UPDATE: The Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) – An Introduction and Research Guide

 

By Martin Wählisch

 

Martin Wählisch, currently based in Lebanon, is as a lawyer specialized in public international law. He is a scholar in residence at the Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs (IFI) at the American University of Beirut (AUB), a scholar at the Faculty of Law at Humboldt University and a scholar of the German National Academic Foundation.

 

Published November/December 2015
See the Archive Version

 

 

 

 

1.     Introduction

This guide provides an overview about official documents related to the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL).

 

The guide comprises four parts: The first part (I.) gives a brief introduction into the historical background of events leading to the establishment of the STL, elaborates on the STL Statute, the particularities and organization of the Court. The second part (II.) explains matters of jurisdiction (ratione temporis, ratione materiae, ratione personae), provides links to the STL rules and procedure, and the 2011 interlocutory decision. The third part (III.) touches on the latest trial proceedings, such as the indictment Ayyash et al. (2011), the trial in absentia decisions (2012), the motions on the legality of the STL (2012), the connected cases Hamadeh, Hawi and El-Murr (2011) and the request by Jamil El Sayed to access documents. The fourth part (IV.) links to the STL annual reports, offers a list of links to relevant websites, access to legal terminology and a comprehensive bibliography of academic publications about the STL from 2006 to 2011.

 

Each part provides direct links to the mentioned official documents and recommendations for further reading.

 

1.1.         Background

On February 14, 2005, a bomb attack killed the former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri and 22 others.

 

One month later, pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 1595, the United Nations International Independent Investigation Commission (UNIIIC) was established to “assist the Lebanese authorities in their investigation.”

 

UNIIIC commenced its investigation on June 16, 2005. The Security Council extended the mandate of UNIIIC in subsequent the resolutions 1636 (2005), 1644 (2005), 1686 (2006) and 1748 (2007) and 1815 (2008). UNIIIC produced a total of eleven reports and ceased its investigation on February 28, 2009.

 

In the end of February 2009, UNIIIC ended its mandate and was superseded by the Special Tribunal for Lebanon on March 1, 2009.

 

Security Council resolutions:

 

·      Security Council Resolution 1595, April 7, 2005;

·      Security Council Resolution 1636, Oct. 31, 2005;

·      Security Council Resolution 1644, Dec. 15, 2005;

·      Security Council Resolution 1686, June 15, 2006;

·      Security Council Resolution 1748, March 27, 2007;

·      Security Council Resolution 1815, June 2, 2008.

 

UNIIIC reports:

 

·      1st Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolution 1595 (2005), UN Doc. S/2005/662, Oct. 20, 2005;

 

·      2nd Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1595 (2005) and 1636 (2005), UN Doc. S/2005/775, Dec. 12, 2005;

 

·      3rd Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1595 (2005), 1636 (2005) and 1644 (2005), UN Doc. S/2006/161, March 14, 2006;

 

·      4th Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1595 (2005), 1636 (2005) and 1644 (2005), UN Doc. S/2006/375, June 10, 2006;

 

·      5th Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1595 (2005), 1636 (2005) and 1644 (2005), UN Doc. S/2006/760, Sept. 25, 2006;

 

·      6th  Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1595 (2005), 1636 (2005) and 1644 (2005), UN Doc. S/2006/962, Dec. 12, 2006;

 

·      7th  Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1595 (2005), 1636 (2005), 1644 (2005) and 1686 (2006), UN Doc. S/2007/150, March 15, 2007;

 

·      8th  Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission established pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1595 (2005), 1636 (2005), 1644 (2005), 1686 (2006) and 1748 (2007), UN Doc. S/2007/424, July 12, 2007;

 

·      9th Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission, which was prepared pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1595 (2005), 1636 (2005), 1644 (2005), 1686 (2006) and 1748 (2007), UN Doc. S/2007/684, Nov. 28, 2007;

 

·      10th Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission, pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1595 (2005), 1636 (2005), 1644 (2005), 1686 (2006) and 1748 (2007), UN Doc. S/2008/210, March 28, 2008;

 

·      11th Report of the International Independent Investigation Commission, pursuant to Security Council resolutions 1595 (2005), 1636 (2005), 1644 (2005), 1686 (2006) and 1748 (2007) and 1815 (2008), UN Doc. S/2008/752, Dec. 2, 2008.

 

For an analysis of the work of the UNIIIC, see:

 

·      James G. Stewart, The UN Commission of Inquiry on Lebanon: A Legal Appraisal, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1039.

 

1.2.         Establishment and Statute of the STL

On December 13, 2005, the Prime Minister of Lebanon, Fouad Siniora, sent a letter to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan requesting on behalf the Lebanese Government “to establish a tribunal of an international character to convene in or outside Lebanon, to try all those who are found responsible for the terrorist crime perpetrated against Hariri.”

 

By Resolution 1644 (2005), the Security Council requested the UN Secretary General to help the Government of Lebanon to identify the nature and scope of the international assistance needed to try those that killed former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri and 22 others before a tribunal of an international character. The Secretary General delivered his report in March 2006.

