UPDATE: Guide to Legal Research in Norway
Pål A. Bertnes has been the Director of the Law Library (Law School Library) at the Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo from 1983-2008. He is now a Senior Adviser at the library. As an author, editor and publisher of books and articles, and as a lecturer, his main professional interests have been related to matters concerning remedies for the retrieval of sources of law. A list of his publications is available online.
Published May 2012
(Previously updated on January 2011)
See the Archive Version!
1.2. The Courts of Justice
3.1. Acts or Statutes
3.4. Codes and Commentaries
4.1. Law Reports
4.2. Administrative Practice
5.2. Gyldendal Rettsdata
5.5. Reference Work
1. Introduction to the Norwegian Legal System
Norway united as one Kingdom at the end of the 9th century. Until then, the country had consisted of several regional kingdoms, each with its own legal system. At that time, a proper administration of justice took place at the Althing, which was a general assembly of representatives from the rural community or the larger community units.
The Lagting, a National representative organ constituted of regional representatives, was established during the middle of the tenth century. The Lagting exercised legislative, executive and judiciary power within its section of the realm. Gradually the court, Lagrett, developed out of the Lagting. It wielded the judiciary power and was constituted of select Lagting members.
Written laws first appeared in the 12th century. The oldest codes of law known to us date from the 12th and 13th centuries, and are known as landsskapslovene (Regional laws).
In 1274, King Magnus Lagabøte (Magnus the Law Mender) compiled and revised the Regional law codifications into a National code, called Landslov, or Magnus Lagabøtes Lov. The corpus of King Magnus Lagabøte's law remained the governing law for more than 400 years.
The King possessed legislative power prior to the enactment of the Landslov, and he continued to exercise this power during Norway's union with Denmark from 1380. A revised version of the National Code was translated from Old Norse to Danish in 1604 and renamed (King) Christian IV's Norwegian Law. This law incorporated most of the provisions issued by previous kings.
In 1687, a new comprehensive code was provided in Christian V's Norwegian Law, incorporating Danish law to a considerable extent. However, unlike the legislation of many other countries at the time, Danish law was not heavily influenced by Roman law. Some of the provisions of Christian V's Norwegian Law still remain in force.
The Norwegian Constitution was adopted at Eidsvoll in 1814, and was the result of events in Europe. At the Treaty of Kiel in 1814, the King of Denmark/Norway was forced to renounce his rights to Norway to the King of Sweden, granting him full sovereign powers. However, § 1 of the Norwegian Constitution provides that "The Kingdom of Norway is a free, independent and indivisible realm". In other words, Norway submitted to a union with Sweden as a sovereign nation. The union with Sweden ended in 1905 when Norway became an independent constitutional monarchy.
The governing ideas behind the Norwegian constitution were largely the result of influence by English and French political philosophers (Locke, Montesquieu and Rousseau), as well as the constitutions of France and the USA. The Norwegian Constitution contains a similar division of power between the executive King/Government, legislative Storting (Parliament) and judiciary (the courts, in particular the Supreme Court) as in the American Constitution. However, the development in Norway has been very different from that of the USA. The constitutional situation today, in brief, is that Stortinget passes laws and the Government wields executive power. However, since parliamentary rule developed as customary constitutional law during the late 19th century, the Government is now dependent on support from the Storting.
The main function of the courts is obviously to solve disputes, but in addition, the Supreme Court has the power of constitutional review and, with the system of case law and judicial precedents, is also an important interpreter of statute and customary law.
The Norwegian legal system is primarily built on an outgrowth of National roots, correspondent to the other Nordic countries (Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland). The historical development of these countries is similar, particularly within the field of law, but other legal systems have also left their mark.
Influence from Anglo-American law is mostly limited to criminal procedure and to criminal remedies. EC law has become an important part of Norwegian law, in particular after EØS (The European Economic Area (EEA) Agreement) was incorporated into Norwegian law in November 1992. EC directives are now implemented through Acts passed by the Storting or by Government regulations.
The development of the court system is too diverse to be addressed in detail in this presentation. However, it is important to note that the Høyesterett (The Supreme Court), previously situated in Denmark, was established in 1815 in accordance with the Constitution.
There are three ordinary judicial authorities within the Norwegian court system:
· County Court as court of the first instance (District Courts, City Courts);
· Courts of Appeal and,
· The Supreme Court as court of the last instance
If a case is of grave nature, it may be referred directly to the High Court. In addition, special tribunals have the authority to settle specific problems, e.g. land questions, Jordskiftedomstolene (Land Consolidation Court), labour disputes (Labour Court of Norway), and social security disputes (National Insurance Court). However, there are very few such courts, and they all have very limited jurisdiction.
The courts only started acting as lawmakers at the end of the 19th century, exercising constitutional review on statutory law as well as developing customary law.
In 1915 Domstolsloven (Act relating to the courts of justice
(chapter 9, 11 and 12 in English)) was passed requiring the Supreme Court to
publish reports of its decisions, including arguments and how they voted. These
reports are considerably briefer than what is common in Germany and especially
in the USA. According to the law, cases that are
decided by the Appeals Selection Committee of the Supreme Court are heard by
three judges. The Appeals Selection Committee may decide that the case should
be heard by five judges. Other cases are heard by five judges.
In especially important cases, it can be decided that the case or a question of law arising from it should be heard by a grand chamber of eleven judges. The decision is based on whether the Supreme Court may divert from an earlier precedent, or if the case raises questions of conflicts between laws, provisional statutory instruments or parliamentary decisions and The Constitution or treaties Norway is party to. In very special cases, the court may decide that a case or a question of law arising from the case should be heard by all of the justices sitting in plenary session.
Norway is a unitary state, as opposed to a federation. In spite of The EEA Agreement, the Norwegian legal system can still be regarded as a hierarchical unit of norms.
The Constitution of 17th of May 1814 is the apex of Norwegian law. Statute law is adapted pursuant to the Constitution, and is consequently subordinate to the Constitution according to the "Lex Superior" principle. Regulations adapted pursuant to a statute law are subordinate to such law. §17 of the Constitution explicitly ranks statutory law higher than provisional laws.
2. Introductory Works on the Legal System and Legal Research
The major introductory work is "Knoph on Norwegian Law" (Knoph 2009). This is a comprehensive book with many contributing writers, and it contains brief introductions to the various legal subjects. Erik Boe has written Innføring i juss; juridisk tenkning og rettskildelære, containing advice on methods of studying, legal theory and a summary of certain areas of law (Boe 2010). Johs. Andenæs' Innføring i rettstudiet (Andenæs 2002), Mads Henry Andenæs' Rettskildelære (Andenæs 2009), Torstein Eckhoff's Rettskildelære (Eckhoff 2001) and Carl August Fleischer's Rettskilder og juridisk metode (Fleischer 1998), are all theoretical works emphasizing how to apply legal sources.
Praktisk rettskildelære, en håndbok for rettsstudiet, (Practical Textbook on Sources of Legal Information. Legal Information Retrieval in Norway) was written by Pål A. Bertnes and Halvor Kongshavn in 1997. An abbreviated electronic version is available on the Internet. In 2012, the last version of the book was published with the title "Praktisk rettskildelære. Juridisk informasjonssøking" (Bertnes/Kongshavn/Trygstad 2012). The publication refers to legal literature and sources of law, and provides guidance on how to do legal research, both manually and online, which includes Lovdata, Gyldendal Rettsdata and Juridisk nettviser. Rebecca J. Five Bergstrøm and Hilde Westbye have written “Hvordan finne rettskilder: en innføring i rettskildejungelen (2012). This is also about how to find relevant legal sources. The authors of both those books have long experience in educating law students and researchers (as academic librarians) in legal information.
Birger Stuevold Lassen has written A Presentation of Works of Jurisprudence in Norwegian (Presentasjon av rettsvitenskapelige arbeider på norsk) (Lassen 1993).
All the above-mentioned titles are published in Norwegian only. Only a few minor publications and articles about Norwegian law have been published in English. One article which is describing the central issues of the Norwegian legal system is an article written by Bertnes, published in Information sources in law (1997), edited by Winterton and Moys. Hagelien/Vonen has written: The Norwegian Legal System. An introductory guide (1994) also published in EFTA Legal System (Hagelien 1993).
The Ministry of Justice has formerly published Administration of justice (1980). From their page Documents and Publications, you can find documents in English. There is also an article in the Modern Legal System Encyclopedia, Volume 4B, and pp 4.100.3 - 4.100.61 called "The Legal System of Norway". In addition, several projects are in progress, which are intended to meet the demands for law literature in English required by foreign students at The Faculty of Law, UiO. Kirsti Lothe Jacobsen, Academic Librarian - Law Library, University of Bergen Library, has compiled Norwegian law in foreign languages, a bibliography. The bibliography is an on-going project.
3. Basic Texts, Legislation, Codes, and Commentaries
There are two public periodic publications of statute law. According to special statute, the Norsk Lovtidende (Legal Gazette) must include new statutory laws and resolutions, inform when laws come into force, and detail their abolition and their scope. Norsk Lovtidende is published twice a month and is fully up to date on statutory law, regulations, tax resolutions and so forth. Norsk Lovtidende is divided into two parts: Part 1 contains statutory law and central regulations, while part 2 contains regional and local regulations. Cumulative quarterly indexes are published in addition to the annual indexes. Subscriptions can be obtained at Lovdata.
Lover vedtatt på det ... ordentlige storting, is published at the end of each Parliamentary session (annually). It includes the formal text of new statute laws in addition to amendments to old laws.
The most comprehensive Norwegian code of law is Norges Lover, which is published privately by The Faculty of Law in Oslo. It is issued biennially in one volume, and contains both a systematic and an alphabetic index. The code contains The Constitution of 1814, and presents statutory laws arranged chronologically according to their date of adoption.
Amendments to statutory laws and provisions are adopted in new editions of Norges Lover. They are incorporated in the existing statute with a footnote referring to the amendment. Norges Lover also contains indexes of regulations authorized under each statutory provision. Norges Lover is since 2008 produced once a year and used by lawyers and judges, as well as other people who are interested in Norwegian law.
The annotated edition of Norges Lover, Rettsdata Norsk Lovkommentar, produced by Gyldendal Rettsdata, was previously called Karnov. Norsk kommentert lovsamling, and was first issued in 1994. A paper edition was published as Norsk Lovkommentar. It consists of three volumes and contains two indexes: a chronological index of all statutes and an alphabetical index based on the abbreviated titles of the statutes. It also points to the standardized abbreviations of the separate statutes. The latest paper edition was published in 2008. Norsk Lovkommentar is available on Internet (by subscribing). The electronic version is updated six times a year.
Updated pamphlets are issued when required. A selection of prominent Norwegian authors, scientists, solicitors, judges and lawyers have all contributed to this project. The Norwegian edition is modeled on the Danish Karnov commentary issue, which has been published since the 1930's. The commentary is like Norges lover, also arranged chronologically based on the resolution dates of the statutes. The text in Norges Lover and Rettsdata Norsk lovkommentar is supplied by LOVDATA, a semi-official legal information database. By agreement with the authorities, LOVDATA receives the statutes as soon as they have been enacted. Consequently, LOVDATA always provides an updated electronic version of Norwegian laws. Institutions and individuals may obtain access to LOVDATA by subscribing. LOVDATA also provides an internet version free of charge, but this version contains only statutes, regulations in force, and recent Court decisions.
