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A Research Guide to the Legal System of the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh

 

By Omar Sial

 

Omar Sial is a partner in the Karachi based law firm of Omar Sial & Associates.

 

Published October 2008
Read the Update!

 

Table of Contents

 

1. Background

2. Location

3..Constitution
4. Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law)

5. Government

6. Parliament       

7. Court System and Case-Laws

7.1. The Supreme Court of Bangladesh

7.2. Legal and Judicial Capacity Building  

7.3. The Subordinate Courts and Tribunals

7.4. Civil Courts

7.5. Criminal Courts

8. Bangladesh Journal of Law

9. Bangladesh Law Reform

9.1. Law Commission - Bangladesh

10. Arbitration Law in Bangladesh

11. Legal Research

12. Bangladeshi Newspapers

13. Country Guides

14. Business Guides

 

1. Background

 

Bangladesh is officially known as the Peoples’ Republic of Bangladesh. Provincial leaders declared its independence on March 26, 1971 under the name Bangladesh, meaning Bengali nation. Bangladesh seceded from Pakistan on December 16, 1971, when Pakistani troops in East Pakistan surrendered to a joint command of Bangladesh and India, which had intervened in the civil war in support of Bangladesh.

 

2. Location

 

Bangladesh lies in the northeastern part of the Indian subcontinent – which is located in southern Asia; it was created out of the former Pakistani province of East Pakistan. The country consists mainly of the deltaic plains of the Ganges and Brahamaputra rivers and a portion of the hill country bordering Burma and northeastern India, except for a short frontier with Burma in the southeast and a coastline along the Bay of Bengal in the south. Bangladesh has an area of 55, 598 square miles (143, 998 sq. km). It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. Dacca (or Dhaka) is the national capital and the largest city.

 

3. Constitution

 

The Constitution was adopted on November 4, 1972 and has undergone fourteen amendments. President Ziaur Rehman amended the constitution in 1977 to remove the principle of secularism that had been enshrined in Part II: Fundamental State Policy, replacing it with "absolute trust and faith in Almighty Allah." The Eighth Amendment of 1988 inserted Article 2A, affirming that, "[t]he state religion of the Republic is Islam, but other religions may be practiced in peace and harmony in the republic." Some women’s groups challenged this move on the grounds that it risked exposing women to discriminatory laws.

 

Women’s rights and the principles of gender equality come under the Fundamental Principles of State Policy and are protected by Article 10 on the participation of women in national life as well as in Articles 26 to 29 of the section on Fundamental Rights, affirming equality of all citizens before the law. Rights of minority groups have been protected by Article 41, which reiterates that religions may be practiced in peace and harmony (subject to law, public order and morality). This affects the significant Hindu minority in Bangladesh (roughly equivalent in proportion to India’s Muslim minority) in addition to Christian and Buddhist minorities.

 

 For more information, read here: http://www.cao.gov.bd/constitution/index.htm 

                                                                http://www.law.emory.edu/ifl/legal/bangladesh.htm

 

4. Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law):

 

The Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937 (XXVI of 1937) is still an existing law in Bangladesh providing for the application of Muslim Personal Law in all matters relating to Muslim Family Affairs. A reference may be made to the case of Hefzur Rahman Vs Shamsun Nahar Begum, 51 DLR (AD) 172, in which a question of maintenance of a divorced Muslim woman was decided by the Appellate Division. Justice Mustafa Kamal (then a Judge of the Appellate Division) has, in his judgment, quoted section 2 of the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937, which is as follows:

 

“2. Application of Personal Law to Muslims - Notwithstanding any custom or usage to the contrary, in all questions (save questions relating to agricultural land) regarding intestate succession, special property of females, including personal property inherited or obtained under contract or gift or any other provision of Personal Law, marriage, dissolution of marriage, including talaq, ila, zihar, lian, khula and mubara’at, maintenance, dower, guardianship, gifts, trusts and trust properties, and wakfs (other than charities and charitable institutions and charitable and religious endowments) the rule of decision in cases where the parties are Muslims shall be the Muslim Personal Law (Shariat).”

 

In this case, mention has been made of Article 8 (1) of the Constitution which says that, “[t]he principles of absolute trust and faith in the Almighty Allah… shall constitute the fundamental principles of state policy,” and of Article 8 (1A) of the Constitution which says that, “[a]bsolute trust and faith in the Almighty Allah shall be the basis of all actions” (page 194, paras 92 and 93). From the above quoted provision of Act XXVI of 1937, supported by the provisions of the Constitution, it can be said that Muslim personal law is an eternal law prevailing as the only law for all Muslim Family Affairs. Hence, there cannot be any change in it nor can it be amalgamated with any other personal law of any other religion.

 

While the Constitution establishes Islam as the state religion, it provides for the right to practice -subject to law, public order, and morality - the religion of one's choice. While the Government generally respects this provision in practice, religion exerts a powerful influence on politics, and the Government is sensitive to the Muslim consciousness of its political allies and the majority of its citizens. Citizens generally are free to practice the religion of their choice; however, police are normally ineffective in upholding law and order and are often slow to assist members of religious minorities who have been victims of crimes. Although the Government states that acts of violence against members of religious minority groups are politically or economically motivated and cannot be solely attributed to religion, human rights activists reported an increase in religiously-motivated violence.

 

5. Government

 

The president, while chief of state, holds a largely ceremonial post; the real power is held by the prime minister, who is head of government. The president is elected by the legislature (Parliament) every 5 years. The president's circumscribed powers are substantially expanded during the tenure of a caretaker government. Under the 13th Amendment, which Parliament passed in March 1996, a caretaker government assumes power temporarily to oversee general elections after dissolution of the Parliament. In the caretaker government, the president has control over the Ministry of Defense, the authority to declare a state of emergency, and the power to dismiss the chief adviser and other members of the caretaker government. Once elections have been held and a new government and Parliament are in place, the president's powers and position revert to their largely ceremonial role. The Chief Adviser and other advisers to the caretaker government must be appointed within 15 days from the day the current Parliament expires.

 

The prime minister is appointed by the president. The prime minister must be a Member of Parliament (MP) whom the president feels commands the confidence of the majority of other MPs. The cabinet is composed of ministers selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president. At least 90% of the ministers must be MPs. The other 10% may be non-MP experts, or "technocrats", who are not otherwise disqualified from being elected MPs. According to the constitution, the president can dissolve Parliament upon the written request of the prime minister.

 

For more information, read here.

For more information on the Chief Adviser’s Office, read here.

 

6. Parliament, the Jatiya Sangsad

 

The legislature is a unicameral, 300-seat body. All of its members are elected by universal suffrage at least every five years. Parliament amended the constitution in May 2004, making a provision for adding 45 seats reserved for women and to be distributed among political parties in proportion to their numerical strength in Parliament. The Awami League did not take its share of the reserved seats, arguing that they did not support the indirect election or nomination of women to fill these seats. Several women's groups also demanded direct election to fill the reserved seats for women.

All citizens of Bangladesh of and above the age of 18, who have registered themselves as voters, form the electorate. Each constituency elects one Member of Parliament on the basis of direct election. All citizens of Bangladesh having attained the age of 25 qualify to be elected to Parliament. Those disqualified include the insane, un-discharged bankrupts, persons who on conviction for a criminal offence involving moral turpitude have been sentenced to imprisonment for not less than two years unless five years have elapsed since their release, persons owing allegiance to a foreign state, and persons holding an office of profit in the service of the Republic.

A general election for a new Parliament takes place on the same day in all constituencies. Depending on the size of a constituency and its total number of voters, a number of polling centres are set up with arrangements for voters to exercise their franchise freely, peacefully and in secrecy. Polling officials in each centre - in the presence of candidates or their nominees - count votes. The result is sent to the Returning Officer in sealed covers together with ballot papers. The Returning Officer, generally the Deputy Commissioner of the district, communicates the result of each constituency to the Election Commission after he has compiled the results in the presence of the candidates or their authorised representatives. Unofficial results start being announced in the state radio and television from the evening of the Election Day. The Election Commission declares the result of the general election formally a few days later through the publication of the names of winning candidates in the official Bangladesh Gazette. Members-elect are administered an oath of office by the outgoing Speaker. 

 

For more detail, read here.

For more detail on important legislations, read here.

 

7. Court System and Case Laws

 

The legal system of Bangladesh is based on a common law system. However, unlike other common law jurisdictions, Bangladesh’s Supreme Court has the power to not only interpret laws made by the Parliament, but to also declare them null and void and to enforce fundamental rights of the citizens. Although founded on the English common law system, the laws of Bangladesh take a statutory form, which are enacted by the legislature and interpreted by the higher courts.

 

There are strong legal obligations for the codification, translation and publication of laws. For example, Section 6 of the Bangladesh Laws (Revision and Declaration) Act, 1973 (Act no. VIII of 1973), provides that, "[a]ll Acts of Parliament, Ordinances and President's Order in force in Bangladesh shall be printed in chronological order under the name and style of Bangladesh Code." Please, see the Code here.

 

The emergence of Bangladesh as an independent, sovereign country called for necessary amendments, adaptations and the repeal of certain laws as well as the enactment of new laws and translation of laws into Bangla version to meet the changed and changing political, social   and economic needs of the new country. Commensurate with this requirement, the Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs started examining the existing laws for adaptation, codification and publication for said purposes. Accordingly, Bangladesh Code, Volumes I-XI were published containing the laws enacted during 1836 to 1938. But due to a lack of proper leadership, manpower, and sound organizational support, the process had proceeded no further. As a result, laws enacted after 1938 have been kept scattered and unattended to. As of yet, no effective steps have been taken to update the Bangladesh Codes which have already been published. It is important to mention that, until today, no comprehensive step has been taken to update and compile rules, by-laws, regulations, statutory orders, etc. 

 

7.1. The Supreme Court of Bangladesh

The Judiciary of Bangladesh consists of a Supreme Court, subordinate courts and tribunals. The Supreme Court of Bangladesh is comprised of the Appellate Division and the High Court Division. It is the apex court of the country; other courts and tribunals are subordinate to it.

The Appellate Division shall have jurisdiction to hear and determine appeals from judgments, decrees, orders or sentences of the High Court Division. It has rule making power for regulating the practice and procedure of each division and of any court subordinate to it.

The High Court Division, though a division of the Supreme Court, is, for all practical purposes, an independent court with its powers, functions and jurisdictions well defined and determined under the Constitution and different laws. It has both appellate as well as original jurisdiction. It hears appeals from orders, decrees, and judgments of subordinate courts and tribunals. It has original jurisdiction to hear Writ Applications under article 102 of the Constitution, which is known as extra ordinary constitutional jurisdiction. It has further original jurisdiction, inter alia, in respect to company and admiralty matters under statutes. The High Court Division, in special circumstances, also has powers and jurisdiction to hear and dispose of cases as the court of first instance under article 110 of the Constitution. The High Court Division shall have superintendence and control over all courts and tribunals subordinate to it.

For more information, read here.

 

7.2. Legal and Judicial Capacity Building Project

 

The Ministry has undertaken a development project called the Legal and Judicial Capacity Building Project. The total estimated cost of the project is Tk.228.75 crore. The project is financed by the World Bank, Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) and the Government's own resources. The project period is fixed until December 2006. The project is designed to address two broad, critical areas and issues - namely: Legal Capacity Building and Judicial Capacity Building, detailed further below.

 

 

For more information, read here.

 

7.3. The Subordinate Courts and Tribunals

 

There are a wide variety of subordinate courts and tribunals. Such courts and tribunals are the products of statutes. Their powers, functions and jurisdictions are also determined by the respective statutes. These are the basic courts in the system of the judiciary of Bangladesh. The major bulk of the cases, both civil and criminal, are tried and heard in such courts and tribunals. Certain tribunals are termed as administrative tribunals. Such courts and tribunals are spread all over the country at the district levels. The subordinate courts in Bangladesh can be divided into two broad classes, namely: civil courts and criminal courts.

 

7.4. Civil Courts

 

The civil court system is more popularly known as the subordinate judiciary. The civil courts are created under the Civil Courts Act of 1887. The Act provides for five tiers of civil courts in a district, which—bottom-up—are:

 

i) Court of assistant judge;

ii) Court of senior assistant judge;

iii) Court of joint district judge;

iv) Court of additional district judge; and,

v) Court of district judge.

 

The first three are courts of first instance with powers, functions and jurisdictions in respect to subject matter, territory and pecuniary value determined by or under statutes. The remaining two are generally courts of appeal in civil matters.

 

7.5. Criminal Courts

  

  • Courts of Session
  • Courts of Metropolitan Session Judges
  • Special Courts/ Tribunals
  • Courts of Metropolitan Magistrate
  • Courts of Magistrate

 

For more information, read here.

 

8. Bangladesh Journal of Law

 

Published by Bangladesh Institute of Law and International Affairs (BILIA).

For more information, read here.

 

9. Codes and Law Reports

 

In Bangladesh, the law reports are published according to the provisions of the Law Reports Act, 1875. There are at least six law reports now in Bangladesh, the most popular one is the Dhaka Law Reports (popularly known as DLR) which started its publication in 1948. Bangladesh Legal Decisions (BLD) is published under the authority of the Bangladesh Bar Council. The other law reports are Bangladesh Law Chronicles, Law Guardian, Bangladesh Law Times, and the Mainstream Law Reports. Even after the establishment of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh in 1972, a law report was published for a few years under the supervision of the Supreme Court. But that did not continue for long. These Law Reports basically contain the judgments, orders and decisions of the Supreme Court of Bangladesh.

 

9.1. Bangladesh Gazette

 

Bangladesh Government Press - widely known as BG Press - is the lying-in house of government publications, forms, classified materials, budget reports, bills, acts, ordinances, resolution leaflets, and posters. From synchronizing with the geo-political change and rearrangements that came on the map of this area, BG Press has achieved its present infrastructure, manpower, technology back-up and product range. One may find here articles related to the Bangladesh Government’s Act and Ordinance:

 

Emergency Law

Mobile Court Ordinance

Judicial Separation

Code of Criminal Procedure

 

Bangladeshi Legal Information Institute.

 

Chancery Law Chronicles

 

The above provides a comprehensive, searchable database of Bangladesh Laws and Judgments.

 

The Heidelberg Bangladesh Law Translation Project

 

This site contains the English translation of laws published in Bangla.

 

9.1. Law Commission - Bangladesh

 

The law of the land in a dynamic society requires that it be constantly reviewed by an authority which is manned by persons possessing an adequate and thorough knowledge of law and the society in which it operates. Reflecting this, different countries at different times felt the need to establish a law reform agency; Law Commissions have been set up to fulfill this need. The Law Commission in Bangladesh came about in just such a historic process.

 

For more information, read here.

 

To access Bangladesh Law Commission reports, read here.

 

10. Arbitration Law in Bangladesh

 

In Bangladesh, the present law of arbitration is contained mainly in the Arbitration Act, 1940, there being separate Acts dealing with the enforcement of foreign awards.  There are also stray provisions as to arbitration, scattered in special Acts.  Three types of arbitration are contemplated by the Arbitration Act of 1940, namely: (i) arbitration in the course of a suit; (ii) arbitration with the intervention of the court; and, (iii) arbitration otherwise than in the course of a suit and without the intervention of the court. In practice, the last category attracts the maximum number of cases.

 

For more information, read here.

 

11. Legal Research

 

The following website(s) may be of help to a legal researcher:

 

Asian Law


A free, online bibliographic database, which can be searched or browsed by country or legal subject, of books, chapters in books, journal articles and theses that discuss the role, practice and place of law within Asian legal systems. A document delivery service is available as are links to websites for each country and legal area (Asian Law Centre, University of Melbourne)

 

South Asian and South Pacific Finance, Banking and Tax Locator


Provides links to various topics including economy, taxation, banking, finance and investment for the South Asian and South Pacific countries

 

Asian LII

 

Provides sources of information on Bangladesh courts, case law, government, indigenous law, infrastructure, ADR, etc.

 

Books

 

  • The following book(s) may be helpful to a legal researcher

The Legal System of Bangladesh

By Azizul Hoque - 1980

 

Hālima, Mo. Ābdula, LL.B.

 

Patwari, A. B. M. Mafizul Islam.

 

Patwari, A. B. M. Mafizul Islam

 

·        Legal Pluralism in Conflict: Coping with Cultural Diversity in Law - Page 125

By Prakash. Shah - Law – 2005

 

By Sven Cederroth - Political Science - 1997 – 68 pages

 

By Angelo M. Venardos - Business & Economics - 2005 - 247 pages

 

Bangladesh Government

 

This site has information on Bangladesh, its constitution and various government ministries.

 

Cabinet Division

 

The functions of the Cabinet Division include: secretarial work for the cabinet and its committees; custody of papers and documents of the cabinet and committees and their decisions; review of progress and implementation of cabinet and committee decisions; remuneration and privileges of the president prime minister and other ministers; immunity of the president; administration of oath of the president and resignation of the president; rules of business and allocation of business among the ministries and divisions; Toshakana; flag rules, national anthem rules and national emblem rules; appointment and resignation of the Prime Minister, ministers, ministers of state and deputy ministers and administration of their oath.

 

Prime Minister's Office

 

The Chief Adviser's Office (CAO) is the office of the head of the government of Bangladesh.

 

Ministry of Establishment

 

The Ministry of Establishment is primarily responsible for management of public administration. MOE provides necessary assistance and support to all concerned on administrative matters.

 

The purpose of this website is to provide information about various functional aspects of the Ministry.  A significant role to this end is performed through different organs/departments attached to the Ministry.  Accordingly, the modus operandi of these units may also be accessed. 

 

Ministry of Finance

 

This website has information on the annual budgets which have been passed since 2000.

 

Ministry of Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs:

 

This website has information on the courts of Bangladesh and certain judicial offices.

 

Parliament Secretariat

 

This website has information on the constitution and parliamentary procedures.

 

Ministry of Agriculture

 

This website has information on issues related to agriculture. The site also has a link to agriculture related laws.

 

Ministry of Information

 

The Ministry of Information has a functional setup comprised of twelve departments under its aegis. These are:

 

(i)               Bangladesh Betar;

(ii)             Bangladesh Television;

(iii)           Department of Mass Communication;

(iv)            Department of Films and Publication;

(v)              Bangladesh Film Archive;

(vi)            Press Information Department;

(vii)          Press Institute of Bangladesh;

(viii)         Bangladesh Sangbad Sangstha;

(ix)            Bangladesh Press Council;

(x)             Bangladesh Film Censor Board;

(xi)            National Institute of Mass Communication; and,

(xii)          Bangladesh Film Development Corporation.

 

Besides these - in the outside - six Press Wings are working in Bangladesh and six important cities where the Bangladesh Mission is located, including:

 

(i)               Washington;

(ii)             New York;

(iii)           London;

(iv)            Islamabad;

(v)              New Delhi; and,

(vi)            Kolkata.

 

The Ministry of Information website has information on the various organizations mentioned above.

 

Ministry of Shipping

 

Apart from texts of important shipping-related circulars and various organizations under the supervision and control of the Ministry of Shipping, this website also has information on:

 

  • Ports;
  • Light houses and light ships;
  • Navigation and shipping;
  • Mercantile marine, admiralty jurisdiction and offences committed on high seas;
  • Inland water transport and shipping, marine services and elimination of danger of shipping;
  • Inland waterways;
  • Administration of mechanically propelled vessels and the rules made there under;
  • Engineer and ship surveyors and register of inland shipping;
  • Marine shipping and navigation, provision of education and training for mercantile marine;
  • Organization and maintenance of mainland, island and inter-island shipping services,
  • Co-ordination activities relating to this Ministry and research;
  • Legislation relating to shipping and navigation;
  • Liaison with international organizations and matters relating to treaties and agreements with other countries and world bodies relating to subjects allotted to this Ministry;
  • All laws on subjects allotted to this Ministry;
  • Inquiries and statistics on any of the subjects allotted to this Ministry; and,
  • Fees in respect of any of the subjects allotted to this Ministry except fees taken in courts.

 

Ministry of Environment

 

The Ministry of Environment & Forests is the nodal agency in the administrative structure of the Central Government, for the planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing of the implementation of environmental and forestry programs. MoEF oversees all environmental matters in the country and is a permanent member of the Executive Committee of the National Economic Council. This site contains texts of environmental laws and various treaties to which Bangladesh is a party.

 

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

 

Amongst others things, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs website contains information on the fundamental foreign policy of Bangladesh.

 

Ministry of Food

 

To access the Ministry of Food website, click here.

 

Ministry of Commerce

 

The Ministry of Commerce, of the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, is mainly entrusted with the responsibility for dealing with all trade and commerce in Bangladesh. This website contains important trade laws, policies for import and export, and WTO related issues.

 

Ministry of Labor and Employment

 

The Ministry of Labor & Employment has taken its present shape and status following on different changes and developments which have taken place since independence. Considering the importance of employment for socio-economic development and poverty alleviation, the present government divided the Ministry of Labor & Manpower and created the present Ministry of Labor & Employment in December 2001.


The objective of the Ministry of Labor & Employment is to alleviate poverty by creating employment opportunities for the poor, unemployed and unskilled labor force of the country.


The functions of the Ministry of Labor & Employment are realized through the execution of different activities, such as:

 

  • Converting unskilled labor into semi-skilled and skilled labor through imparting technical training;
  • Creating congenial environment between employee and the employer to increase the production of factories and industries; and
  • Ensuring the welfare of labor through the formulation and implementation of labor laws, labor wages, etc.

 

Immigration Police of Bangladesh

 

The Immigration service, Bangladesh Police is tasked with providing immigration-related service and security to Bangladesh through the well managed entry and exit of people. The immigration service is provided by the Special Branch of the Bangladesh Police. The abovementioned site contains immigration laws and procedures.

 

Local Democracy

 

This website contains laws related to local government in Bangladesh.

 

Bangladesh Road Transport Authority

 

This website contains laws related to motor vehicles and transportation.

 

Bangladesh Police

 

This site contains information on the police structure in Bangladesh and has links to other law enforcement agencies.

 

Official Website of Ministry of Expatriates' Welfare and Overseas Employment

 

This site contains valuable information on bills, notices and consultations in connection with expatriate workers and the enhancement of overseas employment.

 

Chitagong Stock Exchange

 

This site contains laws in connection with investment in Bangladesh.

 

National Board of Revenue of Bangladesh

 

The National Board of Revenue (NBR) is the central authority for tax administration in Bangladesh. Administratively, it is under the Internal Resources Division (IRD) of the Ministry of Finance (MoF). MoF has three divisions, namely:

 

  • The Finance Division,
  • The Internal Resources Division (IRD); and,
  • The Economic Relations Division (ERD).

 

Each division is headed by a secretary to the government. Secretary, IRD is the ex-office Chairman of NBR. NBR is responsible for the formulation and continuous re-appraisal of tax-policies and tax-laws in Bangladesh.

 

Bangladesh Bank

 

This site contains information on management, the Bangladesh Bank Library, economic data, and major economic indicators, including:

 

  • Monthly updates;
  • Exchange rates;
  • International reserves;
  • Balance of payments;
  • Bank credit;
  • Bank deposits;
  • Money supply;
  • Monetary survey;
  • National income aggregates;
  • Foreign trades;
  • Export receipts;
  • Import payments;
  • Non-resident investment;
  • Tax exemptions;
  • Foreign exchange guidelines;
  • Money laundering risks;
  • Prudential regulations for banks;
  • Procurement regulation;
  • Guidelines for merger/amalgamation of banks/financial institution; and,
  • Guidelines/notifications.

 

Securities Related Laws and Notifications of Bangladesh

 

To retrieve information related to securities related laws and notifications of Bangladesh, click here.

 

Election Commission Secretariat

 

Article 118 of the Constitution provides for the establishment of an Election Commission for Bangladesh, consisting of a chief election commissioner and such number of other election commissioners, if any, as the president may from time to time direct. The appointment of the chief election commissioner and other election commissioners (if any) is made by the president. When the election commission consists of more than one person, the chief election commissioner is to act as its chairman. Under the Constitution, the term of office of any election commissioner is five years from the date on which he enters into office. A person who has held office as chief election commissioner is not eligible for appointment in the service of the Republic.

 

Bangladesh Public Service Commission Secretariat

 

The Bangladesh Public Service Commission (PSC) is a quasi judicial body established under the Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. It works under the provisions of articles 137 to 140 of the Constitution and certain other rules and regulations made by the government from time to time under the Constitution.

 

Bangladesh Institute of Legal Advancement

 

BILA's vision is to help ensure access to justice for all, in a formal justice system, through research, education, training and development; with a special drive to create awareness among disputants and litigants for effective implementation of alternative dispute resolution [ADR] in Bangladesh.

 

Privatization Board, Bangladesh

 

Information on the privatization board and privatization policies and procedures can be found here.

 

Wikipedia entry on the laws of Bangladesh

 

The Wikipedia entry on the laws of Bangladesh may be accessed here.

 

Information Technology Laws

 

You may find here an article addressing information technology laws in Bangladesh. It contains information on intellectual property (IPR), protection of IPR, unions and forced labor, the regulatory system, corruption, dispute systems, foreign investment issues, investment laws and capital outflow laws.

 

Report on Laws and Legal Procedures Concerning the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Bangladesh

 

The abovementioned report may be accessed here.

 

An Article on the Challenges for Legal Reforms In Bangladesh

 

The abovementioned article may be accessed here.

 

An Article on Jurist on the Constitution, Government & Legislation of Bangladesh

 

The abovementioned article may be accessed here.

 

An Article on Environment Legislation in Bangladesh

 

The abovementioned article may be accessed here.

 

Website of the Association of Environmental Lawyers of Bangladesh

 

The abovementioned website may be accessed here.

 

Forms of Bangladesh

 

This website has been developed to help the citizen of Bangladesh to find frequently used government forms in a digital format.

 

An Article on the State of Juvenile Justice and Laws in Bangladesh

 

The abovementioned article may be accessed here.

 

An Article on the Law Relating to Vested and Non-Resident Property in Bangladesh

 

The abovementioned article may be accessed here.

 

Bangladesh Institute of Labour Studies

 

The website for the Bangladesh Institute of Labour Studies may be accessed here.

 

Election Laws of Bangladesh

 

A review of the election laws of Bangladesh can be found on this site.

 

An Article on Governance, Structural Adjustment & the State of Corruption in Bangladesh

 

The abovementioned article may be accessed here.

 

NGO Affairs Bureau (NGOAB)

 

The NGO Affairs Bureau (NGOAB) was established in 1990 through an administrative order of the Government. Its prime objective is to provide one-stop service to the NGOs operating with foreign assistance and registered under the Foreign Donations (Voluntary Activities) Regulation Ordinance, 1978. In addition, it facilitates the activities of the NGOs in the country, and ensures their accountability to the state and thereby to the people of the country. Initially, it was located in the President Secretariat's Public Division and, later on, in the Cabinet Division. In 1991, with the re-introduction of a parliamentary form of government, the NGOAB was placed under the Prime Minister's Office as a regulatory body overseeing NGOs with the status of a government department.

 

12. Bangladeshi Newspapers


In Bangla

 

The Daily Ittefaq

The Daily Janakantha

Weekly Jai Jai Din

Prothom Alo


In English


The Daily Star
The Daily New Nation
The Weekly Holiday
Dhaka Courier
Dhaka: Bangladesh Web's News
Independent
The Financial Express

 

13. Country Guides

Virtual Bangladesh
Cyber Bangladesh
Bangladesh.Net
Sapner Bangladesh
Amar Bangladesh
Bangla 2000

 

14. Business Guides

Bangladesh Securities and Exchange Commission
Bhuiyan Consulting
Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority

Bd Export.com
Delta Brac Housing Finance Corporation Ltd. (DBH)
Dhaka Stock Exchange, Bangladesh