Research Guide on Transboundary Freshwater Treaties and Other Resources
Arundhati Ashok Satkalmi is a Senior Research Librarian at the Rittenberg Law Library of St. John's University School of Law. Prior to joining St. John's in 1991, Aru worked as the Senior Information Specialist at the corporate headquarters of the Exxon Corporation in New York. In addition to a Masters in Library Science from St. John's University, she holds a Masters in Government and Politics where she specialized in International Law. International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments of 2004: An Analysis of Logical and Practical Aspects was her thesis. In 2012, she earned a certificate in earned a certificate from UNITAR in International Environmental Law. She also holds a Master of Science degree in Geology from Poona University. She has presented on the topic of international marine environmental law to the Indian Society of International Law and American Association of Law Librarians.
The idea of creating this research guide was originally conceived by Barbara H. Bean who is a Reference and Public Services Librarian at Michigan State University College of Law, East Lansing, Michigan. Acting on the idea, she published the original research guide in April 2007. This article is a revised and updated version of that article.
Published February 2014
Table of Contents
2. Water Basics
Water, the most common substance on earth, covers seventy percent of the earth's surface. It is a renewable, but finite resource. Less than three percent of the world's water is fresh and most of that is trapped in glaciers or inaccessible snow cover.  In addition to accessible surface water contained in lakes and rivers, the vast majority of the earth’s freshwater consists of groundwater held in underground aquifers. Although a "hidden resource", groundwater serves the basic needs of more than half the world's population and may be the only source of water in arid and semi-arid regions.
Besides being a natural beverage to quench thirst, freshwater is essential for all aspects of human activity. Agriculture — a major source of food and human sustenance; navigation — for tourism, recreation and commerce; energy generation — the necessity of computerized world in this information age; and many other aspects of civilization would be unimaginable in absence of freshwater supply. Life on Earth and civilization will be adversely affected if freshwater supply is inadequate.
Approximately 260 of the world's river basins, with a majority of the world's freshwater flow, cross or create international political boundaries.  145 countries, with close to half of the world's population, are located in international river basins.  Therefore, cooperative management of this precious natural resource is imperative. Although conflicts over water resources date back thousands of years — in spite of, or perhaps because of the crucial role water plays in sustaining human civilization — nations are developing ways to share freshwater resources. In addition to global conventions and rules governing the use of water resources, hundreds of regional treaties and agreements exist between and among nations to address issues ranging from acceptable water quality and quantity to setting of national borders. Many treaties contain mechanisms for conflict resolution and many establish international commissions for water resource management.
Different forms and levels in which water exists, in conjunction with multiple uses of the resource, and diversity of adjudicative bodies such as commissions, tribunals, and courts, present a very complex web of freshwater international law. Moreover, bilateral or regional agreements and related documents tend to exist only in the language(s) of the involved entities. These facts present a challenge in conducting research. Although many commercial vendors such as Westlaw, LexisNexis, and HeinOnline provide access to documents and literature for a price, this article dwells on accessing information resources which are available on the Internet at no cost. The article does not claim to be an exhaustive one and should be looked at as the tip of the iceberg.
2. Water Basics
A sample of resources containing terminology, water data and information about world water resources.
- International River Basin Register  is one of the most valuable resources developed by Water Conflict Management and Transportation Program of Oregon State University. The information, mainly of a geographic nature, is divided by five continents and is current as of July 2012.
- International Glossary of Hydrology  is a partnership publication of the UNESCO and WMO. Published in 2012, this multilingual product will facilitate the precise communication that is essential in any international communication.
- UN-Documentation Centre on Water and Sanitations (UNDCWS) , through its river basin category, gives access to informative literature about 134 river basins covering all parts of the world. 
- United States Geologic Survey (USGS): Water Basics Glossary familiarizes a novice with the essential vocabulary. 