Norwegian laws are referred to by title and date. If more than one law is passed on a specific date, which frequently happens, each law is also given a number, e.g. Lov om arv m.m. av 3. mars 1972 nr 5 (Law of inheritance of March 3 1972 no 5). Sometimes an abbreviated title is used, with or without the date number, e.g. Arveloven av 3. mars 1972 nr 5, (The inheritance law of March 3rd, 1972 no 5), or just Arveloven. In literature, authors often refer to laws using additional abbreviations. Arveloven would then be referred to just as al. The authors usually include a list of abbreviations in the book. To trace an abbreviation, refer to the index to Norsk lovkommentar or to Lassen 1993.
Translation of Norwegian legislation:
Very few acts of Stortinget are translated into other languages. A translated collection is found in the book Norwegian laws etc.: selected for The Foreign Service (1980).
The Constitution of May 17th 1814, with amendments and commentaries, exists in English as a title of its own: (The Constitution of Norway: a Commentary / by Mads T. Andenæs and Ingeborg Wilberg (1987)). At pages from Stortinget on Internet, The Constitution - Complete text, as laid down on 17 May 1814 by the Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll and subsequently amended, most recently on 20 February 2011 are accessible and you can read about the Constitution.
Over the years a number of statutes have been translated into English; some by The Foreign Office's department of translations, some by other public offices, and a few by private organizations. These translations do not have status as public translations, and they are seldom published as registered printed papers.
In recent years the Faculty of Law Library, University of Oslo has experienced an increasing demand for translations of Norwegian legislation. Documents of this kind have been difficult to obtain and there has been no public agency responsible for maintaining a current collection of available translations. The Faculty of Law Library therefore decided to undertake the task of maintaining a database, Translated Norwegian legislation, where translations of Norwegian legislation (acts and/or regulations) were made accessible to the public.
Most entries have links to the acts in full text, either as html, word-files or in PDF-format. Electronic versions are not available for all acts. For some printed versions, there are links to bibliographic records in BIBSYS.
In addition, many codes cover specific legal areas aimed at special professions or special educational purposes.
Norwegian Law Titles.
Inventory in "Norwegian Laws" (Norske lovtitler. Fortegnelse over lover trykt i Norges Lover) 1685-1993 (Strømø 1994) is primarily addressed to Norwegian libraries. It contains a chronological survey of laws with full titles and Dewey library classification numbers, systematically arranged and including an index of abbreviated law titles.
Forskrifter (regulations) are rules issued by the central administration under powers given to them by Acts of Parliament. They are published continuously by LOVDATA in Norsk Lovtidende, which contains several comprehensive indexes. LOVDATA is always up to date on all regulations in force, but availability depends on user access. The five latest publications of Norsk Lovtidende are available on the LOVDATA home page. A regulation is referred to by title and date of enactment.
Circulars are instructions from superior administrative agencies to their subordinates. They may contain directives and guidelines on the interpretation of statutes and the use of public discretion. Circulars from Ministry of Justice and Public Security are of most interest for lawyers (write Rundskriv in the search field).
3.4. Codes and Commentaries
Acts of law are organized according to their date of enactment, not when they entered into force. The main provisions are often old, but amendments are usually integrated in the existing statutes. The Storting only passes completely new Acts, which abolish the old law, when comprehensive and fundamental changes are made.
· The Enforcement Code (Tvangsfullbyrdelsesloven av 26. juni 1992 nr 86).
· The Courts Code (Domstolloven av 13. august 1915 nr 5).
· The General Civil Penal Code (With amendments of July 1st 1994. Norwegian Ministry of
Justice) (Straffeloven av 22. mai 1902 nr 10).
Other important statute laws:
· The Taxation Act (Skatteloven av 26. mars 1999 nr 14).
A link from the English title indicates that an English version exists and where to find it. For the Norwegian version, click the Norwegian title.
For other translated statutes and regulations, please make a search from the Translated Norwegian legislation website.
Within some areas of law, separate committees are constantly working on law revision efforts. In other areas, special committees are appointed to prepare propositions for specific amendments. The Legislation Department at The Ministry of Justice and the Police administers the law revision process.
For many years Norsk Lovkommentar, which contains annotations to different statutes in force, was in great use. It has also been common practice to publish special commentary books on important acts. 230 renowned judges and legal scholars are contributors.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs produces Traktatregisteret where you get an overview of all treaties where Norway is a part (presented on Internet by Lovdata), treaties in full text from 1992 and up to day.
Global and European treaties., ed by Ole Kristian Fauchald and Bård Sverre Tuseth, is a collection of fundamental treaties of practical application. The Treaty Database they have built up gives selected basic treaties from different areas of law so that the database will be relevant for law students throughout their law studies and for a broad range of professionals.
Important treaties are occasionally collected and issued, e.g. for students' purposes. Global and European treaties and Folkerettslige tekster: samling med opplysninger til studiebruk (1995) (Texts pertaining to International law: a collection of information for use during studies) by Erik Møse, are such collections.
Norges traktater (Norwegian treaties) (1967-88) in five volumes is a printed source of International treaties ratified by Norway. The last volume containing the ever-important index. The collection contains most of the treaty texts organized chronologically in both Norwegian and the language of origin, whether English, German, or French.