 

By Resolution 1664 (2006), the Security Council endorsed the report and requested the UN Secretary General to negotiate an agreement with the Government of Lebanon. In January and February 2007, the UN Secretary General and the Government of Lebanon concluded negotiations and signed an agreement on the establishment of a Special Tribunal for Lebanon. In March and April 2007, a formal session of the Lebanese Parliament to ratify the Statute of the Tribunal and the bilateral agreement with the United Nations was not convened.

 

In May 2007, the Lebanese Prime Minister wrote to the Security Council to take action, stressing that “further delays in setting up the Tribunal would be most detrimental to Lebanon’s stability, to the cause of justice, the credibility of the United Nations itself and to peace and security in the region.”

 

On May 30, 2007, the Security Council passed Resolution 1757(2007) deciding while acting under Chapter IV that the provisions of the “agreement” between the United Nations and the Lebanese Republic on the establishment of a Special Tribunal for Lebanon enter into force on June 10, 2007.

 

Letters, resolutions and reports:

 

·      Letter dated 13 December 2005 from the Chargé d’affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Lebanon to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/2005/783, Dec. 13, 2005;

·      Security Council Resolution 1644, Dec. 15, 2005;

·      Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to paragraph 6of resolution 1644 (2005), UN Doc. S/2006/176, March 21, 2006;

·      Security Council Resolution 1664, March 29, 2006;

·      Report of the Secretary-General on the establishment of a special tribunal for Lebanon, UN Doc. S/2006/893, Nov. 15, 2006;

·      Letter dated 14 May 2007 from the Prime Minister of Lebanonto the Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/2007/281, May 16, 2007.

 

Statute of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon:

 

·      Security Council Resolution 1757, May 30, 2007.

o   Annex, Agreement between the United Nations and the Lebanese Republic on the establishment of a Special Tribunal for Lebanon, pp. 4-11

o   Attachment, Statute of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, pp. 12-22

 

For a quick access of the STL Statute in Arabic, English and French:

 

·      Statute of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon.

 

For a critical analysis of the establishment of the STL, see the overview about the motions on the legality of the STL in part III.3 below.

 

For introduction into the debate watch also:

 

·      The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: International Justice or International Intervention, Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs, American University Beirut, Dec. 23, 2011, on YouTube.

 

1.3.         Particularities of the STL

In comparison to other international tribunals, the STL has five distinct features:

 

·      The STL is the first international tribunal with a jurisdiction on terrorism;

·      Victims may participate in the trial proceedings (in the ICTY and ICTR victims were only allowed as witnesses);

·      STL proceedings might be held in a trial in absentia without the accused being present;

·      The STL has an independent Defence Office being of equal status as the Office of the Prosecutor; and

·      The STL has a pre-trial judge, who reviews indictments and prepares cases for trial.

 

For a critical analysis of the particularities of the STL, see:

 

·      Cécile Aptel, Some Innovations in the Statute of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5 (2007) 1107;

·      Aida Azar, Le Tribunal Special pour le Liban: Une Experience Originale?, Revue Générale de Droit International Public, 111 (2007) 643.

 

For an introduction to the STL, see also:

 

·      Handbook on the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, International Center for Transitional Justice, 2008.

 

1.4.         STL Organs and Seat

The STL has four organs:

 

·      The Chambers (Pre-Trial Chamber, Trial Chamber, Appeals Chamber);

·      The Office of the Prosecutor (OTP);

·      The Defense Office (DO); and

·      The Registry.

 

The Tribunal has 11 judges, among them 4 Lebanese judges and 7 international judges. All judges are appointed by the Secretary General following nominations from the UN Member States, or other competent persons.

 

 

Relevant sections and articles of the STL Statute:

 

·      Section I: Jurisdiction and Applicable Law (Articles 1-6)

·      Section II: Organization of the Special Tribunal (Articles 7-14)

·      Section III: Rights of Defendants and Victims (Articles 15-17)

·      Section IV: Conduct of Proceedings (Articles 18-30)

 

The STL has its seat outside of Lebanon in Leidschendam (Netherlands) near The Hague, see:

 

·      STL Headquarters Agreement in Arabic, English and French, Dec. 21, 2007.

 

On June 5, 2009, the Government of Lebanon and the Office of the Prosecutor (OP) of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon signed a Memorandum of Understanding guaranteeing that the OTP is “free from interference in the conduct of its investigation in Lebanon.”

 

·      Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Republic of Lebanon and the Office of the Prosecutor of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon regarding the Modalities of Cooperation between them, June 5, 2009.

 

2.     The Law of the STL

 

2.1.         Jurisdiction

 

2.1.1.    Jurisdiction Ratione Temporis

The STL Statute divides the offences under the jurisdiction of the STL into three categories:

 

·      The attack of 14 February 2005 resulting in the death or injury of Hariri and others;

·      Other attacks having occurred between October 1, 2004 and December 12, 2005; and

·      Attacks, which may have occurred at any later date.

 

As the Statute postulates, the Tribunal has solely “jurisdiction over persons responsible for the attack of 14 February 2005 resulting in the death of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri and in the death or injury of other persons.”

 

However, if “the Tribunal finds that other attacks that occurred in Lebanon between 1 October 2004 and 12 December 2005, or any later date decided by the Parties and with the consent of the Security Council, are connected in accordance with the principles of criminal justice and are of a nature and gravity similar to the attack of 14 February 2005” it can “also have jurisdiction over persons responsible for such attacks.”