- The World's Water is a biennial report  — a project of the Pacific Institute — on issues pertaining to freshwater resources. It provides both; a detailed analysis of the most significant trends and events and up-to-date data on water resources and their use. Selected portions of Volume 7  are accessible and Volume 8 of this series of monographs is expected to be released in January, 2014.
- Convention and Statute on the Regime of Navigable Waterways of International Concern  (Barcelona, April 20, 1921), 7 LNTS 35
- Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat  (Ramsar, February 2, 1971), 996 UNTS 245 
- Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes  (Helsinki 1992)
- Protocol on Water and Health to the 1992 Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes 
- United Nations Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses  (UN General Assembly, May 21, 1997), 36 ILM 700; UN Doc A/51/869
3.2. Sources of Regional, Multilateral and Bilateral Agreements
- Ecolex  is a product of a collaboration among the FAO, IUCN and UNEP. The website opens to a search page where a list of treaties and agreements relating to freshwater can be compiled by checking the treaties box. An advanced search option enables researchers to fine tune search query.
- Environmental Treaties and Resource Indicators or ENTRI  is a searchable database, which includes treaties and agreements relating to freshwater. The database was developed by the Columbia University.
- Groundwater in International Law: Compilation of Treaties and other Legal Instruments , also called FAO Legislative Study #86 (2005), is a compilation by Stefano Burchi and Kerstin Mechlem and prepared for the FAO Legal Office.  Although it needs updating, it is a valuable resource.
- International Freshwater Treaties Database  is maintained at Oregon State University (OSU). This searchable database includes links to many of the treaties that are described. Among many resources made available by OSU, is particularly interesting. It contains an historical overview of international river basin management, a detailed listing of more than 400 international freshwater agreements, and a collection of thematic maps.
- International Water Governance: Conservation of Freshwater Ecosystems  is an edited work by Alejandro Omar Iza. Available for free download, it was published in 2004 under the auspices of the International Union for Conservation of Nature or IUCN . This publication provides analysis of the most relevant provisions of the treaties and agreements dealing with freshwater ecosystems. Inclusion of an analysis of relevant European Union legislation is a bonus! Updating of this resource will enhance its value and usefulness.
3.3. Non-treaty Instruments
- International Law Association - Berlin Rules on Water Resources 
- Helsinki Rules on the Uses of the Waters of International Rivers 
- International Law Association - The Seoul Rules on International Groundwaters (1986) 
3.4. Selected Background Materials
Topics Completed: Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses (Topic 8.3). Topics under consideration: Shared Natural Resources (includes draft convention on transboundary aquifers) (Topic 8.5)
Sources of International Water Law
also known as the
FAO Legislative Study 65 (1998
Documents governing the development and management of international watercourses: rivers, lakes and underground aquifers formed or traversed by an international border between or among sovereign states. Updates and replaces "The Law of International Water Resources", FAO Legislative Study 23 (1980).
- Sources of International Law Association Rules on Water Resources is a compilation of the Water Resources Law Committee of the International Law association. Final Conference Report (sources) Berlin 2004  includes excerpts from various legal instruments that support the approach of the Rules, and indicate trends in customary international law.
Analysis of the interface between land tenure and water rights.
- Water Law and Standards Database  was created by collaboration of two NGOs: the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Along with the access to water-related treaties, a click on Search in one country or compare countries link gives specialized search options for Fishlex and Faolex . Given the association of water with fishing rights and use for irrigation purpose, this specialization is well justified. Of course, international agreements on international water sources are searchable under the Water Treaties tab. Access to the legislation of individual countries is also facilitated.
- UNESCO Water Portal  can be described as a knowledgebase. Research centers around the world contribute scientific research and information, which aids countries in managing their water resources.
- UNEP Freshwater Portal  is a representation of UNEP efforts to raise awareness offreshwater-related issues. UNEP also assists the development, implementation and enforcement of water resource management policies, laws and regulations. The Governing Council Decisions on Water under the Water Policy & Strategy tab gives access to the official documents and sheds light on the work of the Global Ministerial Environment Forum.
- UNEP also publishes Global International Waters Assessment reports.  The reports present a comprehensive and integrated assessment of international waters in different regions. It is a systematic assessment of environmental conditions and problems in transboundary freshwater and surface waters, as well as ground waters. However, the assessment is of predominantly for marine and coastal regions.
- International Union for Conservation of Nature or IUCN , the world’s oldest and largest global environmental organization, helps to find pragmatic solutions to the most pressing environment and development challenges. Its water progam  brings together many aspects related to freshwater. Among the many excellent criteria explored include: BRIDGE – Building River Dialogue and Governance , which aims to build water governance capacities in transboundary river basins; Ridge to Reef , which deals with managing waters from source to sea; and Resources , which includes case studies, reports, and publications that immediately caught my attention. However, it is entirely possible that I am overlooking other equally valuable aspects.
- International Water Law Project ,  with the mission to serve as the premier resource on the Internet for international water law and policy issues, endeavors to educate and provide relevant resources to the public and to facilitate cooperation over the world’s fresh water resources. The opening screen shows status of the , interesting recent publications, and other events and recent developments. The Documents tab is divided by continents and international division; the Institutions tab includes Transboundary Water Management Organizations, Inter-Governmental Organizations; the Case Law tab gives access to summaries, as well as the full texts of the water related decisions of the Permanent Court of Justice, International Court of Justice, and other Tribunals; the Bibliography is broken down into more than twenty geographic and issue-related topics with excellent search options; and the Blog, with scholarly posts with maps and plenty of hyperlinked documents, is invaluable to any researcher.
- Pacific Institute  has adopted an interdisciplinary approach for its work. It works with more than ten freshwater-related issues, which are incorporated under its Issues tab. Water and Conflict grabbed my attention. It includes a unique compilation, — an annually updated resource. The date of the first entry is 3000 BC and the last entry, as of December 28, 2013, is March 8, 2012. Other categories such as the Human Right to Water and Sustainable Water Management – Local to Global , are also informative.
- Worldwatch Institute  works to accelerate the transition to a sustainable world. Unfortunately, the site lacks a specific water-related tab or category searching for freshwater or similar term(s) that would produce informative results.
- World Water Council  is an international multi-stakeholder organization, which promotes awareness, creates initiatives and offers forum for critical water issues. Forum documents and publications are made available under the Library tab, along with official documents and activity reports. The Council produces a bimonthly publication: Water Policy: Official Journal of the World Water Council.
Management of transboundary water resources is sometimes delegated to a regional commission. Listed below are commissions for which websites were located.
- Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization or ACTO was formed by eight contracting parties: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. The website is available in English and Spanish. The treaty provides for formation of “commissions charged with enforcing …the decisions taken at meetings of foreign affairs ministers and by the Amazonian Cooperation Council, … .”  Further information about the organization and institution is available under the ACTO tab. Options to access documents located under the Library tab and Online News access are provided under the ACTO Agency tab, enrich the information.
- Autonomous Binational Authority of the Basin of Lake Titicaca was created to reinforce water resource sharing arrangement between Bolivia and Peru. The website is in Spanish. However, additional details are made available by Oregon State University at Case Study of Transboundary Dispute Resolution: Lake Titicaca . http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/research/case_studies/Documents/lake_titicaca.pdf 
- Finnish-Swedish Border River Commission was established in 1972. In 2010, a new Swedish-Finnish border river agreement entered into force, resulting in the establishment of the new Border River Commission (BRC). The BRC develops environmental cooperation in the border river area and performs duties based on the EU’s water-related directives. It submits proposals, motions, and issues statements on matters related to water management. The Commission also monitors water quality and any activities affecting the state of the transboundary waters. 
- Finnish Norwegian Transboundary Water Commission . The Norwegian and Finnish governments concluded an agreement on transboundary waters in 1980 and established the Finnish-Norwegian Transboundary Water Commission. The commission has an advisory role. Its main tasks include submitting proposals and motions and issuing statements on matters related to the management of the transboundary waters, supervising and monitoring their condition and quality, preventing the deterioration of the transboundary waters, and monitoring construction along the waterways and other activities affecting the state of them. 
- Guadiana River Commission . The Guadiana River originates in Spain and enters Portugal. Its course partially forms the boundary between the two nations. Both countries share its water. The Commission’s website is in Spanish. Google offers a translation; however, it connects to texts that are in Spanish. Transboundary River Basin Management Regimes: The Guadiana Basin Case Study sheds more light on the commission and its function. 
- Intergovernmental Coordinating Committee of the River Plate Basin Countries  was formalized by the Treaty on the River Plate Basin (English version)  among Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay for the harmonious and equitable utilization of the river resources. The website gives access to the text in Spanish.
- International Boundary and Waters Commission  was established in 1889 to administer and provide binational solutions to issues that arise between the United States and Mexico. The IBWC has responsibility for applying the boundary and water treaties between the United States and Mexico and settling differences that may arise in their application. The Mexican section is under the administrative supervision of the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is headquartered in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The and the 1944 Treaty , which expanded its responsibilities and changed its name to the International Boundary and Water Commission, both provide that it shall consist of a United States section and a Mexican section. The website of the Commission, through its links, gives access to text of the treaties. Other links connect the user to various reports, studies, news, publications, and sources of other relevant information. Interestingly, the “ links” link leads the researcher to government and other agencies that work with or are related to the USIBWC. Mexican counterparts can be accessed by clicking . 
- International Commission for the Protection of Lake Geneva .  The International Commission for the Protection of Lake Geneva (CIPEL) was officially founded by a convention  between the French and Swiss governments. It was signed in 1962 and became effective in 1963. Although the web interface is in English, the documentation is mainly in French. At present, the commission works towards a rejuvenation of the rivers in the lake’s catchment area to protect biodiversity as well as lake waters.
- International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River . The Danube River Protection Convention  forms the overall legal instrument for co-operation on transboundary water management in the Danube River Basin. The Convention was signed on June 29 1994, in Sofia (Bulgaria) and came into force in 1998. It aims to ensure that surface waters and groundwater within the Danube River Basin are managed and used sustainably and equitably. Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine are the countries within the Danube basin area. The legal and policy documents , as well as maps and databases providing water related information, are available under the Publications tab at the website. 
- International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe was formed by a convention  among the governments of the Federal Republic of Germany and of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic and the European Economic Community. The contracting parties are to cooperate in the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe to prevent the pollution of the Elbe and its drainage area. The main goals are the possibility of obtaining drinking water from water pumped from the river’s accompanying groundwater, the possibility to use its water and sediments for agriculture, return to a close-to-natural ecosystem with healthy species diversity, and reducing the bad effects of Elbe river basin on the North Sea. 
- International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine was established by the  and is the basis for international cooperation for the protection of the Rhine within the ICPR. It was signed on 12 April 1999 by representatives of the governments of the five Rhine-bordering countries: France, Germany, Luxembourg, Netherlands, and Switzerland, and by the European Community. For the benefit of the Rhine and of all of its tributaries, the members of the Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR) — Switzerland, France, Germany, Luxemburg, Netherlands and the European Commission — successfully co-operate with Austria, Liechtenstein, the Belgian region of Wallonia, and Italy. 
- International Joint Commission . In 1909, Canada and the United States signed the Boundary Waters Treaty ,  which created the Commission (IJC) because national leaders recognized that each country is affected by the other's actions in lake and river systems along the border. With three commissioners from each country, the IJC finds science-based, independent solutions to transboundary conflicts, balancing competing interests in pursuit of the common good. The Site Map of the website provides access to all dockets and related documents since 1912.
- International Meuse Commission website is not available in English. The Meuse River is a major geographic link between Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. These five European countries are working together through the Commission (IMC), which was created in 2002,  to coordinate the application of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE). 
- International Sava River Basin Commission (ISRBC)  has been established for the implementation of the Framework Agreement on the Sava River Basin (FASRB). It aims to establish an international regime for navigation on the Sava River and its navigable tributaries. Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Croatia, Republic of Slovenia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia are the participants of the regime. The website provides access to Sava Commission Sessions , Basic Documents and other useful content.
- Interstate Commission for Water Coordination of Central Asia  is a collective body of Central Asian States — Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan — acting on the basis of equity, equality and consensus. Its mission is to protect the Aral Sea (through the International Fund for the Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS)) and it has the status of an international organization. The Commission’s website through its legal framework category gives easy access to variety of legal documents. It also connects researchers to the National Water Law of Central Asian Countries and a wealth of materials through the Documents of National and International Water Law link. In addition, the links to Aral Sea basin , Amudarya River basin and Syrdarya River basin are valuable gateways.
- Another good compilation of links to various commissions, mainly in Europe, is available at International River Basin Authorities  website.
- Lesotho Highlands Water Project  is a contractual agreement governing the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Project, as well as the export of water to South Africa, by which Lesotho exports water from the Senqu /Orange River to South Africa. The website gives an overview of the project and access to documents of legal and non-legal nature.
- Mekong River Commission  was established in 1995 by the Mekong Agreement among Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. The website provides links to informative publications and data.
- Moselle Commission is a public intergovernmental institution based in Trier, Germany, and created in 1956 by the Convention on the Canalisation of the Moselle that was signed by the Federal Republic of Germany, the French Republic and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. An English-language website is a helpful companion. The Moselle link provides helpful information.
- Nile Basin Initiative was created "to achieve sustainable socio-economic development through the equitable utilization of, and benefit from the common Nile Basin water resources"  In 1998, all riparian countries except Eritrea joined in a dialogue to create a regional partnership to facilitate the common pursuit of sustainable development and management of the waters of River Nile, and on 22nd February 1999, the Council of Ministers (Nile-COM) of Water Affairs in the Nile Basin countries agreed in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to form the transitional mechanism for cooperation, the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI). The partnership continues to be led by 10 Member States, namely Burundi, D.R. Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, The Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. Eritrea participates as an observer. 
- Organization of Cooperation for the Development of the Gambia River Basin was created by a Convention among Gambia, Guinea and Senegal, which was signed at Kaolack, Senegal, on 30 June 1978.  Additional information is available at the International Environmental Agreements database maintained by the University of Oregon. 
- Organization for the Development of the Senegal River was established on 11 March 1972, by an agreement  among three riparian countries of the river: Mali, Mauritania, and Senegal. The website does not have any English content. However, information about the organization and related conventions is available at the International Water Governance website and Senegal River Basin (Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal) 
- Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation  is a non-governmental, non-profit organization in Estonia established to implement projects of environmental protection in the catchment area of Lake Peipsi, which borders Estonia and Russia. Established in 1994, it promotes balanced development of border areas, especially in Lake Peipsi/Chudskoe region with focus on EU external borders. Since 1997, the NGO is working in Pskov Region of Russia. Peipsi CTC has implemented multiple projects in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, the Balkans, and Russia.
- Uruguay River Management Commission . Unfortunately, the website informing about the treaty between Argentina and Uruguay is in Spanish only. Information about the treaty in English is available in a 2003 publication, Institutions for International Freshwater Management 
- ( Zambezi River Authority was established as a corporate body on the first day of October, 1987 by parallel legislation in the parliaments of Zambia and Zimbabwe following the reconstitution of Central African Power Corporation, under the Zambezi River Authority Acts (Acts No. 17 and 19 Zambia and Zimbabwe respectively), and is jointly owned by the governments of Zambia and Zimbabwe in equal proportions. 
- List of International River Basin Organizations , although not updated, is a good resource for historical information. 
- International Court of Justice  website opens up a screen that displays recent decisions (with a link to all decisions) and the latest press releases (with a link to all press releases). The Cases tab gives access to the opinions in contentious cases . The cases are listed by the date when the dispute was submitted to the court. The list can be rearranged by the date of culmination or by the state party name. The Court’s advisory proceedings and opinions are made available in a similar fashion.
- Permanent Court of International Justice - International Water Law Cases  and International Court of Justice - International Water Law Cases  give access to case decisions, opinions, and related documents along with summary of the dispute. The coverage seems to be selective.
International Water Events Database
is a searchable database maintained by Oregon
State University. It documents over 6,400 historical international water relations from 1948 to 2008. Event information includes the basins and countries involved, dates of occurrence, issue areas, the , and a detailed summary of the event. 
- Pacific Institute: Water Conflict Chronology  is a result of a Pacific Institute project, which was initiated in late 1980s. Information covers conflicts dating back to 3000 BC and is updated through 2012. Each entry is backed by a reference source. This resource, covering a vast time span, often deviates from the primary sources. However, the value of the rich secondary sources is undeniable. A useful companion is an interactive map which shows the location of each conflict, and documents, which discuss the conflict. Many sources have hyperlinks.
- International Water Law Project , which is described above in while discussing NGOs under International Organizations , provides access to summaries and official document(s) of selected decisions of the Permanent Court of International Justice , International Court of Justice , and Other Tribunals .
This article, thus far, has described resources in various categories. However, there are some resources which do not fit neatly in any of them. I will comment on such resources in this section. Attempt will be made to minimize duplication.
- American Society of International Law (ASIL) , founded in 1906, and headquartered in Washington, DC, the Society publishes serials such as American Journal of International Law , International Legal Materials , Proceedings of the Annual Meeting, and ASIL Newsletter . Although mainly in print format, some of these publications are migrating to electronic versions to join mainly with such electronic resources as ASIL Insight , IL post and ASIL Blog . The contributions of scholars and international law experts have created this rich source. ASIL also maintains a library that is open to public. The library develops and maintains the Electronic Information System for International Law (EISIL) , a database containing more than 2,000 records providing links to selected international law instruments, websites, and research resources, which cover the entire spectrum of international law. It also has the an electronic guide designed to assist researchers of international law on the web. Although access to some of the contents is restricted to ASIL members, interlibrary loan arrangements could be explored.
- CA Water Info (Information Portal for Water and Environmental Issues in Central Asia) is a regional knowledgebase. Some sections are available in the Russian, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tajik, Turkmen, and Uzbek languages only. Since the 1st of November 2012, free access to certain sections of the portal has been closed, and to access them, you need authorization. Access should be still free for the following sections: News Digest, Clean Water Space, New Publications, etc. Lack of access and unfamiliarity with the languages prevents me from doing justice to this resource.
- Ecolex is a collaborative website developed by the FAO, IUCN, and UNEP, and is available in English, French and Spanish. In addition to being a good source for finding treaties and agreements, it is a good resource for monitoring recent developments on the subject.
- European Society of International Law (ESIL) was established in 2001 and is headquartered in Italy. The society responds to the increasing need for access to and exchange of legal information in globalized world. The European Journal of International Law , ESIL Newsletter , ESIL Reflections , SSRN Conference Papers , and Conference Proceedings contribute to satisfy information needs. Furthermore, International Law Journals , a hyperlinked list of European journals that emphasize various aspects of international law, is a very valuable resource.
- Libraries of many universities offer pathfinders to guide researchers. Catalogs of many universities and national level libraries, such as the Library of Congress, as well as worldcat are open for searching. These sources, which are too numerous to list, should be consulted when appropriate.
- Oregon State University’s Program In Water Conflict Management And Transformation is a site not to be missed! The Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database , and the compilations of Treaties and Databases , Water Resource Links and Other Water Links open flood-gates of information. Moreover, the University’s International Environmental Agreements(IEA) Database Project offers a subject classification of the agreements to facilitate research process.
- Peace Palace Library has a rich collection of international law materials and an aggregate of resources for the special topic of International Watercourses consisting of a bibliography, a list of new titles, and a blog.
- UN-Documentation Centre on Water and Sanitations (UNDCWS) is a portal that leads to a vast amount of resources. Various categories — themes, region or countries, river basins, languages. The easy-to-use search features makes even a novice user feel at ease in accessing this valuable resource.
- UN-Water is a worthwhile site to explore. Under the Documents tab, it provides access to its flagship publications, policy briefs, thematic papers and reports, and literature and documents relating to governance issues. Under the Statistics tab, access is provided to a few examples of statistics related to water. This feature is under development.
- World Wide Inland Navigation Network (WWINN) , seemingly the most recent addition, was established in March, 2012, in France. It aims to foster an exchange of information, experiences and best practices among the different authorities in charge of the major navigable waterways management in the world. At present, The USACE Institute for Water Resources, The Mekong River Commission , The Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) , The Brazilian Ministry of Transport , Pan-European Transport Corridor VII , The Danube Commission , The Moselle Commission , The Sava Commission , The Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine (CCNR) are participating in this project. It offers information about approximately ten major rivers and waterways of five nations. Adding access to the legal documents and literature will enhance the value of this resource.
In closing, I would like to suggest a few monographs published in 2013: Cooperation in the law of transboundary water resources , International watercourses law in the Nile Basin : Three States at a Crossroads by Tadesse Kassa Woldetsadik, International Law And Freshwater , International conflict over water resources in Himalayan Asia , and a forthcoming title in 2014, The right(s) to water : the multi-level governance of a unique human right . A few ongoing publications, such as International journal of water resources development , International journal of river basin management , Water policy : official journal of the World Water Council , Journal of transboundary water resources , and Water resources management : an international journal would help researchers to stay current. Finally, do not hesitate to use Google while ensuring that the sources are credible.
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 For the English version of convention, see Ruester, B., Simma B., and Bock, M.; International Protection of the Environment , Vol.XXV, p. 285.
 Accessed from http://www.icpdr.org/main/icpdr/danube-river-protection-convention on December 29, 2013.
 Accessed from http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:21991A1123%2801%29:EN:HTML on December 29, 2013.
 Accessed from http://www.iksr.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Dokumente_en/Convention_on_the_Protection_of_the_Rhine_12.04.99-EN_01.pdf on December 29, 2013.
 Accessed from http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://www.meuse-maas.be/&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dwww.meuse-maas.be%26biw%3D866%26bih%3D716 on December 29, 2013.
 Available from http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/ Accessed on December 29, 2013.
 Accessed from http://www.bafg.de/GRDC/EN/05_cllbrtn/54_rvrbsns/rba_node.html;jsessionid=60188D452D895650AFDDB92BF8DF145B.live1043 on December 29, 2013.
 Information accessed from http://www.nilebasin.org/newsite/index.php?option=com_content&view=section&id=5&layout=blog&Itemid=68&lang=en on November 26, 2013.
 Convention summary was accessed on November 27, 2013 from http://faolex.fao.org/cgi-bin/faolex.exe?rec_id=011138&database=faolex&search_type=link&table=result&lang=spa&format_name=@SRALL which contains a link to English version. The convention is also available at http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/documents/regionaldocs/gambia-river.html . Accessed on December 29, 2013.
 Accessed on December 29, 2013.
 French version of the agreement is available at Convention relative au Statut du fleuve Sénégal. Signée à Nouakchott, le 11 mars 1972. Accessed on November 27, 2013
 All links in this entry were accessed on December 29, 2013.
 http://www.euborderregions.eu/consortium/partners/partner-1 Accessed on December 29, 2013.
 http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001324/132478e.pdf Accessed on December 29, 2013.
 Accessed from http://www.cawater-info.net/twinbasinxn/pdf/int_rbo_e.pdf on December 29, 2013.
 Accessed from http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/cases/pcij.html on December 29, 2013.
 Accessed from http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/cases/icj.html on December 29, 2013.
 Accessed from http://www.transboundarywaters.orst.edu/database/interwatereventdata.html on December 29, 2013.