Part 2: Philippine Legal Information Resources and Citations

By Milagros Santos-Ong

 

Milagros Santos-Ong  is the Director of the Library Services of the Supreme Court of the Philippines .

 

Published March 2015

See Part I

 

Table of Contents

A. BOOKS AND OTHER PUBLISHED LEGAL MATERIALS

A.i REFERENCE MATERIALS

A.i.1 DICTIONARIES

A.ii FORM BOOKS

A.iii STATUTORY LAW

A.iii.1a. STATUTORY LAW BOOKS – PRINTED COMPILATION

A.iii.1b. STATUTORY LAW BOOKS – ELECTRONIC COMPILATION

A.iii.2 STATUTE FINDER (Index)

A.iii.3. ADMINISTRATIVE RULES AND REGULATIONS

A.iii.4. INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

A.iv CASE LAW/JURISPRUDENCE

A.iv.1 a. CASE/COURT REPORTS – PRINTED COMPILATION

A.iv.1 b. CASE/COURT REPORTS – ELECTRONIC COMPILATION

A.iv.2 CASE FINDERS (Digest and Index, etc.)

A.v. TREATISE/ANNOTATIONS/COMMENTARIES, ETC. BY SUBJECT

A.v.1 CIVIL LAW

Bar Reviewers on Civil Law

Special  Topics in Civil Law

AGENCY

CONFLICTS OF LAW

CREDIT TRANSACTIONS

LAND TITLES AND DEEDS

a.          Agrarian Reform

OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS

PARTNERSHIP

PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS

a.          Muslim Personal Laws

PROPERTY

SALES

SUCCESSION

TORTS AND DAMAGES

A.v.2 COMMERCIAL LAW

Bar Reviewers in Commercial Law

Special  Topics in Commercial Law

BANKS AND BANKING

CORPORATIONS

E-COMMERCE

INSURANCE

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS

SECURITIES LAW

TRANSPORTATION

A.v.3   CRIMINAL LAW

Bar Reviewers in Criminal Law

Special  Topics in Criminal Law

ANTI-GRAFT

ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING

BOUNCING CHECKS

DANGEROUS DRUGS

LIBEL

SEXUAL VIOLENCE, JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

A.v.4 ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

A.v.5 LABOR LAW

Bar Reviewers in  Labor and  Social Legislation

A.v.6 LEGAL AND JUDICIAL ETHICS

Bar Reviewers in Legal and Judicial Ethics

Bar Examination

A.v.7 LEGAL MEDICINE AND OTHER MEDICAL LAWS

A.v.8 LEGAL PHILOSOPHY

A.v.9 LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING

A.v.10 POLITICAL LAW

A.v.10.1  CONSTITUTION

Treaties, Commentaries and Annotations

Bar Reviewer in Political Law

Special Topics in Political Law

Administrative Law

Citizenship and Immigration Laws

Election Law

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

A.v. 10.2 INTERNATIONAL LAW

A.v. 11 REMEDIAL LAW

Bar Reviewer in Remedial Law

Special Topics in Remedial Law

A.v. 11.1 CIVIL PROCEDURE

A.v.11.2  CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

A.v.11.3 EVIDENCE

A.v.11.4 SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS

A.v.11.5 SUMMARY PROCEDURE

A.v.11.6 Muslim Law (Remedial)

Bar Reviewer in Muslim Law

A.v.11.7.  Other  Specific Procedural Law

Alternative Dispute Resolution/Mediation

Appeals, Certiorari, etc

Arrests

Ejectment

Small Claims

A.v.12. STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION

A.v.13  TAXATION

Bar Reviewer in  Taxation

Other  Specific Tax Law

Income Taxation

Tariff and Customs Code

Other More  Special Topics in Tax

A.v.14 TRIAL TECHNIQUE AND PRACTICE

A.v. 15 OTHER SPECIAL TOPICS

B. PHILIPPINE ELECTRONIC SOURCES

I. Philippine On-Line Sources

II. CD-ROMS

C. PHILIPPINE LEGAL PUBLISHERS

D. PHILIPPINE LEGAL CITATIONS

 

 

The Philippine Legal System is a unique blend of civil law (Roman), common law (Anglo-American), Muslim (Islamic ) and indigenous law. Laws and jurisprudence since the first Philippine Republic are applicable until they are repealed or superseded.  The increasing numbers of laws and jurisprudence are found in books (reference materials, treatises, commentaries and annotations) and electronic resources.

 

There is thus a need for those in search of Philippine legal information and materials to know what are these materials and where they be obtained.

 

In law, these latest legal information/materials must be readily available not only to the legal profession but to the public as well.   Electronic resources are the answer to:

 

  1. The need for complete and up-to-date (or the latest) legal information.   Publishing or printing of books in the Philippines takes time.  The primary sources for laws and jurisprudence (case law) are published by the Philippine National/Government Printing Office.  To remedy the slow publication of jurisprudence (case law), the printing and publication of the Philippine Reports (compilation of Supreme Court decision) was transferred to the Supreme Court in 1983.  On the other hand for laws, Executive Order No. 200 s. 1986 promulgated by President Corazon C. Aquino on June 18, 1987.  

 

This Executive Order amended Article 2 of the Civil Code, which provides that “laws shall take effect after fifteen days following the completion of their publication in the Official Gazette .”  With Executive Order No. 200, “Laws shall take effect fifteen days following the completion of their publication in the Official Gazette or in a newspaper of General Circulation.  All legislative enactments or Republic Acts are still published in the Official Gazette to make it a primary source. 

 

  1. Lack of the complete and up-to-date research tool (indexes, citatory, digest) for both laws and jurisprudence. This problem is particular for laws.
  2. Laws and jurisprudence in force in the early 1900s and are still considered as good law are already too fragile.  Publishing books in electronic from has started.    

 

The books and electronic sources are regularly updated.  In this regard, only the latest edition of   books and those published from 1990’s to the latest are included.    Books older than the 1990’s   are included for they were written by Philippine legal authorities or legal luminaries and/or important laws and issuances.

 

BOOKS AND OTHER PUBLISHED LEGAL MATERIALS

 

A.i REFERENCE MATERIALS

 

 

  A.i.1 DICTIONARIES

 

 

A.ii FORM BOOKS   

 

 

  A.iii STATUTORY LAW

 

  A.iii.1a. STATUTORY LAW BOOKS – PRINTED COMPILATION

 

  A.iii.1b. STATUTORY LAW BOOKS – ELECTRONIC COMPILATION

 

·   Chanrobles

·   Law Juan.  iPad App  (Laws)

·   Lawphil Manila: Arellano Law Foundation

·   Lex Libris: Laws .  Pasig City: CD Asia Technologies Inc  (CD ROM) and  CD Asia online

·   Official Gazette

·   SC E-Library

 

  A.iii.2 STATUTE FINDER (Index)

 

A.iii.3. ADMINISTRATIVE RULES AND REGULATIONS

 

Administrative agencies and other government instrumentalities have their own regulations and regulations which are generally not published. To get the latest text of these regulations, one has to go to the specific government agencies now available thru their websites or thru the link of the Official Gazette online .

 

 The following are alternate sources:

 

 

  A.iii.4. INTERNATIONAL TREATIES

 

 

  A.iv CASE LAW/JURISPRUDENCE

 

A.iv.1 a. CASE/COURT REPORTS – PRINTED COMPILATION

 

A.iv.1 b. CASE/COURT REPORTS – ELECTRONIC COMPILATION

 

 

A.iv.2 CASE FINDERS (Digest and Index, etc.)

 

 

A.v. TREATISE/ANNOTATIONS/COMMENTARIES, ETC. BY SUBJECT  

 

A.v.1 CIVIL LAW

 

 

Bar Reviewers on Civil Law

 

 

Special  Topics in Civil Law

 

AGENCY

 

 
CONFLICTS OF LAW

 

 
CREDIT TRANSACTIONS

 

 

      LAND TITLES AND DEEDS

 

 

a.     Agrarian Reform

 

 

b. Natural Resources

 

 

       OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS

 

 

  PARTNERSHIP

 

 

  PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS

 

 

a.     Muslim Personal Laws

 

 

       PROPERTY

 

 

       SALES

 

 

SUCCESSION

 

 

  TORTS AND DAMAGES

 

·        Albano, Ed Vincente. Torts and Damages by E.V. Albano and Samson Alcantara.  Q.C.: Philippine Labor Relations Journal (1997) 613p.

·        Aquino., Timoteo. Torts and Damages . Manila: Rex Book Store (2013)  1032p.

·        Aralar, Reynaldo . Torts & Damages Simplified . Manila: Rex Book Store (2010) 190p.

·        Casis, Rommel J.  Analysis of Philippine Law and Jurisprudence on Damages . Q.C.: University of the Philippines Law Center, 2012. 325p.

·        Casis, Rommel J.  Analysis of Philippine Law and Jurisprudence on Torts and Quasi-delicts. Q.C.: University of the Philippines Law Center, 2012. 690p.

·        De Leon, Hector.   Comments and Cases on Torts and Damages . Manila: Rex Book Store  (2012) 858p.

·        Decano, Alicia. Notes on Torts and Damages Under the Civil Code of the Philippine s. Q.C.: Central Book Supply (201o)  375p.

·        Jarencio, Hilarion.  Torts and Damages . Q.C.: Central Book Supply (2004)  281p

·        Largo, Joan.   Laws and Jurisprudence on Torts and Damages. Manila: Rex Book Store   (2007) 210p.

·        Oaminal, Clarence. Torts and Damages. Q.C.: Central Book Supply (2013) 318p.

·        Pineda, Ernesto. Torts and Damages Annotat ed. Q.C.: Central Book Supply (2009) 545p.

·         Sangco, J.Cesar. Torts and Damages . Q.C. JMC Press (1993) 2v.

·        Sison, Carmelo. Handbook on Torts and Damages . Q.C.: Central Book Supply (1993)  167p.

·        Sison, Carmelo.  Torts and Damages Q.C.:  University of the Philippines College of Law (2013) 664p.

·        Suarez, Rolando. Torts and Damages . Manila: Rex Book Store  (2011)

·        Ulep,  Mariano. MCQ Bar Reviewer in Public Corporations .. Q.C.: Central Book Supply (2011)

 

A.v.2 COMMERCIAL LAW      

                 

 

Bar Reviewers in Commercial Law

 

 

Special  Topics in Commercial Law

 

BANKS AND BANKING

 

 
CORPORATIONS

 

 
E-COMMERCE

 

 
INSURANCE

 

 
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

 

 

  NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS

 

 

  SECURITIES LAW

 

 
TRANSPORTATION

 

 

A.v.3   CRIMINAL LAW

 

 

Bar Reviewers in Criminal Law

 

 

  Special  Topics in Criminal Law

 
ANTI-GRAFT

 

 
ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING

 

 
BOUNCING CHECKS

 

 
DANGEROUS DRUGS

 

 
LIBEL

 

 
SEXUAL VIOLENCE, JUVENILE DELINQUENCY

 

 

A.v.4 ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

 

 

A.v.5 LABOR LAW

 

 

Bar Reviewers in  Labor and  Social Legislation

 

 

A.v.6 LEGAL AND JUDICIAL ETHICS

 

 

  Bar Reviewers in Legal and Judicial Ethics

 

 

Bar Examination

 

 

 

A.v.7 LEGAL MEDICINE AND OTHER MEDICAL LAWS

 

 

A.v.8 LEGAL PHILOSOPHY

 

 

A.v.9 LEGAL RESEARCH AND WRITING

 

 

A.v.10 POLITICAL LAW    

     

A.v.10.1   CONSTITUTION

 

a.     1987 Constitution

 

 

b.     Provisional/Freedom Constitution (Proclamation No. 3, s. 1986)

 

 

c. 1973 Constitution

 

 

  d. 1935 Constitution

 

   

e. Comparative

 

 

Treaties, Commentaries and Annotations   

 

 

             Bar Reviewer in Political Law

 

 

Special Topics in Political Law

 
Administrative Law   
     

 

Citizenship and Immigration Laws

 

  
Election Law

 

·        Hilbay , Florin. A Handbook on Election Law: the Omnibus Election Code. Q.C.:

·        U.P. Law Complex (2004) 215p.

·        Lat, Igmidio. Notes and Cases on Election Law . Q.C.: Central Law Book Supply (2006) 421p.

·        The Law and Jurisprudence on Appreciation of Ballots. Manila: Supreme Court Presidential Electoral Tribunal (1993) 143p.

·        Limura, Masataka.  Elections and Politics Philippines Style: A Case in Lipa.   Manila: De La Salle Press, Inc.  (1997)  343p.

·        Martinez, Daniel. Laws and Jurisprudence on Suffrage and Elections . Q.C.: Central Professional Books (1992)  502p.

·        Martinez, Daniel. Laws and Jurisprudence on Suffrage and Elections: 1995 Supplement . Q.C.: Central Professional Books (1995)  411p.

·        Marquez, Midas . Omnibus Election Code by M. Marquez and Josue Bellosillo .C.:

·        Central Book Supply (2007)

 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

 

 

  A.v. 10.2 INTERNATIONAL LAW

 

 

A.v. 11 REMEDIAL LAW

 

 

  Bar Reviewer in Remedial Law

 

 

  Special Topics in Remedial Law

 

A.v. 11.1 CIVIL PROCEDURE

 

 

A.v.11.2   CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

 

 

A.v.11.3 EVIDENCE

 

 

A.v.11.4 SPECIAL PROCEEDINGS

 

 

A.v.11.5 SUMMARY PROCEDURE

 

 

A.v.11.6 Muslim Law (Remedial)

 

 

     Bar Reviewer in Muslim Law

 

 

  A.v.11.7.  Other  Specific Procedural Law

 

      Alternative Dispute Resolution/Mediation

 

 
  Appeals, Certiorari, etc

 

 
Arrests

 

 

  Ejectment

 

 

Small Claims

 

 

A.v.12. STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION

 

 

A.v.13   TAXATION

 

 

  Bar Reviewer in  Taxation

 

 

Other  Specific Tax Law

 

Income Taxation
 
Tariff and Customs Code

 

 
Other More  Special Topics in Tax

 

 

  A.v.14 TRIAL TECHNIQUE AND PRACTICE

 

 

A.v. 15 OTHER SPECIAL TOPICS

 

 

B. PHILIPPINE ELECTRONIC SOURCES

 

I. Philippine On-Line Sources

 

a. Government sources

 

a.1. Supreme Court E-Library : The E-Library aims to be the primary research tool in the speedy delivery of justice.  It will serve the entire judiciary – Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Sandigabayan, Court of Tax Appeals, and the lower courts.  This E-Library will eventually be opened to those outside the judiciary.  It includes all the sources of law, and all Philippine legal materials digitized from primary sources as reflected in its directory:

 

 

a.2. Official Gazette online

b. Law Offices  -  Some have online  resources accessible to the public  such as:

 

     

c. Law Schools

 

d. Commercial – By Subscription

 

 

II. CD-ROMS

 

  1. !e-library! A Century & 4 Years of Philippine Supreme Court Decisions 1901- April 2004.  Research & Development Department, Agoo Computer College, Agoo, La Union

 

  1. CD Asia Technologies Inc.  CD Asia was established in  1994  as an  electronic legal research tool using CD-ROM technology.  It has now developed its online technology.  It has categorized its products into the following four (4) categories:

 

·        The Philippine Law Library – It contains compilation  of full text materials further subdivided as follows:

 

o    Lex Libris Series in CD-ROMs updated regularly

 

o    LAWS  —  Full-text versions of the Philippine Constitutions, Republic Acts, Mga Batas Pambansa, Presidential Decrees, Executive Orders, Presidential Proclamations and Letters of Instructions. 

o    TAXATION -  Bureau of Internal Revenue rulings, opinions, memoranda, circulars, VAT Rulings, as well as international tax treaties and local tax ordinances.  Also included here are related laws, decisions of the Supreme Court, Court of Appeals and Court of Tax Appeals, as well as executive issuances.

o    JURISPRUDENCE - Supreme Court decisions  from 1901.   It contains the full-text, syllabi and synopses of the cases.

o    DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE -  Complete collection of the Opinions of the Secretary of Justice from 1939 to present.

o    LOCAL AUTONOMY AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT —  A compilation of laws, and jurisprudence, policy issuances on local autonomy and local government.

o    ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES — Comprehensive collection of  laws and jurisprudence  on the subject  including policy  issuances and decisions, permits and licenses and tenurial instruments  gathered from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and its attached agencies.

o    LABOR AND SOCIAL LEGISLATION — Contains related laws, jurisprudence and  issuances from the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) and related agencies.

o    ELECTIONS — Contains election related laws and jurisprudence and resolutions and issuances of the Commission on Elections, including there are decisions, Implementing rules and regulations of Electoral Tribunals. 

o    TRADE COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY —Comprehensive collection of materials  on trade, banking and finance,  intellectual property and related topics.  Contains a compilation of pertinent Supreme Court decisions, laws, issuances of various agencies such as the Department of Trade and Industry, Board of Investments, Department of Finance, Bureau of Customs, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, Philippine Stock Exchange, and other related government offices.

o    SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION -  Compilation of opinions, en banc, SICD and PEC decisions, orders, rules and regulations, circulars and memoranda of the  SEC.  Also included are related laws and jurisprudence.

o    PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATYIONS –  Compilation of references on persons and family relations including  related laws, jurisprudence, international treaties and agreements  and issuances and publications of the National Commission on the Role of the Filipino Women (NCRFW)

o    THE BENCH COMPANION

o    STUDENT EDITION -  collection of legal information  based on  subjects  in all levels of the  Philippine law school  curriculum

 

o    CD Asia titles

 

o    BANGKO SENTRAL NG PILIPINAS – Compilation of  Laws and issuances  related to Banking, BSP Manuals of Regulations for Banks and Financial Intermediaries, and BSP Memorandum Circulars, Orders, Letters, Notices and other Regulations.

o    DEPARTMENT OF AGRARIAN REFORM LEGAL INFORMATION ARCHIVE - contains a compilation of opinions, memoranda, circulars, and vital documents  of the DAR and laws  and jurisprudence on the subject.

o    PHILIPPINE CUSTOMS LAWS AND REGULATIONS - Customs related laws and other issuances including the Bureau of Customs Corporate Plan and Corporate Manual of Procedure.

o    THE NATIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGISTER - compilation of Rules and   Regulations from different administrative agencies and bureaus filed with the Office of the National Administrative Register as required by the 1987 Revised Administrative Code

o    PROCEEDINGS OF THE 1986 CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION. Contains the Records and Journals of the 1986 Constitutional Commission with related issuances.

o    IMPEACHMENT PROCEEDINGS AGAINST PRES. JOSEPH E. ESTRADA. Contains the transcript of the historic impeachment proceedings against former president Joseph E. Estrada.

o    GOVERNMENT PROCUREMENT POLICY BOARD

 

 

o    Quitain, Bobby. Philippine Legal and Judicial Ethics

o    Santiago, J. Sedfrey S. Law for Art’s Sake: An Introduction to Legal Gobbledygook

o    Sarmiento, Ulpiano III. Education Law and the Private Schools

o    Sarmiento, Ulpiano III. Compendium of Education Legislation for Private Basic Education

o    Te, Theodore. Philippine  Judicial and Legal Forms

o    Indigenous Peoples and the LawLexicon of Philippine Regal Terms

.

       Philippine Law Encyclopedia Series – this series contains two titles : Philippine Legal Encyclopedia and the Philippine Taxation Encyclopedia in DVD-ROM

 

       CD Asia Online – The Online version has three titles as follows:

                 

 

C. PHILIPPINE LEGAL PUBLISHERS

 

I.               Institutional Publishers:

 

 

 II. Commercial Publishers

 

D. PHILIPPINE LEGAL CITATIONS

Considering all the sources of Philippine legal information from the 1900s to present, uniform standard of Philippine citation is needed for clarity, and consistency.  Each individual has his own style and preference in legal research and writing.   

 

There are available manuals of legal citation as a guide in citing Philippine legal information namely:

 

 

The legal citation provided below took into consideration the complexity of Philippine legal information and a standard for to conform to both international and Philippine citations.

Santos-Ong, Milagros. Legal Research and Citations in the Philippines. Manila: Rex Book Store (2013).page 80.

 

Sources of Law:

 

a.        Statutes:

 

a.1.:  Constitution:

 

Cited by reference to the article, section and the paragraph.  The year is placed in parenthesis when the Constitution is no longer in force. 

 

Example:

Const.  (1935),  Art. VIII,  Sec.  1

Const.  (1973),  Art. X,  Sec. 1

Const,  (1987)Art. VIII,  Sec. 1 

 

Other legal citations provide that  when the current law is cited, the date is not included.  Taking into consideration the number of times the Philippine Constitution was revised, it is important  to include the date.  At present, there is a move to revised again the Philippine Constitution either through a Constitutional Convention (Con-Com)  or a Constitutional Assembly (Con-Ass)

 

a.2. Statutes proper

 

Laws passed by the Legislative Department from 101 to present are cited as follows:

 

 a.2.1   Laws 1901-1934

 

Act No. 136 (1901) 

 

a.2.2.  Commonwealth Acts, 1935-1945

 

Com. Act No. 35 (1935)

 

 a.2.3.  Republic Acts, 1946-1972, 1987-presen

t

Rep. Act No.   88 (1946)