 

·      Article 1 STL Statute: Jurisdiction of the Special Tribunal.

                                         

Given the limited mandate of the Tribunal vis-à-vis unfulfilled demands to investigate cases of disappeared during the Lebanese Civil War of 1975-1990, Amnesty International has raised concerns about the “selectiveness of justice”.

 

·      The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Selective Justice?, Amnesty International 2009.

 

For a critical analysis of the STL jurisdiction see:

 

·      Nidal Nabil Jurdi, Falling Between the Cracks: The Special Tribunal for Lebanon’s Jurisdictional Gaps as Obstacles to Achieving Justice and Public Legitimacy, U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy 17 (2011) 253;

 

·      Sandra L. Hodgkinson, Are Ad Hoc Tribunals an Effective Tool for Prosecuting International Terrorism Cases?, Emory International Law Review 24 (2010) 515;

 

·      Safira H.M. Ibrahim, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: The Presence of Justice, A clear Conscience in a State of Amnesia, Tilburg: Celsus Legal Publishers, 2010;

 

·      Iolanda Jaquemet, Fighting Amnesia: Ways to Uncover the Truth about Lebanon's Missing, International Journal of Transitional Justice 3 (2009) 69;

 

·      Choucri Sader, A Lebanese Perspective on the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Hopes and Disillusions, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1083.

 

2.1.2.    Jurisdiction Ratione Materiae

The applicable laws are provisions of the Lebanese Criminal Code “relating to the prosecution and punishment of acts of terrorism, crimes and offences against life and personal integrity, illicit associations and failure to report crimes and offences, including the rules regarding the material elements of a crime, criminal participation and conspiracy.”

 

Moreover, the STL applies Articles 6 and 7 of the Lebanese law of 11 January 1958 on “Increasing the penalties for sedition, civil war and interfaith struggle.”

 

Relevant article in the STL Statute:

 

·      Article 2 STL Statute: Applicable Criminal Law.

 

Selected Articles of the Lebanese Criminal Code: Lebanese Criminal Code is available for download in English, French, and Arabic:

 

·      Arts. 37-69: Criminal Convictions and Penalties

·      Arts. 152-156: Special Pardon and Amnesty

·      Arts. 188-198: Mental Elements of Offences (e.g. intent, motive, political offences)

·      Arts. 210-211: Responsible Persons (the perpetrator of the offence)

·      Arts. 212-222: Criminal Participation (definition of perpetrator, instigator, accomplices & concealers)

·      Arts. 231-240: Absence of Responsibility & Diminished Responsibility (insanity, mental deficiency, drunkenness and intoxication through drugs)

·      Arts. 249-261: Grounds of Excuse

·      Arts. 270-272: Offences against State Security

·      Arts. 314-316: Terrorism

·      Arts. 547-550: Intentional Homicide

·      Arts. 335-339: Unlawful Associations (criminal associations, secret societies)

·      Arts. 398-400: Offences against the Administration of Justice (offences perverting the course of justice, concealment of felonies and misdemeanors)

 

Documents:

 

·      Selected Articles of the Lebanese Criminal Code, in English, official translation by the STL;

·      Lebanese Criminal Code, Decree No. 340, in Arabic.

 

For a critical analysis of the STL jurisdiction on terrorism see part II.3 below.

 

2.1.3.    Jurisdiction Ratione Personae

The STL can only trial individuals and not organizations or groups.

 

Individual criminal responsibility within the STL Statute also includes participation as accomplice, the organization or direction of others to commit the crime, or the contribution in any other way to the commission of the crime.

 

Superiors are also criminally responsible for any of the crimes committed by subordinates. The fact that the accused acted pursuant to an order of a superior does not relieve him or her of criminal responsibility. Relevant article in the STL Statute, see Article 3 STL Statute: Individual criminal responsibility.

 

2.2.         STL Rules and Procedures

The Rules of Procedure and Evidence (RPE) of the STL lay down rules that govern the various stages of the proceedings before the Tribunal.

 

Among others, the RPE comprise rules for:

 

·      General provisions;

·      Cooperation with the Tribunal;

·      The organization of the Tribunal;

·      Investigations and rights of suspects and accused;

·      Confirmation of charges and pre-trial proceedings;

·      Proceedings before the trial chamber;

·      Appellate proceedings;

·      Review proceedings; and

·      Pardon and commutation of sentence.

 

The RPE were initially adopted on March 20, 2009, and have since been revised three times.

 

In November 2010, the STL refined its Rules of Procedure and Evidence aiming to enhance the efficiency, effectiveness and integrity of the Tribunal’s proceedings. Most recently, the RPE were amended on February 12, 2015.

 

Documents:

 

·      STL Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Feb. 2015;

·      Explanatory Memorandum, Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Feb., 2015;

·      Overview about previous versions of STL Rules of Procedure and Evidence (2009-2015);

·      Code of Professional Conduct for Counsel Appearing Before the Tribunal, Doc. STL-CC-2011-01, Jan. 2011.