Case law is an important source of Norwegian law, particularly the judgments of Høyesterett (The Supreme Court of Norway), which are all published in Norsk Retstidende, 1836-. This collection is considered the official minutes of Supreme Court. Most of the court decisions are reported in full, and in the case of dissenting votes, the arguments of the minority are also published.
Furthermore, the report contains excerpts of decisions made by the Supreme Court's Committee on Appeals. The Norwegian Bar Association edits Norsk Retstidende (abbr. Rt) in cooperation with the Supreme Court, which also contains head note summaries, and annual and 5 year indexes. The editor makes a head note summary for each published verdict and is responsible for making annual and earlier also 5 year indexes to the collection of reports. These contain keywords, systematic and alphabetic indexes with references to the headings, a list of statutes, and a list of names for civil law cases. Decisions are referred to by year of publication and the designated page number: e.g.: Rt 2010 s. 1070 (s is abbr. for "page").
Each decision is assigned a reference number (to the above-mentioned decision: HR-2010-1533-A, (sak nr. 2010/486)), and these numbers are also used in some connections.
A selection of decisions by subordinate courts - the District Courts, City Courts and High Courts - is published in Rettens Gang (1933 -), (abbr. RG) and published by The Norwegian Bar Association. The Editor decides which cases have sufficiently broad and fundamental interest to be included in the collection, and also performs the task of making the headings and indexes as described above. A reference to RG may look like this: RG 1994 s. 334. In literature, the name of the court is often mentioned, as opposed to its abbreviation, in addition to the reference to RG year and page.
The two law reports mentioned are both published in installments approximately twice a month. For unpublished legal decisions, a copy of the decision can be obtained for a fee by contacting the Court in question, stating the date and case number.
Other sources are also available:
The Reference Book on Law, Juridisk oppslagsbok (Bertnes et al. 1997) contains relevant key words to find references to various sources, including reference to decisions published in Rt and RG.
Lov og Dom, published in three volumes, is a separate reference tool for references to reported decisions. This reference allows for search by statute provision, and indicates the decisions that refer to each provision. The references to Rt. and RG are given.
Legal literature usually contains a separate index of decisions. Indexes of decisions at the back of books of legal literature often indicate various aspects of the legal decisions contained therein.
The electronic database LOVDATA contains Supreme Court rulings in full text, as well as headings of the lower court decisions published in RG. Decisions made by courts of first instance after 1989 are also available in full text through this database, but only recent decisions are available on the free Internet edition of LOVDATA.
The electronic database Gyldendal Rettsdata is the other comprehensive Norwegian law database where you from different law sources and commentaries can be referred to decisions from the Supreme Court and select decisions from subordinate courts. A pay service.
Some special court reports are also published, including:
Dommer, uttalelser m.v. i skattesaker og skattespørsmål (Decisions and rulings etc. in tax issues) (1922 - ).
Nordisk Domssamling (Nordic Court Report) (1958-1999) contains selected decisions from the Nordic countries. This special report is discontinued as of 1999, and decisions and rulings are now being published together with Tidsskrift for rettsvitenskap.
Nordiske domme i sjøfartsanliggender (Nordic decisions in maritime matters) (1900-) contains Nordic decisions on maritime law (available in Lovdata).
Many publishers also edit casebooks of selected decisions within limited legal areas, partly to be used for educational purposes at the universities and partly intended for practitioners. These reports are all in Norwegian only.
The practice of public administrative agencies is often referred to and relied on by the Courts. This applies especially to tax legislation, and decisions and rulings on tax issues. Dommer, uttalelser m.v. i skattesaker og skattespørsmål (1922-) is an important collection. The Ombudsman's annual report is another publication on public administrative practice. It appears annually as Document no 4 in volume 5 of Stortingsforhandlingene.
· Laws and rules: includes laws, regulations, guidelines, etc. related to the Ministry’s areas of
· Circulars: information from the Ministry to affected parties about interpretations of laws and
· Hearings: proposals that the Ministry sends to affected parties (public and private
institutions, organizations and other ministries). The purpose is to evaluate economic and
administrative consequences of public measures.
· NOU (Norsk offentlig utredning/Norwegian Official Reports) are made by committees and
work groups appointed by the Ministry.
· Reports and plans are usually made by external researchers or a committee, and include
reports, analysis and surveys delivered to the Ministry.
The custom of private parties is of less importance today than before. Usage is, however, still an important source of law within certain areas, including commercial law other than contract law, and in relation to usufruct. Some of the private conflict-solving bodies publish their decisions. Among these are Finansklagenemda (FinKN), Complaint Board for insurance, bank, finance and securities since 1th of July 2010. It was earlier Forsikringsklagekontoret,( FKK) (The Norwegian Bureau for Insurance Disputes – NBI) which is the secretary for Forsikringsklagenemnda (FKN) (The Insurance Complaints Board (ICB) and "Bankklagenemnda" (The Board of complaints for consumers in banking and finance matters). Decisions made by these committees are published electronically by LOVDATA, as reports by several other organizations.
LOVDATA is an independent private foundation, established in 1981 by the Ministry of Justice and the Faculty of Law at the University of Oslo, and cooperates with the public authorities in making a Norwegian legal information system available on line. The free, Internet-based edition of LOVDATA contains several online information systems.
LOVDATA's main activities are:
· The operation of the Web-site containing legal information;
· The operation of an online Legal information service;
· Publication of The Legal Gazette and the production of the text for Norwegian statutes in
force, the Norway Treaty Series, and many other publications containing laws and
· Development of software in connection with maintaining and running large databases;
· Consulting in informatics;
· Providing approximately 6 000 law articles previously published in different law journals in
full text; and,
· LOVDATA is also the publisher of two periodicals.
5.2. Gyldendal Rettsdata
Norsk Lovkommentar (earlier Karnov: norsk kommentert lovsamling) from Gyldendal Rettsdata, contains all Norwegian laws with commentaries, and may also contain links to cited court decision and other laws that are quoted. 230 renowned judges and legal scholars are contributors. Printed versions of the whole, or special selected laws with commentaries, are available.
5.3. Juridisk Nettviser (Gateway to Law)
Law librarians at the law faculties of the universities in Oslo, Bergen, and Tromsø have created Juridisk Nettviser, an Internet gateway to legal information. From 2011, the gateway is driven by the Law library in Oslo. This tool facilitates access to Norwegian, foreign, and international legal sources that are available on the Internet. Links to Norwegian sources are organized in the following categories: Constitutional Documents, Laws and regulations, Departmental circulars and other regulations, Preparatory works, Case law, Other practice, and Commentary. Each category provides descriptions of works found in a variety of databases, including LOVDATA, Stortinget, and Regjeringen.no (Government.no).
5.4. Preparatory Work and other Background Material
When interpreting a law, its history and background may often be useful. Preparatory works have particular importance when interpreting new laws or areas of law where there is limited legal practice.
Regarding preparatory work for regulations, the different ministries file notes and documents, but these are seldom of any importance.
Usually the legislative process is initiated either by the Government or by one of the political parties represented in Parliament. If a law is deemed important, an expert committee is appointed to consider its necessity and to make suggestions to its contents. Committee reports are usually published as NOUs (online yearly from 1994, and a few from earlier years) in the publication series Norges offentlig utredninger (1972 - ). Cumulative indexes are published regularly. Innstillinger og betenkninger (1935-72) was made prior to the NOU series. Indexes to all NOUs and reports since 1814 are found in a special microfilm edition called Norske utredninger 1814-1991 (1992).
The next stage is the hearing; the committee report is circulated among relevant national bodies and institutions that submit their opinions on the matter. Then the responsible ministry prepares a bill, which the Government submits before 1. Oct. 2009 to the Odelsting, now as a proposition to Stortinget. This was called Odelstingsproposisjon (proposition to the Odelsting, abbr: Ot.prp.), now Proposition to Stortinget (law) ( abbr.: Prop. L) which is the basis for debates in the Storting. After the discussion, it a Proposition to Stortinget (law and decision from the Storting) (abbr.: Prop. LS). The propositions and the documents containing the minutes of Storting debates are published in Stortingsforhandlinger, a comprehensive parliamentary series issued in 9 volumes. It also contains white papers and government documents.
The preparatory documents of Norwegian acts are assembled in Forarbeid til lovene. This publication contains all Storting documents about the Bill at the time of its enactment, in addition to previous preparatory work, which mainly consists of NOUs.
When a statute is published in Norsk Lovtidende, references are made to relevant preparatory work.
Unlike many other countries, no collective work of Norwegian legal sources exists. The most comprehensive work is Norsk lovkommentar, described above. It contains statute laws with annotations, as well as links to referenced case law.
The Reference Book on Law, Juridisk oppslagsbok, is published in one volume. Part I deals with Civil law, and Part II concerns Administrative law. Both parts are edited by Pål A. Bertnes (1997). The references are arranged alphabetically by keywords and sub keywords and provide references to literature, books and papers, statutes, and case law. Juridisk oppslagsbok does not deal with criminal law, tax law, constitutional law or procedure law.
The Norwegian Bar Association has more than 6500 members, and about 94 percent of the attorneys in Norway are members of the Association. You can read about their work in The Report from the Board for the Norwegian Bar Association from last year.
Juridisk nettviser contains links to several similar directories.
Information about the Ministries is available in English and includes information on the separate government ministries, their departments, and individuals in charge.
Guide to Nordic Bibliography (Munch-Petersen 1984-1988) is a descriptive guide in English covering the Nordic countries.
The Norwegian National Bibliography, Norsk bokfortegnelse, is the most comprehensive bibliographic tool from 1814 onwards (Universitetsbiblioteket i Oslo (University of Oslo Library) 1870-1997, Nasjonalbiblioteket (Then National Library) (1997 – last Year 2002). The databases of the Norwegian National Bibliography, Norbok, contain references to Norwegian books, journals, maps, dissertations, audio, sheet music, and online and offline resources. The databases cover various periods from 1921 onwards. CD-ROM is available for the period 1941-2000.
The database Norwegian List of Serials, Norper, contains references to journals, microforms, and newspapers, mainly from 1970 onwards.
The database Norwegian Index to Periodical Articles, Norart, covers references to articles from about 400 Norwegian journals, mainly from 1982 onwards.
The Norwegian Union Catalogue of Monographs, Sambok, contains 3.685.000 references to books, theses, audio, video and online resources held in approximately 400 Norwegian libraries. About one-half of the included material is printed after 1983. This information is also available on CD-ROM for the years 1939-2000.
The Norwegian Union Catalogue for Periodicals, Samper (Norsk samkatalog for periodika), contains references to periodical subscriptions in approximately 350 Norwegian libraries.
· BIBSYS: Library and Information System, which offers services to all Norwegian University Libraries, the National Library, all college libraries, and a number of research libraries.
· The BIBSYS Library Database: The union catalogue of the above-mentioned libraries, which contains bibliographic information of their holding: books, periodicals, maps, and music, as well as electronic resources such as e-journals and e-books (about 3.5 million records, 9 million copies).
· BIBSYS Ask : The open access catalogue that allows users to search for documents in the following databases:
· The BIBSYS Library Database : contains all holdings, and allows for searches of the holdings of one of the libraries, e.g. UBO, Juridisk bibliotek (the Faculty of Law library of the University of Oslo).