 

 a.2.4.  Presidential Decrees, September 21, 1972 – February 1986

 

Pres. Decree No.  442 (1972)

 

  a.2.b.  Batas Pambansa,  January 1979- February 1, 1986

 

Batas Blg. 129 (1980)

 

Citation of Statutes by Sources:

 

Rep. Act No. 3019 (1960), 57 O.G., No. 22, 4072 (May 29, 1961) or  4 PPGS 85 (Rev. ed., 1978)

The printed sources  are the Official Gazette (O.G.) or the Philippine Permanent and General Statutes (PPGS)

Rep. Act No. 3019 (1960), Available at http://www.lawphil.net/statute/repacts (last visited August 29, 2012); www.ombudsman.gov.ph/docs/republicacts ((last visited August 29, 2012); www.bsp.gov.ph/regulations/laws (last visited August 29, 2012)

 

  a.3. Treaties

 

This includes treaties entered into by the Philippines whether it be Bilateral or Multilateral. Cited by the name of the treaty and the date when the  treaty was signed.

 

Example:

 

Philippines Extradition Treaty with the United States, November 27, 1981.

8 PTS 978      - Source

 

8 cited in the source represents the volume number of the  Philippine Treaty Series and 978 is the page where the  treaty was  printed.

 

 

Philippines Extradition Treaty  with the United States, November 27, 1981, Available at http://www.lawphil.net/international/treaties/extrad.html ; http://internationalextraditionblog.com/2011/-06/01/philippines-extradition-treaty-with-the-united-states last visited  December 23, 2014

 

a.4.  Executive/Presidential Issuances

 

Presidential issuances are cited  by the number of the issuance and followed by  the date  of issuance.  The date  is important for each year, the number      starts with  the first number (No. 1)

 

 a.4.1  Executive Orders

 

 Exec. Order No.  200 (1986)

 

 a.4.2. Proclamations

 

Proc. No. 1081 (1972)

 

 a.4.3. Administrative Orders

 

Adm. Order No. 200  (2005)

 

 A.4.4   There are  special presidential issuances under  Martial law  as follows

 

 a.4.4..1    General Orders

 

Gen. Order No. 1 (1972

 

 a.4.4.2  Letters of Instructions

 

L.O.I.  No. 2 (1972)

 

 a.4.4.3 Letters of Implementation

 

L.O. Impl. No. 1 (1972)

 

 a.4.4.4. Letters of Authority

 

L.O.A. No. 1 (1972)

 

a.5. Administrative Rules and Regulations

Government offices and agencies promulgate their own rules and regulations.  They are cited by the abbreviation of the name of each agency, followed by the name of the specific rule or regulation.  It is important to indicate the year in parenthesis for each year, the number of the rules and regulations start with the first number (No.1)

 

Example: 

 

Administrative Order  No. 1 promulgated by the Department of Energy on January 5, 2006 is thus cited as:   DOE Adm. Order No. 1 (2006)

SC Adm. Order No. 1 (2005) is the citation for Supreme Court Administrative Order No. 1  adopted  in 2005.

 

Abbreviations as to the names of the Different Government Agencies are through the Acronyms of the Agencies, which is also reflected in their website address.

 

 Example are as follows:

 

                                   Name of Agency                                                    Abbreviation                        Website Address

Department of Agrarian Reform

DAR

www.dar.gov.ph

Department of Agriculture

DA

www.da.gov.ph

Department of Budget  and Management

DBM

www.dbm.gov.ph

Department of Education

DEPED

www.deped.gov.ph

Department of Energy

DOE

www.doe.gov.ph

Department of  Environment and Natural Resources         

DENR

www.denr.gov.ph

 

Department of Finance

DOF

www.dof.gov.ph

Department of Foreign Affairs

DFA

www.dfa.gov.ph

Department of Health

DOH

www.doh.gov.ph

Department of Interior and Local Government

DILG

www.dilg.gov.ph

Department of Justice

DOJ

www.doj.gov.ph

Department of Labor and Employment

DOLE

www.dole.gov.ph

Department of National Defense

DND

www.dnd.gov.ph

Department of Public Works and Highways

DPWH

www.dpwh.gov.ph

Department of Science and Technology

DOST

www.dost.gov.ph

Department of Tourism

DOT

www.dot.gov.ph

Department of Trade and Industry  

DTI

www.dti.gov.ph

Department of Social Welfare and Development

DSWD

www.dswd.gov.ph

Department of Transportation and Communications

DOTC

www.dotc.gov.ph

Civil Service Commission

CSC

www.csc.gov.ph

Commission on Elections

COMELEC

www.comelec.gov.ph

Commission on Audit

COA

www.coa.gov.ph

Commission on Human Rights

CHR

www.chr.gov.ph

Office of the Solicitor General

OSG

www.osg.gov.ph


a.6  Ordinances

 

The laws passed by the  city, municipal  or provincial government (local government) are  in the form of ordinances.  They are cited by providing the name of the    city, municipality or the province, followed by the ordinance number and the date. 

 

Example:

City ordinance no. 1 of the city of Manila   passed on June 21, 2004 is cited as :  Manila Ordinance No. 1,  June 21, 2004.

 

a.7.  Court  Rules

The Rules of Court is cited  like any ordinary code by its name, followed by the  rule number and section.  

 

Example:  Rule of Court, Rule 14, sec.1

 

The Supreme Court through the proposal of the  Committee of Revision of Rules Courts been amended the Rules of Court  by subject, such as Civil Procedure, Criminal Procedure, Evidence, and Special Proceedings.  They are now cited by said amendments as follows:

 

 

b.        Jurisprudence - Court Decisions

 

b.1. Court decisions from the Supreme Court down to the lower courts can be identified
through their case number and are cited as follows:

People v. Santiago,  Me TC  (Quezon City,  Branch II) Crim. Case No. 4444, May 10, 2005

·        Municipal Trial Court s and Municipal Circuit Trial Courts decisions MTC or MCTC (Place) Criminal or Civil Case No.______, date of promulgation

·        Shari’ah District and Circuit Courts – Shari’ah Dist/Circ. Ct. (Place)  Case no. , date of promulgation  

 

For all Each decision of the Supreme Court has a specific G.R. No or General Register No.  Each case is cited with a G.R. No.  The L ( G.R. No. L- ) after the word No. In some decisions represents those decision after the war or L is for Liberation.  This will  differential those that were decided before the war and those after.

 

There are no printed compilation for  Sandiganbayan, Court of Tax Appeals and lower court decisions.  The full text of important decisions are found in the internet like the decision of the Sandiganbayan against former President Joseph Estrada.

 

b.1.1.  The citation of  Court decisions depends upon whether  the printed  court reports   are a primary or a secondary source.

 

Those found in primary sources such as the Philippine Reports or the Official Gazette are  cited by the family name of the parties, the volume number, Court Report title, page of the court report,  and the year of  promulgation in parenthesis.

 

Example :   

 

Ong v. People , 399 Phil. 686 (2000)

The Ong case is found in volume 399 of the Philippine Reports page 686

 

Ong v. People , 399 Phil. 686, 688 (2000)

686 is the page where the case started and 688 is the specific page where      the     doctrine used is found.

 

Those found in secondary sources such as the Supreme Court Reports Annotated (SCRA) are cited by family name of the parties, case no. (G.R. No.), date of promulgation, volume number of the court reports  and page.

 

 Example :   

Ong v. People, G.R. No. 139006, November 27, 2000,
                         346 SCRA 117

b.1.2. The case names are cited using the surnames of the parties

 

Exception this the general rule of using family names are Islamic, Chinese names which are cited in full. 

 

Those with Christian first names follow the general rule. 

 

Example:   Sy Chin v. Tang Ching Heng & Co., 399 Phil. 442 (2000) 

 

When the party is a company, agency corporation, etc., the complete name must be included.

 

Example: Mactan-Cebu International Airport Authority v. Chiongbian, 399 Phil. 695 (2000)

 

When the party is the Government of the Philippines are cited  as follows:

Government v. _____________________,date of promulgation, Source
Commonwealth v. __________________,date of promulgation, Source
Republic v. __________________________,date of promulgation,  Source

In criminal cases wherein the case if filed for the People of the Philippines, it is cited as

People v. ____________________________, date of promulgation, Source

 

b.1.3 Electronic sources are cited as follows:

Ong v. People, G.R. No. 139006, November 27, 2000, Available at http://sc.judiciary.gov.ph/jurisprudence/ (last visited December 23, 2014)

 

 b.2. Administrative decisions

 

Cited by the name of the agency (abbreviated form), case number and date of promulgation   

 

Example is a  Civil Service Commission decisión:

 

Santos v. Dizon, CSC Adm. Case No. 12345, January 6, 2006