 

For a critical analysis of the STL’s rules of procedure and evidence, see:

 

·      Matthew Gillett and Matthias Schuster, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon Swiftly Adopts Its Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Journal of International Criminal Justice 7 (2009) 885.

 

2.3.         Interlocutory Decision on the Definition of Terrorism (2011)

In February 16, 2011, the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon issues an interlocutory decision on fifteen legal questions submitted by the Pre-Trial Judge.

 

The decision creates the legal framework of the applicable law, among others, on the definition of terrorism, conspiracy, homicide, perpetration, and on cumulative charging.

 

Documents:

 

·      Interlocutory Decision on the Applicable Law: Terrorism, Conspiracy, Homicide, Perpetration, Cumulative Charging, Doc. STL-11-01/I/AC/R176bis, Feb. 16, 2011.

 

Amicus Curiae Briefs:

 

·      The War Crimes Research Office, American University, Washington College of Law, The Practice of Cumulative Charging before International Criminal Bodies, Feb. 10, 2011;

 

·      Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Institute of Criminal Law and Justice, Amicus Curiae Brief on the Question of the Applicable Terrorism Offence in the Proceedings before the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, with Particular Focus on a "Special" Special Intent and/or a Special Motive as Additional Subjective Requirements, Feb. 11, 2011.

 

For a critical analysis of the STL jurisdiction on terrorism, see:

 

·      Kai Ambos, Judicial Creativity at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Is There a Crime of Terrorism under International Law?, Leiden Journal of International Law 24.3 (2011) 655;

 

·      Matthew Gillett and Matthias Schuster, Debate The Special Tribunal for Lebanon Defines Terrorism: Fast-track Justice, Journal of International Criminal Justice 9.5 (2011) 989;

 

·      Frédéric Meégret, Une Justice Pénale Internationale pour Juger le Terrorisme: Réflexions à Propos du Tribunal Spécial pour le Liban, in L’Internationalisation du Jugement des Actes de Terrorisme International, Eds. Jean-Marc Sorel and Svetlana Zasova (Paris: Pedone, 2011), 85;

 

·      Ben Saul, Legislating from a Radical Hague: The United Nations Special Tribunal for Lebanon Invents an International Crime of Transnational Terrorism, Leiden Journal of International Law 24.3 (2011) 677;

 

·      Manuel J. Ventura, STL’s Interlocutory Decision on the Applicable Law A Defining Moment or a Moment of Defining?: Terrorism According to the STL′s Interlocutory Decision on the Applicable Law, Journal of International Criminal Justice 9.5 (2011) 1021.

 

3.     Trial Proceedings

 

3.1.         Indictment of Ayyash et al. (2011)

On June 28, 2011, the Pre-Trial Judge confirmed the indictment of four suspects: Salim Jamil Ayyash, Mustafa Amine Badreddine, Hussein Hassan Oneissi, Assad Hassan Sabra.

 

Initially, the indictment and orders remained confidential, but were unsealed and made public in August 2011.

 

In January 2014, the trial in the Ayyash et al. case started before the Special Tribunal for Lebanon.

 

On 11 February 2014, the Trial Chamber decided to join the case against another suspect, Hassan Habib Merhi, with the Ayyash et al. proceedings.

 

Documents:

 

·      Indictment Ayyash et al., Doc. STL-11-01/I/PTJ, June 10, 2011;

·      Fillings and Transcripts Ayyash et al.;

·      Indictment Merhi, Doc. STL-13-04/I/PTJ, June 5, 2013;

·      Information about the accused;

·      Key Fillings in the case;

·      Public Transcripts of the Tribunal hearings.

 

Infographic:

 

·      Infographic: STL Indictment unsealed, NOW Lebanon, Aug. 17, 2011.

 

3.2.         Trial in Absentia Decisions (2012)

Under Article 22 of the STL Statute, the Court can hold trials in absentia. In a trial in absentia, proceedings continue without the accused being present or in the custody of the tribunal. During the trial in absentia, a defense counsel represents the accused. The STL is the first international court allowing trial in absentia hearings.

 

In August 2011, the Public Prosecutor of the Lebanese Court of Cassation submitted a report to the Tribunal detailing that the attempts by the Lebanese authorities to arrest the indicted were unsuccessful.

 

In October 2011, the Pre-Trial Judge requested the Trial Chamber to determine whether proceedings in absentia against the four accused should be initiated.

 

In November 2011, a hearing was held receiving statements on the matter by the Prosecution and the Defense Office. The defense argued that in absentia trials are a violation of human rights and that the accused were not properly notified of the charges against them.

 

In February 2012, the Trial Chamber decided to try the four accused in their absence.

 

In May 2012, the defense counsels requested a reconsideration of the decision.

 

In July 2012, the Trial Chamber rejected the motions based on the grounds that it cannot find any new facts, or new arguments showing an error of legal reasoning necessitating a reconsideration of its previous decision.

 

·      Article 22 STL Statute: Trials in Absentia;

 

·      Order to Seize the Trial Chamber Pursuant to Rule 105 Bis (A) of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence in Order to Determine Whether to Initiate Proceedings in Absentia, Pre-Trial Judge, STL-11-01/I/TC/F0052/20111027/R093596-R093605/FR-EN/pvk, Oct. 27, 2011;

                                                      

·      Decision to Hold Trial in Absentia, Trial Chamber, Feb. 1, 2012;

 

·      Prosecution Response to the “Sabra Motion for Extension of Page Limit/Word Count In Re Absentia Motion”, Prosecution, May 8, 2012;

 

·      Request of the Defence for Mr. Badreddine for Reconsideration of the “Decision to Hold Trial in Absentia” Rendered by the Trial Chamber on 1 February 2012, May 22, 2012;

 

·      Sabra Motion for Reconsideration of the Trial Chamber's Order to Hold a Trial in Absentia, Defense Counsel, May 23, 2012;

 

·      Prosecution Response to the “Joint Submission Regarding the Material Relied Upon by the Trial Chamber in its Absentia Decision”, Prosecution, June 26, 2012;

 

·      Joint Submission Regarding the Material Relied Upon by the Trial Chamber in its Absentia Decision, Defense Counsel, June 27, 2012;

 

·      Decision on Reconsideration of the Trial in Absentia Decision, Trial Chamber, July 11, 2012.

 

Background information by the STL:

 

·      Can the Special Tribunal for Lebanon hold trials in absentia and is that compatible with the rights of the accused?, Interview with Herman von Hebel, Registrar, June 16, 2011.

 

For a critical analysis of trial in absentia proceedings see:

 

·      Maggie Gardner, Reconsidering Trials in Absentia at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: An Application of the Tribunal's Early Jurisprudence, George Washington International Law Review 43 (2011) 91;

 

·      Wayne Jordash and Tim Parker, Incompatibility with International Human Rights Law: Trials in Absentia at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 8.2 (2010) 487;

 

·      Niccolò Pons, Some Remarks on in Absentia Proceedings before the Special Tribunal for Lebanon in Case of a State’s Failure or Refusal to Hand over the Accused, Journal of International Criminal Justice 8.5 (2010) 1307;

 

·      Ralph Riachy, Trials in Absentia in the Lebanese Judicial System and at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Challenge or Evolution?, Journal of International Criminal Justice 8.5 (2010) 1295;

 

·      Chris Jenks, Notice Otherwise Given: Will in Absentia Trials at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon Violate Human Rights?, Fordham International Law Journal 33 (2009) 57;

 

·      Paola Gaeta, Trials In Absentia before the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: To Be (Present) or Not To Be (Present), Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1165.

 

3.3.         Motions on the Legality of the STL (2012)

In May 2012, the defense counsels filed motions challenging the jurisdiction of the STL. On June 13-14, 2012, the STL Trial Chamber held a public hearing on the legality of its creation. In July 2012, the Trial Chamber confirmed the STL’s jurisdiction dismissing the motions of the defense counsels.

 

Documents:

 

·      Motion on Behalf of Salim Ayyash Challenging the Legality of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, May 4, 2012;

 

·      Preliminary Motion Challenging Jurisdiction of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon Filed by the Defence of Mr. Badreddine, May 9, 2012;

 

·      Sabra’s Preliminary Motion Challenging the Jurisdiction of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, May 9, 2012;

 

·      The Corrected Version of the Defence for Mr. Hussein Hassan Oneissi’s Motion Challenging the Legality of the Tribunal, May 10, 2012;

 

·      Public Transcript of the Hearing Held on 13 June 2012 in the Case of Ayyash et al., June 13, 2012;

 

·      Public Transcript of the Hearing Held on 14 June 2012 in the Case of Ayyash et al., June 14, 2012;

 

·      Trial Chamber rules on jurisdiction, STL Press Release, July 30, 2012.

 

For a brief summary of the arguments at the hearing, see:

 

·      Contesting and Defending the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law Blog, June 22, 2012.

 

For a critical analysis of the legality of the STL’s jurisdiction see:

 

·      Marie Ghantous, À la Lumière de la Résolution 1757 (2007): Créant le Tribunal Spécial pour le Liban (TSL), Journal du Droit International 137.1 (2010) 35;

 

·      James Cockayne,  The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: A Cripple from Birth?, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1061;

 

·      Bardo Fassbender, Reflections on the International Legality of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1091;

 

·      Konstantinos D. Magliveras, Analysis and Evaluation of the Constitutive Documents of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, International Enforcement Law Reporter 23.10 (October 2007).

 

3.4.         Cases Hamadeh, Hawi and El-Murr (2011)

In August 2011, the Tribunal established jurisdiction over three attempted assassinations of Marwan Hamadeh, George Hawi and Elias El-Murr in October 2004. The Pre-Trial Judge ordered that the Lebanese authorities provide the relevant files to the Prosecutor.

 

Documents:

 

·      Connected cases, Hamadeh, Hawi and El-Murr, Doc. STL-11-02;

 

·      Order Directing the Lebanese Judicial Authority Seized with the Case Concerning the Attack Perpetrated against Mr. Marwan Hamadeh on 1 October 2004 to Defer to the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Aug. 19, 2011;

 

·      Key fillings.

 

3.5.         Requests to Access Documents (2010-2015)

In August 2005, together with Raymond Fouad Azar and Mostafa Fehmi Hamdan, Jamil El Sayed Ali Salah El Dine El Hajj had been among the four high-level Lebanese intelligence and security officers, which had been are arrested on suspicion of involvement in the assassination.

 

In April 2009, the STL directed the Lebanese authorities to release the four generals.

 

In March 2010, El Sayed submitted an application to the President of the STL requesting evidentiary material related to the crimes of libelous denunciations and arbitrary detention.

 

On April 19, 2011, the STL Pre-Trial Judge held a confidential and ex parte hearing relating to the request by Jamil El Sayed to obtain access to documents of the Prosecutor.

 

In May 2011, the Pre-Trial judge ordered the release of documents to El Sayed. In February 2012, the Prosecutor partially appealed the decision of the Pre-Trial judge. In April 2012, the Appeals Chamber unanimously quashed the Pre-Trial Judge’s order.

 

In January 2015, El Hajj filed a similar request with the STL seeking the release of certain evidentiary material against him.

 

Documents:

 

·      Fillings and transcripts in the matter El Sayed;

·      Prosecution’s Partial Appeal of the Pre-Trial Judge's Order of 20 February 2012 and Request for Suspensive Effect Pending Appeal, Feb. 29, 2012;

·      Decision on Partial Appeal by Mr. El Sayed Against Pre-Trial Judge’s Decision of March 22, 2013;

·      Materials in the matter El Hajj;

·      Prosecutor’s Response to the Submissions of Mr. El Hajj in Accordance with the Scheduling Order of February 3, 2015.

 

Amicus Curiae Briefs:

 

·      United Nations Office of Legal Affairs, Amicus Curiae Brief on the Inviolability of United Nations Documents, Oct. 1, 2010 (available for download in English, French, and Arabic);

 

·      Prosecution’s Observations on the United Nations Amicus Curiae Brief on the Inviolability of United Nations Documents, STL OTP (Nov. 5, 2010) (available for download in English, French, and Arabic).

 

3.6.        Contempt Cases (2014-2015)

In January 2014, the Tribunal charged two Lebanese journalists and their media outlets with the count of contempt and obstruction of justice (Rule 60 bis of the STL’s Rules) because they published names of witnesses that leaked from the Tribunal (Case Ms. Karma Mohamed Tahsin Al Khayat and Al Jadeed [CO.] S.A.L./NEW T.V. S.A.L. (N.T.V.) (STL-14-05), and Mr. Ibrahim Mohamed Ali Al Amin and Akhbar Beirut S.A.L. (STL-14-06)).

 

The contempt charges were unique as, for the first time in international criminal law, an international criminal court charged corporate entities with contempt.

 

In September 2015, the Tribunal found the journalist Karma Mohamed Tahsin Al Khayat guilty with respect to the charge for failing to remove the information on the alleged witnesses from the TV’s website and YouTube channel despite an order by the STL Pre-Trial Judge to do so. The Contempt Judge argued that the she was “willfully blind” to the Tribunal. However, in terms of the others charges, Al Kahayat and the media station Al Jadeed TV were found not guilty. Publishing the information in the first place was not seen as an obstruction of justice.

 

The decision in the case against Ibrahim Mohamed Ali Al Amin and Akhbar Beirut S.A.L. (STL-14-06) is still pending.

 

Documents:

 

 

 

 

 

4.     Further Information and Documents

 

4.1.  STL Annual Reports

The President of the STL submits every year an annual report to the government of Lebanon and the UN Secretary-General summarizing the latest STL activities, the progress made and expectations for future efforts.

 

·      First Annual Report 2009-2010

·      Second Annual Report 2010-2011

·      Third Annual Report 2011-2012

·      Fourth Annual Report, 2012-2013

·      Fifth Annual Report, 2013-2014

·      Sixth Annual Report, 2014-2015

 

4.2.         Glossaries

 

·      Glossary of legal terms used at the STL in Arabic, English and French

·      Legal Glossary, International Criminal Law, The Center for Justice and Accountability

 

4.3.         Relevant Websites

 

Institutions:

 

·      Special Tribunal for Lebanon

·      Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Court Record Search

·      Special Tribunal for Lebanon, YouTube channel

·      Ministry of Justice, Republic of Lebanon

·      Bar Association, Beirut, Lebanon

 

Trial Tracking:

 

·      Special Tribunal for Lebanon Monitor, Blog of the Lebanese Center for Human Rights (CLDH)

·      Special Tribunal for Lebanon, The Hague Justice Portal

·      Special Court for Lebanon, TRIAL (Track Impunity Always) Website

 

Special Sections in Lebanese Media Reporting on the STL:

 

·      Al Akhbar English, Special Tribunal for Lebanon section

·      The Daily Star (Lebanon), Special Tribunal for Lebanon section

·      MTV (Lebanon), Special Tribunal for Lebanon section

·      Naharnet, Special Tribunal for Lebanon section

 

Other:

 

·      International Criminal Court, Legal Tools

 

4.4.         Bibliography (2006-2015) (listed in a reversed chronological and alphabetical order)

 

2015

 

 

 

2014

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2012

 

 

 

 

 

2011

 

·      Kai Ambos, Judicial Creativity at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Is There a Crime of Terrorism under International Law?, Leiden Journal of International Law 24.3 (2011) 655.

 

·      Kai Ambos, Amicus Curiae Brief Submitted to the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon on the Question of the Applicable Terrorism Offence with a Particular focus on Special Intent and/or a Special Motive as Additional Subjective Requirements, Criminal Law Forum 22.3 (2011), 389.

 

·      John Cerone, The Politics of International Justice: U.S. Policy and the Legitimacy of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 40.1 (2011) 44-63.

 

·      Heather Noel Doherty, Tipping the Scale: Is the Special Tribunal for Lebanon International Enough to Override State Official Immunity?, Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 43 (2011) 831.

 

·      Maggie Gardner, Reconsidering Trials in Absentia at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: An Application of the Tribunal’s Early Jurisprudence, The George Washington International Law Review 43 (2011) 91.

 

·      Matthew Gillett and Matthias Schuster, Debate The Special Tribunal for Lebanon Defines Terrorism: Fast-track Justice, Journal of International Criminal Justice 9.5 (2011) 989.

 

·      Michael Humphrey, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Emergency Law, Trauma and Justice, Arab Studies Quarterly 33.1 (2011) 4-23.

 

·      Nidal Nabil Jurdi, Falling Between the Cracks: The Special Tribunal for Lebanon's Jurisdictional Gaps as Obstacles to Achieving Justice and Public Legitimacy, U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy 17 (2011) 253.

 

·      Frédéric Mégret, Une Justice Pénale Internationale pour Juger le Terrorisme: Réflexions à Propos du Tribunal Spécial pour le Liban, in L’Internationalisation du Jugement des Actes de Terrorisme International, Eds. Jean-Marc Sorel and Svetlana Zasova (Paris: Pedone, 2011), 85.

 

·      Joseph Powerdly, Introductory Observations on the STL Appeals Chamber Decision: Context and Critical Remarks, Criminal Law Forum 22.3 (2011) 347-363.

 

·      Prakash Puchooa, Defining Terrorism at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of Terrorism Research 2.3 (2011) 34-47.

 

·      Susana Sacouto and Katherine Cleary, Amicus Curiae Brief on the Practice of Cumulative Charging before International Criminal Bodies Submitted to the Appeals Chambers of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon Pursuant to Rule 131 of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Criminal Law Forum 22.3 (2011), 499.

 

·      Ben Saul, Legislating from a Radical Hague: The United Nations Special Tribunal for Lebanon Invents an International Crime of Transnational Terrorism, Leiden Journal of International Law 24.3 (2011) 677.

 

·      Ben Saul, Amicus Curiae Brief on the Notion of Terrorist Acts Submitted to the Appeals Chamber of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon Pursuant to Rule 131 of the Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Criminal Law Forum 22.3 (2011) 365.

 

·      Giorgia Tortora, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon and the Discussion of Residual Mechanisms, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (ASIL) 104 (2010) 45.

 

·      Manuel J. Ventura, STL’s Interlocutory Decision on the Applicable Law A Defining Moment or a Moment of Defining?: Terrorism According to the STL′s Interlocutory Decision on the Applicable Law, Journal of International Criminal Justice 9.5 (2011) 1021.

 

·      Martin Waehlisch, STL: The Price for Justice, International Justice Tribune 140 (Nov. 22, 2011).

 

2010

 

·      Melia Amal Bouhabib, Power and Perception: The Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Berkeley Journal of Middle East and Islamic Law 3 (2010) 173.

 

·      Marie Ghantous, À la Lumière de la Résolution 1757 (2007): Créant le Tribunal Spécial pour le Liban (TSL), Journal du Droit International 137.1 (2010) 35-74.

 

·      Jérôme de Hemptinne, Challenges Raised by Victims’ Participation in the Proceedings of the STL, Journal of International Criminal Justice 8.1 (2010) 165.

 

·      Sandra L. Hodgkinson, Are Ad Hoc Tribunals an Effective Tool for Prosecuting International Terrorism Cases? Emory International Law Review 24 (2010) 515.

 

·      Safira H.M. Ibrahim, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: The Presence of Justice, A clear Conscience in a State of Amnesia, Tilburg: Celsus Legal Publishers, 2010.

 

·      Wayne Jordash and Tim Parker, Incompatibility with International Human Rights Law: Trials in Absentia at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 8.2 (2010) 487.

 

·      Emiel Jurjens, Pushing the Limits of Law: The Special Tribunal for Lebanon in Context, Utrecht University, 2010.

 

·      Alison J. MacFarlane, An Examination of Superior Responsibility in the Statute of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Leiden et al.: Nijhoff, 2010.

 

·      Valerie Oosterveld, The International Criminal Court and the Closure of the Time-Limited International and Hybrid Criminal Tribunals, Loyola University Chicago International Law Review 8 (2010) 13.

 

·      Niccolò Pons, Some Remarks on in Absentia Proceedings before the Special Tribunal for Lebanon in Case of a State’s Failure or Refusal to Hand over the Accused, Journal of International Criminal Justice 8.5 (2010) 1307.

 

·      Ralph Riachy, Trials in Absentia in the Lebanese Judicial System and at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Challenge or Evolution? Journal of International Criminal Justice 8.5 (2010) 1295.

 

·      Janice Yun, Special Tribunal for Lebanon: A Tribunal of an International Character Devoid of International Law, Santa Clara Journal of International Law 7.2 (2010) 181.

 

2009

 

·      Robert Bosco, The Assassination of Rafik Hariri: Foreign Policy Perspectives, International Political Science Review 30.4 (2009) 349-361.

 

·      Yves Daudet, L’Attentat Terroriste Contre Rafik Hariri et la Création du Tribunal Spécial pour le Liban, in Le Procès International, Liber Amicorum Jean-Pierre Cot (Bruxelles: Bruylant, 2009), 51.

 

·      Matthew Gillett and Matthias Schuster, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon Swiftly Adopts Its Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Journal of International Criminal Justice 7 (2009) 885.

 

·      Lukasz Korecki, Procedural Tools for Ensuring Cooperation of States with the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 7.5 (2009) 927.

 

·      Iolanda Jaquemet, Fighting Amnesia: Ways to Uncover the Truth about Lebanon's Missing, International Journal of Transitional Justice 3 (2009) 69.

 

·      Chris Jenks, Notice Otherwise Given: Will in Absentia Trials at the Special Tribunal for Lebanon Violate Human Rights?, Fordham International Law Journal 33 (2009) 57.

 

·      Guénaël Mettraux, The Internationalization of Domestic Jurisdictions by International Tribunals: The Special Tribunal for Lebanon Renders Its First Decisions, Journal of International Criminal Justice 7.5 (2009) 911.

 

·      Gábor F. Molnár, A New Ad-hoc Tribunal: The Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Revista Romana de Drept International 8 (2009) 135.

 

·      Mario Odoni, The Establishment of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon and Domestic Jurisdiction, Hague Justice Journal 4 (2009) 173.

 

·      Lindsey Raub, Positioning Hybrid Tribunals in International Criminal Justice, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 41 (2009) 1013.

 

·      Antonios Tzanakopoulos, Special Tribunal for Lebanon: First Orders by the Pre-trial Judge, The American Society of International Law 13.11 (2009) 1-8.

 

2008

 

·      Jean D’Aspermont and Annemarieke Vermeer-Kunzli, Current Legal Developments: The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Introductory Note, Leiden Journal of International Law 21.2 (2008) 483.

 

·      Björn Elberling, The Next Step in History-writing through Criminal Law: Exactly How Tailor-made is the Special Tribunal for Lebanon?, Leiden Journal of International Law 21 (2008) 529.

 

·      Frédéric Mégret, A Special Tribunal for Lebanon: The UN Security Council and the Emancipation of International Criminal Justice, Leiden Journal of International Law 21 (2008) 485.

 

·      D. Sridhar Patnaik, Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Some Preliminary Reflections, Leiden Journal of International Law 48 (2008) 242.

 

·      Kelly L. Razzouk, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon, The Global Community 1 (2008) 219.

 

·      William A. Schabas, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Is a ‘Tribunal of an International Character’ Equivalent to an ‘International Criminal Court’?, Leiden Journal of International Law 21 (2008) 513.

 

·      Jan Erik Wetzel and Yvonne Mitri, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: A Court “Off the Shelf” for a Divided Country, The Law & Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 7.1 (2008) 81.

 

2007

 

·      Cécile Aptel, Some Innovations in the Statute of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5 (2007) 1107.

 

·      Aida Azar, Le Tribunal Special pour le Liban: Une Experience Originale?, Revue Générale de Droit International Public, 111 (2007) 643.

 

·      James Cockayne, The Special Tribunal for Lebanon: A Cripple from Birth?, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1061.

 

·      Bardo Fassbender, Reflections on the International Legality of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1091.

 

·      Paola Gaeta, Trials In Absentia before the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: To Be (Present) or Not To Be (Present), Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1165.

 

·      Nidal Nabil Jurdi, The Subject-Matter Jurisdiction of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1125.

 

·      Stephen Kay, International Terrorism: A Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Syria, Lebanon, and the Assassination of former Premier Rafik Hariri, UCL Jurisprudence Review Supplement 13 (2007) 11-26.

 

·      Aurelia Lelarge, Le Tribunal Spécial pour le Liban, Annuaire Français de Droit International 53 (2007) 397.

 

·      Konstantinos D. Magliveras, Analysis and Evaluation of the Constitutive Documents of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, International Enforcement Law Reporter 23.10 (October 2007).

 

·      Marko Milanovic, An Odd Couple: Domestic Crimes and International Responsibility in the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1139.

 

·      Choucri Sader, A Lebanese Perspective on the Special Tribunal for Lebanon: Hopes and Disillusions, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1083.

 

·      James G. Stewart, The UN Commission of Inquiry on Lebanon: A Legal Appraisal, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1039.

 

·      Bert Swart, Cooperation Challenges for the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1153.

 

·      Marieke Wierda, Habib Nassar and Lynn Maalouf, Early Reflections on Local Perceptions, Legitimacy, and Legacy of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Journal of International Criminal Justice 5.5 (2007) 1065.

 

2006

 

·      William A. Schabas, Le Tribunal Spécial Pour le Liban Fait-il Partie de la Catégorie de “Certaines Juridictions Pénales Internationales”?, Revue Québécoise de Droit International (2006) 119.