· BIBSYS ForskDok database containing information about Research & Development (R&D) projects, publications and other R&D-results from Norwegian research institutions.
Cristin (Current Research Information System in Norway): the system used by the Norwegian universities and some research institutions for research documentation (development of the earlier common system for the universities called Frida). Cristin consists of one module for research results, and information about projects and the researchers’ profiles.
Among the many international law bibliographies covering Nordic law, three are of particular importance: Kirsten Lothe Jacobsen: Norwegian law in foreign languages, a bibliography, which was first published in 2004 and is often updated, The Scandinavian Legal Bibliography (Iuul et al. 1961), which contains references to older literature, and Bibliographisches Handbuch der Rechts- und Verwaltungswissenschaften: Band 1: Allgemeines und Europa (Lansky 1987).
Only one general Norwegian law bibliography exists, and it covers the period from 1962-1966: Haukaas, Kaare (1967) Norsk juridisk Litteratur 1962-1966. Oslo, Universitetsforlaget. Frequent users of Nordic law literature will be envious of Sweden, Finland and especially Denmark for their bibliographic publications within the field of law. However, some smaller special bibliographies exist: Norwegian legal publications in English, French and German up to 1965, (Haukaas 1966) with a supplementary volume for the period 1966 -1977 (Haukaas 1977).
International journal of legal information is a bibliography of Nordic legal literature written in English, German, French, and Italian for the years 1982 – 1992 (Haider 1993) and it is available online for member libraries.
Halvor Kongshavn has prepared a bibliography on the contents of the Norwegian festschriften (Norske juridiske festskrift 1870-1990 : en bibliografi over innholdet, 1991, with an addition in 1994). He has also published a bibliography of articles in non- Scandinavian languages for the years 1963-1993 in Norwegian legal festschriften (1994). Hanne Strømø and Halvor Kongshavn have published Nordisk juridisk festskriftbibliografi (Ad Notam Gyldendal, 1998) and Nordic legal festschriften (Juridisk fakultetsbibliotek, 1999). In 2003, Halvor Kongshavn published Nordisk juridisk festskriftbibliografi : innholdet i juridiske festskrift fra Danmark, Finland, Island, Norge og Sverige : 1998-2002 (Gyldendal, 2003)
Bibliographies on individual works, which may be found in Festschriften, may provide easy access to relevant literature. Internet searches in BibJure, which contains all the references to articles in Nordic legal festschriften, can be conducted from the universities in Oslo, Bergen, and Tromsø.
Kjersti Selberg has published Eldre norske rettskilder, en oversikt (Older norwegian sources to law. An overwiev). Det juridiske fakultetsbiblioteks skriftsere nr. 20, 2009, revised 2012.
In most festschrifts, you find a bibliography of the person to whom the festschrift is dedicated. Because most festschrifts are about well-known legal researchers, and the festschrifts are published at the end of the researcher’s career, these books often offer important access to legal literature.
Kjersti Selberg has published an extensive bibliography on tax laws covering the period after 1945: Norsk skatterett 1945-1988 (Selberg 1990).
A bibliography of publications made by academic staff at the Faculty of Law, University of Bergen, was prepared by Kirsti Lothe Jacobsen in connection with the Faculty's 25th anniversary in 1994 (Jacobsen 1994).
Juridisk oppslagsbok (1997) (The Reference book on Law) contains references to books and articles.
Praktisk rettskildelære. Juridisk informasjonssøking (Bertnes/Kongshavn/Trygstad 2012) is a textbook on sources of legal information, legal information retrieval in Norway, International law, EU and EØS-law and Human rights. The textbook gives directions on how to find statutes, case law, and law literature, both in paper and online. Praktisk rettskildelære is on the Internet in an interactive short version.
Bertnes: Legal Information in Norway. Electronic and printed sources. This is an interactive dokument, nr 19 in The Faculty of Law Library in Oslo publications. Revised yearly.
BibJure is an electronic library system developed especially for Norwegian Lawyers and courts of justice by Diagnostica. It contains a database of references to law literature, primarily Norwegian and Nordic titles, as well as legal articles in series and articles in Nordic legal Festschriften. Pål A. Bertnes has developed the legal part of the database, which contains a detailed index with a keyword register to the index. This system is used in Norges Lover, Norsk Retstidende and Rettens Gang.
The National Library was affiliated with the University of Oslo Library until 1995. It has a selection of Norwegian periodicals, including the most important legal periodicals. The periodicals are indexed, and the database Norart is available free of charge. LOVDATA has the last years build up a law literature database, which contains more than 5000 law articles in full text. BibJure analyzes legal periodicals, seeking to cover all legal articles in Norwegian periodicals, festschrifts, and anthologies. Information about contents in Norwegian legal periodicals is published periodically in Norsk Retstidende (Rt).
All of the Norwegian legal publications issue annual indexes. The most important publications also issue general indexes, which are cumulated over long periods (see below). As to the collections of case law in Rt and RG, cumulated 5-year indexes are issued along with the annual ones.
7.1.1. Legal Dictionaries in Norwegian
Juridisk leksikon - Egil Gulbransen (Gulbransen 1994)
They all provide short explanations in Norwegian of selected legal terms in alphabetical order.
7.1.2. Legal Dictionaries in Foreign Languages
· Stor norsk-engelsk juridisk ordbok: med engelsk-norsk register (Great Norwegian-English law dictionary: with English-Norwegian register) (Craig 1999).
· Engelsk-norsk økonomisk juridisk ordbok (English-Norwegian economic law dictionary) (Hansen/Lind 2008).
· Engelsk-norsk juridisk ordbok (English-Norwegian law dictionary) (Lind 2007).
· Franske fagtermer: fransk-norsk/norsk-fransk ordbok over vanlig brukte ord og uttrykk i samfunnslivet (Schlyter/Nordli/Hustad 2003).
A special dictionary exists in the Dictionary of International Agreements with Norwegian, English, and French Terminology (Leksikon om internasjonale kontrakter: med norsk, engelsk og fransk terminologi) (Rigault 1992).
· Deutsch-Norwegisches Juristisches Wörterbuch (Simonnæs 1992).
· Norsk-tysk juridisk ordbok (Norwegian-German Legal dictionary) (Simonnæs 1994).
A collection of links to dictionaries is found in Juridisk nettviser (search: Ordbøker (dictionaries). Lately, some dictionaries have been issued to assist Norwegian lawyers translate into other languages.
These may also be of interest to foreigners:
· Norsk-engelsk, engelsk-norsk ordliste for kriminalomsorgen (Bø, 2007), dealing with terminology relating to Prison Service, Probation Service and Criminal Court system.
· Norsk-engelsk juridisk ordbok. Sivilrett og strafferett - Norwegian-English Legal Dictionary. Civil and Criminal Law and Engelsk-norsk juridisk ordbok. Sivilrett og strafferett - English-Norwegian Legal Dictionary. Civil and Criminal Law. (both Lind 2000).
· Norsk-Engelsk økonomisk ordbok (Norwegian-English economic dictionary) (Aagenæs 1993)
· Norsk-engelsk administrativ ordbok (Norwegian-English Administrative Glossary) (Chaffey 1988).
· Anglo- Scandinavian Law Dictionary of Legal Terms Used in Professional and Commercial Practice (Anderson 1977) is an older publication in English.
· Norsk-engelsk strafferettslig ordbok (Norwegian- English Criminal Law Dictionary) (Walford 2007).
· Norsk-tysk juridisk ordbok (Norwegian-German Legal Dictionary) (Simonnæs 1994).
The Norwegian Bar Association publishes Advokatbladet with information about lawyers and short articles about recent legislation and case law. It also contains a separate section of news about legal sources.
The other important association of Norwegian lawyers, Norges Juristforbund (Norwegian Association of Lawyers), publishes Juristkontakt, which is available online. Besides information about the association itself, the journal also consists of relatively short scholarly articles. Both publications are issued monthly, and are up to date.
· Arbeidsrett: articles in Labor law;
· Jussens Venner different subjects of special interest for law students;
· Lov og rett (LoR): articles within all fields of law; the authors are mostly jurists in academic positions, lawyers or judges;
· Nordisk domssamling: selected supreme court decisions from Nordic countries;
· Nordic journal of human rights;
· Tidsskrift for rettsvitenskap (abbr. TfR, a Nordic publication issued in Norway): more academic than other journals; contains long scholarly theses as well as reviews of Nordic legal literature
· Skatterett (Tax law): specifically concentrates on the legal aspects of taxation;
· Tidsskrift for Erstatningsrett: articles on different themes concerning damages;
· Tidsskrift for familierett, arverett og barnevernrettslige spørsmål (FAB): family law
· Tidsskrift for Eiendomsrett: law on property;
· Tidsskrift for forretningsjus: primarily articles on contract law and company law;
· Tidsskrift for strafferett: articles and reports on sentences from criminal law.
The separate Faculties of Law at the universities of Oslo, Bergen and Tromsø all issue separate monograph series.
The literature database in LOVDATA includes about 5 000-law articles in full text, articles that have earlier been published in journals, legal festshriften and other publications.
Many issues of the series Marius, issued by The Scandinavian Institute of Maritime Law, and Complex, from The Norwegian Research Centre for Computers and Law , both published by The Faculty of Law in Oslo, are written in English.
Eurorett is a guide to new EC and EEA rules and legal decisions of importance to Norway. It is issued every fortnight by LOVDATA, in cooperation with the Centre for European Law at the University of Oslo.
The main supplier of statistics in Norway is the public institution Statistics Norway, which publishes weekly, monthly, and annual statistics pertaining to most areas of society, including law and legal institutions, education, trade and business. The statistics are written in both Norwegian and English. The institution also publishes the annual series Statistical Yearbook of Norway, containing updated information about the Norwegian society. Both the contents and a detailed index are written in English and Norwegian. (The institution has issued a separate Guide to Norwegian Statistics.) All public institutions are obliged to supply Statistics Norway with statistics.
9. The Faculty of Law Library at the University of Oslo (Juridisk bibli0tek)
The Faculty of Law Library (UJUR) is a section of the University of Oslo Library (UBO) and consists of The Main Library (The Law Library in Domus Bibliotheca), The Learning Centre and seven Institute Libraries. It is the largest of the three Norwegian University Law Libraries. Students and external users wishing to use the collections of the Institute Libraries must direct inquiries to the Main Library. The Library has a permanent staff of 20, 17 are librarians. Four of the librarians have law degrees. Besides the permanent staff, the library also employs about 15 law students.
The collections of all the libraries are regarded as one, in spite of decentralized book arrangements. Responsibility for the acquisition of literature is divided between the Institute Libraries and the Main Library.
The Library aims at having a complete collection of all Norwegian and important Scandinavian legal literature, as well as relevant legal literature from other European countries, the EU and the USA. The Library also procures literature from related fields such as legal history, philosophy of law, sociology of law, political science, and criminology.
· Printed volumes: approximately 300,000.
· Journals in printed and electronic editions: approximately 3500 subscriptions.
· Legal databases: approximately 70.
The books (monographs) are arranged systematically, by subject. The classification scheme used is called an L-scheme. It is a numerical system, in which each number represents a subject area. The most general subjects are given the lowest classification numbers, e.g. jurisprudence is classified from 1 to 107, while private law has numbers from 108 to 637, public law from 638 to 1127, and so forth. The L-scheme serves the purpose of classifying and shelving documents according to subject.
The collections are registered in the BIBSYS Library database, which is the Union catalogue for Norwegian University Libraries, the National Library, all college libraries, and a number of research libraries. The titles belonging to the Faculty of Law Library are placed under the heading: UBO. Juridisk bibliotek. One place to start searching could be: Law – Information resources.
All the libraries have lending collections in addition to reference collections. Books published prior to 1850 do not circulate. Journals do not circulate, except for a small collection in the Main Library.
The lending period in the Main library is as follows:
Students, external users and libraries: 4 weeks
University staff: 12 weeks
Items on which no holds have been placed may be renewed. Patrons may renew their own items in the database BIBSYS.
The Faculty of law subscribes to a number of databases, some of which offer open access, others, which are accessible only to faculty or via university workstations. Most of them are available for walk-in users, as well as students and staff. The database collection is available in the library’s gateway, X-port. The database selection covers many European National catalogues, all the Scandinavian, British, German, and American union catalogues, their article catalogues, and catalogues of legal sources, in addition to a number of International databases within specific fields such as law, criminology, and social sciences.
X-port search service is a gateway to electronic sources offered at the University of Oslo. These services are databases, e-journals, e-books, reference works and encyclopedias within all subject areas. X-port is closely linked to the linksolver SFX.
The three university law libraries in Norway cooperated in developing the Norwegian law gateway Juridisk nettviser. It contains a comprehensive listing of links to law-related resources on the Internet, both national and international, legal sources, institutions, databases, electronic journals, starting points, etc. The gateway is constantly being updated as new information becomes available.
The Main Law Library is situated in Domus Bibliotheca, the west wing building of Universitetsplassen, and is the largest of the library units. The holdings aim at serving students and external users as well as faculty members. Emphasis is therefore placed on:
· Course literature;
· Basic legal literature;
· Main foreign sources of law;
· General international (liten i I international) law journals; and,
The Learning Centre is situated in Domus Nova. The Centre offers ordinary reading room facilities, computer workstations, and well-equipped group rooms. There is a collection for circulation as well as a reference collection of course books, important Norwegian periodicals, and court decisions. The circulation collection is primarily aimed at first- and second-year law students.
The law library arranges different library courses every year in English:
· Library introduction course;
· International master programs at the Faculty of Law;
· Public International Law;
· Information and Communication Technology Law;
· Philosophy in the Theory and Practice of Human Rights; and,
· Maritime Law and
Visitors may contact the circulation desk if they need a course in English or French on how to use the library or find legal sources.
The Institute Libraries are located at the different institutes of the Faculty of Law. These libraries aim to provide in-depth coverage of the legal fields represented by the institute, and are primarily available for researchers. Students and external users should bring inquires to the Main Library.
Private Law. The Library (DMV)
The primary goal of the Law Library and its staff is to provide library services to the students and the staff of the Faculty of Law. The library service also extends to attorneys and other law professionals in the Bergen and West Coast area, as well as to foreign guests and visitors. The library is situated in the middle of the faculty building and is easy to reach. The library staff consists of lawyers, librarians, clerks and law students.
The Law Library, including the European Documentation Centre, has a collection of close to 100,000 volumes, subscribes to more than 850 different law journals and law reports - national, Scandinavian, and international - and offers access to more than 2000 electronic journals.
The collection is located at the ground floor, with some minor exceptions. The library procures all relevant Scandinavian legal literature, as well as books, journals, and reports in foreign languages from other countries in Europe, the EU, and the US.
Besides law, the library procures literature from related fields like political science, (legal) philosophy, (legal) history, sociology of law, and criminology. The library also welcomes acquisition suggestions.
The University of Tromsø Library is a publicly funded research library established in 1969. The section for law is part of the PJ- division of the University Library in Tromsø. This section is located as a subject library together with psychology under the name of PJ-library at the University campus. The main purpose of the library is to serve students and researchers at Tromsø University, but others wishing to make use of the services of the library for personal research, academic studies, or related projects may be granted lending cards.
Approximately 12,000 titles of law are on display. The Law Library collection is divided into four levels, with the main collection on the 3rd level.
12.1 Associations of Lawyers and Judges
Den Norske Advokatforening (Norwegian
Kristian Augusts gate 9, NO-0164 OSLO
Phone +47 22 03 50 50, Fax +47 22 11 53 25
Den norske dommerforening (Norwegian
Association of Judges)
Kristian Augusts gate 9, NO-0164 OSLO
Phone +47 22 03 50 50, Fax +47 22 11 51 18
Norges Juristforbund (Norwegian
Association of Lawyers)
Kristian Augusts gate 9, NO-0164 OSLO
Phone +47 22 03 50 50, Fax +47 22 11 51 18
Justis- og politidepartementet (Ministry
of Justice and the Public Security)
Visiting address: Gullhaug Torg 4 A, OSLO
Postal address: Pb 8005 Dep, NO-0030 OSLO
Phone +47 22 24 90 90, Fax +47 22 24 95 33, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Nærings- og handelsdepartementet (Ministry of Trade and
Visiting address: Einar Gerhardsens plass 1, OSLO
Postal address: Pb 8014 Dep, NO-0030 OSLO
Phone +47 22 24 90 90, