific American 58 (2009) (discussing how alternative energy sources, such as wind, water, and solar power, can provide all of the world's energy needs and eliminate fossil fuels. Topics include an in-depth discussion of how the construction of millions of wind turbines, water machines, and solar installations can provide energy, the need to use clean energy such as geothermal energy that has near-zero emissions, and statistics regarding the amount of installations needed worldwide to supply energy.).


Richard A. Kerr, Climate Change: Pushing the Scary Side of Global Warming: Greenhouse warming might be more disastrous than the recent international assessment managed to convey, scientists are realizing. But how can they get the word out without seeming alarmist?, 316 (5830) Science 1412 (June 8, 2007).


Richard A. Kerr, Climate Change: A Worrying Trend of Less Ice, Higher Seas, 311 Science 1698 (March 24, 2006). (“Startling amounts of ice slipping into the sea have taken glaciologists by surprise; now they fear that this century’s greenhouse emissions could be committing the world to a catastrophic sea-level rise.”)


Richard A. Kerr, Global Warming Is Changing the World: An international climate assessment finds for the first time that humans are altering their world and the life in it by altering climate; looking ahead, global warming’s impacts will only worsen, 316 Science 188 (April 13, 2007).


Eli Kintisch, et al., Climate Change: Along the Road From Kyoto: Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Keep Rising, 311 Science 1702 (Mar. 24, 2006).


S. Kröpelin, et al., Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years, 320 (5877) Science 765 (May 9, 2008).  


Michael P. Lesser, Commentary: Coral reef bleaching and global climate change: Can corals survive the next century?, 104 (13) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 5259 (Mar. 27, 2007).


Thomas E. Lovejoy & Lee Hannah, Climate Change and Biodiversity (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005).


M. Susan Lozier, et al., The Spatial Pattern and Mechanisms of Heat-Content Change in the North Atlantic, 319 (5864) Science 800 (Feb. 8, 2008).


S.B. Luthcke, et al., Recent Greenland Ice Mass Loss by Drainage System from Satellite Gravity Observations, 314 Science 1286 (Nov. 24, 2006).


Michael E. Mann & Lee R. Kump, Dire Predictions: Understanding Global Warming (DK Publishing, 2008). (“Dire Predictions presents the information documented by the IPCC in an illustrated, visually-stunning, and undeniably powerful way to the lay reader. The scientific findings that provide validity to the implications of climate change are presented in clear-cut graphic elements, striking images, and understandable analogies.”)


Michael E. Mann, Raymond S. Bradley & Malcolm K. Hughes, Global-Scale Temperature Patterns and Climate Forcing Over the Past Six Centuries, 392 Nature 779 (April 23, 1998).

This is the article, often referred to as “MBH98,” that the IPCC relied on in the Third Assessment Report in 2001 and that spawned the “hockey stick” debate, so-called because of the shape of the trend line in a graph on the article’s page 783 which showed that temperatures over the last 600 years had accelerated over the last 200.[12] Professor Mann is a climatologist at Pennsylvania State University, with joint appointments in Departments of Meteorology, Geosciences, and the Earth and Environmental Systems Institute. His views are central to the climate change debate; his Web page contains many citations to his articles, many on global warming, from 1993.

See Paul D. Thacker, Viewpoint: Has balance warped the truth?, 16 (1) SEJournal: The Quarterly Publication of the Society of Environmental Journalists 14 (Spring 2006), discussing and intelligently criticizing a February 2005 front-page Wall Street Journal article attacking Professor Mann’s research; the WSJ article was based on scientific research by a businessman with ties to the oil industry, not a scientist, but nevertheless received a lot of attention.


Michael E. Mann & Philip D. Jones, Global Surface Temperatures Over the Past Two Millennia, 30 (15) Geophysical Research Letters CLM 5-1 (Aug. 2003).


Michael E. Mann, Raymond S. Bradley, & Malcolm K. Hughes, Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations, 26 (6) Geophysical Research Letters 759 (1999). This article, referred to as “MBH99,” extended the authors’ results back to the year 1000. The graph on page 761 is the one used by the IPCC in 2001.


Amanda Leigh Mascarelli, A Sleeping Giant? As the planet warms, vast stores of methane — a potent greenhouse gas — could be released from frozen deposits on land and under the ocean, 3 nature reports climate change  46 (April 2009).


Joseph R. McConnell, et al., 20th-Century Doubling in Dust Archived in an Antarctic Peninsula Ice Core Parallels Climate Change and Desertification in South America, 104 (14) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 5743 (April 3, 2007).


Stephen McIntyre & Ross McKitrick, Hockey Sticks, Principal Components, and Spurious Significance, 32 (3) Geophysical Research Letters L03710 (Feb. 12, 2005). (This was a rebuttal to MBH98 & MBH 99, see infra, criticizing the authors’ methods.)


Ross McKitrick, What is the Hockey Stick Debate About?, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation Study Group, April 4, 2003.


G. A. Meehl, et. al., Climate Change Projections for the Twenty-First Century and Climate Change Commitment in the CCSM3, 19(11) Journal of Climate 2597 (June 1, 2006). (The Journal of Climate, a journal of the American Meteorological Society, publishes articles on climate research “concerned with large-scale variability of the atmosphere, oceans, and land surface, including the cryosphere; and past, present and projected future changes in the climate system (including those caused by human activities).” The AMS also publishes other relevant journals.)


Annette Menzel, et al., European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern, 12 (10) Global Change Biology 1969 (Oct. 2006). (“The team examined 125,000 observational series of 542 plants and 19 animal species in 21 European countries from 1971 to 2000. The results showed that 78% of all leafing, flowering and fruiting records were happening earlier in the year, while only 3% were significantly delayed.”[13])


MIT Coal Energy Study Advisory Committee, The Future of Coal – Options for a Carbon Constrained World (2007).


NOAA Satellite and Information Service, National Climate Data Center, NCDC Climate Monitoring

               Reports and Products (including State of the Climate 1998-2008, U.S. Monthly Temperature and Precipitation 2000-2008 & Monthly Reports).


James E. Overland & Muyin Wang, Future Regional Arctic Sea Ice Declines, 34 Geophysical Research Letters L17705 (Sept. 8, 2007), concludes that projections in the IPCC’s FAR of the loss of 40% of Arctic sea ice by 2050 are reliable for assessing the impacts of global warming.


Jonathan T. Overpeck, et al., Paleoclimatic Evidence for Future Ice-Sheet Instability and Rapid Sea-Level Rise, 311 Science 1747 (Mar. 24, 2006). The article states that polar warming by 2100 may reach levels similar to those of 130,000 to 127,000 years ago that were associated with sea levels several meters above modern levels; both the Greenland Ice Sheet and portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet may be vulnerable.


S. Pacala and R. Socolow, Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies, 305 (5686) Science 968 (Aug. 13, 2004).


Fred Pearce, The Climate Files: The Battle for the Truth About Global Warming (Random House UK, 2010) (“The real story behind the leaking of climate change emails at the University of East Anglia—the biggest scandal to hit global warming science in years.”) See Dave S. Reay, Lessons from Climategate, 467 (9) Nature 157 (Sept. 2010).


Elizabeth Pennisi, Jesse Smith, Richard Stone, Introduction to special issue: Momentous Changes at the Poles, 315 (5818) Science 1513 (Mar. 16, 2007). (Eleven articles in this issue’s News and Reviews sections discuss studies of arctic air pollution, sea ice changes, and the impact of polar change on global climate.)


Roger A. Pielke, Jr., The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).


Frank Press, Year of Planet Earth Essay: Earth science and society, 451 Nature 301 (supp., Jan. 17, 2008).


Hans O. Pörtner and Rainer Knust, Climate Change Affects Marine Fishes Through the Oxygen Limitation of Thermal Tolerance, 315 Science 95 (Jan. 5, 2007).   


Stefan Rahmstorf, A Semi-Empirical Approach to Projecting Future Sea-Level Rise (Dec. 14, 2006). [14] The author concludes that increases in sea levels as a result of global warming could be as much as 59% greater than current estimates.


Joseph J. Romm, Straight Up: America's Fiercest Climate Blogger Takes on the Status Quo Media, Politicians, and Clean Energy Solutions (Island Press: forthcoming 2010). The book is the best 1% of his more than 4000 blog posts, arranged thematically; difficult to categorize as it seems to occupy an intersection of economics, policy and climate science.


William F. Ruddiman, Plows, Plagues, and Petroleum: How Humans Took Control of Climate (Princeton University Press, 2007) (arguing that humans have actually been changing the climate for some 8,000 years—as a result of the earlier discovery of agriculture).


Stephen H. Schneider, Science as a Contact Sport: Inside the Battle to Save Earth's Climate (National Geographic, 2009.) (A lead author of the IPCC, White House consultant to 7 presidents, founder of the journal Climatic Change, and Stanford biology professor, Professor Schneider died in July 2010.)


Richard Seager, et al., Model Projections of an Imminent Transition to a More Arid Climate in Southwestern North America, ScienceExpress, April 5, 2007.


Keith P. Shine and William T. Sturges, CO2 Is Not the Only Gas, 315 (5820) Science 1804 (Mar. 30, 2007). (“About 40% of the heat trapped by anthropogenic greenhouse gases is due to gases other than carbon dioxide, primarily methane.”)


Seth Shulman, Undermining Science: Suppression and Distortion in the Bush Administration (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).


R. Socolow, et al., Solving the Climate Problem: Technologies for Curbing CO2 Emissions, 46 (10) Environment 8 (Dec. 2004).


Susan Solomon, et al., Irreversible climate change due to carbon dioxide emissions, 106 (6) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1704 (Feb. 10, 2009).


Drs. Martin Sommerkorn & Neil Hamilton, eds., Arctic Climate Impact Science: an update since ACIA (Oslo, Norway: WWF International Arctic Programme, April 2008).


Willie Soon, et al., Reconstructing Climate and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years: A Reappraisal, 14 (2-3) Energy & Environment 233 (May 1, 2003).  This article criticizes the work of Mann, Bradley, and Hughes, supra, for not discussing climactic anomalies such as the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period that occurred over the last 1000 years.


Richard Stone, A World Without Corals?, 316 (5825) Science 678 (May 4, 2007).[15]


Lothar Stramma, et al., Expanding Oxygen-Minimum Zones in the Tropical Oceans, 320 Science 655 (May 2, 2008).


Julienne Stroeve, et al., Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast, 34 Geophysical Research Letters L09501 (May 1, 2007). (U.S. scientists from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), both at the University of Colorado, conclude that the IPCC’s estimates of the rate of Arctic ice loss are conservative and that Arctic summers could be ice-free by the middle of the century.  See Richard Black, Arctic melt faster than forecast: Arctic ice is melting faster than computer models of climate calculate, according to a group of US researchers, BBC News, May 1, 2007.)


Toste Tanhua, Arne Körtzinger, Karsten Friis, Darryn W. Waugh, and Douglas W. R. Wallace, An Estimate of Anthropogenic CO2 Inventory from Decadal Changes in Oceanic Carbon Content, 104 (9) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 3037 (Feb. 27, 2007).


U.S. Public Interest Research Groups (US PIRG), Feeling the Heat:  Global Warming and Rising Temperatures in the United States (July, 2007).


Vijay Vaitheeswaran & Iain Carson, ZOOM: The Global Race To Fuel the Car of the Future (New York: Twelve, 2007).


J.E.N. Veron, A Reef in Time: The Great Barrier Reef from Beginning to End (Harvard, 2008). (Veron is the former chief scientist of the Australian Institute of Marine Science.  He is principal author of 8 monographs and more than 70 scientific articles on the taxonomy, systematics, biogeography, and the fossil record of corals.)


Jessica Seddon Wallack & Veerabhadran Ramanathan, The Other Climate Changers: Why Black Carbon and Ozone Also Matter, Foreign Affairs, September/October 2009, claiming that “global efforts to reduce emissions of black carbon and ozone-forming gases could offset the warming effects of 10 to 20 years worth of carbon dioxide emissions.”[16]


Chunzai Wang & Sang-Ki Lee, Global warming and United States landfalling hurricanes, 35 Geophysical Research Letters (Jan. 23, 2008). (“Intensifying one of the hottest debates in science, a new report concludes that global warming actually is diminishing the number of hurricanes that strike Florida and the rest of the United States -- and the phenomenon is likely to continue.” [17])


Steven M. Whitfield et al., Amphibian and reptile declines over 35 years at La Selva, Costa Rica, 104 (20) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  8352 (May 15, 2007).


John W. Williams, et al., Projected Distributions of Novel and Disappearing Climates by 2100 AD, 104 (14) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 5738 (April 3, 2007).


World Wildlife Fund, Climate Solutions: The WWF Vision for 2050 (May 2007).


World Wildlife Fund, 2010 Living Planet Report. (“Th[is] biennial report, produced in collaboration with the Zoological Society of London and the Global Footprint Network, uses the global Living Planet Index as a measure of the health of almost 8,000 populations of more than 2,500 species. The global Index shows a decrease by 30 per cent since 1970, with the tropics hardest hit showing a 60 per cent decline in less than 40 years.”)


James C. Zachos, Gerald R. Dickens & Richard E. Zeebe, An early Cenozoic perspective on greenhouse warming and carbon-cycle dynamics, 451 Nature 279 (supp., Jan. 17, 2008).


David D. Zhang, Peter Brecke, Harry F. Lee, Yuan-Qing He, and Jane Zhang, Global climate change, war, and population decline in recent human history, 104 (49) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 19214 (Dec. 4, 2007).


Renyi Zhang, Guohui Li, Jiwen Fan, Dong L. Wu, and Mario J. Molina, Intensification of Pacific Storm Track Linked to Asian Pollution,  104 (13) Science 5295 (Mar. 27, 2007). 


Xuebin Zhang, et al., Detection of human influence on twentieth-century precipitation trends, 448  (7152) Nature 461 (July 26, 2007).


[1] Other OECD publications on climate change are at:,3343,en_2649_34361_39760027_1_1_1_1,00.html See also Lawrence J. Speer, OECD Warns About Increasing Risk Of Coastal Flooding, Economic Impacts, BNA International Environment Daily (Dec. 6, 2007), at:

[2] Daniele Fanelli, Meat is murder on the environment,, July 18, 2007, at:

[3] Poorest 'in climate front line': Nations must agree an action plan to curb climate change or face an "unprecedented reversal" in human development, a UN assessment warns, BBC News, Nov. 27, 2007, at:

[4] California’s Greenhouse Gas Policies is at:  See also, Carolyn Whetzel, California Carbon-Trading Program Would Be Ineffective, Report Finds, BNA International Environment Daily, April 13, 2007, at:

[5] Updates to the Gerrard book are at:

[6] Richard Black, UN body to look at meat and climate link, BBC News, Mar. 24, 2010, at:  

[7] Hearing Examines Achievements and Opportunities for Climate Protection Under the Montreal Protocol has links to the May 23, 2007, testimony before the House Oversight and Government Reform committee, at:

[8] Jeff Day, U.S. Carbon Dioxide Output Growing Steadily, Driven by Electricity Use, Driving, Study Finds, 38 (16) BNA Environment Reporter 913 (April 20, 2007), at:

[9] Steven D. Cook, Fuel Efficiency: Large Efficiency Gains for Trucks, Buses Possible With New Technologies, Report Says, 61 BNA Daily Environment Report A-11 (April 1, 2010).

[10] Steven D. Cook, EPA: EPA Report Says Environmental Indicators Show Humans to Blame for Warming Earth, WCCR, April 27, 2010, at:

[11] Clayton Sandell & Bill Blakemore, Scientists Surprised by NASA Chief's Climate Comments: NASA Administrator Michael Griffin Questions Need to Combat Warming, ABC News, June 1, 2007, at:

[12] Climate Legacy of ‘Hockey Stick’:  There are few more provocative symbols in the debate over global warming than the ‘hockey stick,’ BBC News, Aug. 16, 2004, at:

[13] Climate changes shift springtime:A Europe-wide study has provided "conclusive proof" that the seasons are changing, with spring arriving earlier each year, researchers say, BBC News, Aug. 25, 2006, at:

[14] Sea Level Rise ‘Under-Estimated,’ BBC News, Dec. 14, 2006, at:

[15] David Fogarty, Beating Global Warming Need Not Cost the Earth: U.N., Scientific American, May 4, 2007, at:

[16] Steven D. Cook, Black Carbon: EPA Funding Bill Requires Study of Effects of Black Carbon on Climate Change, Health, WCCR (10/30/09), at

[17] Martin Merzer, Study: Warming hinders U.S. hurricanes, Miami Herald, Jan. 22, 2008, at: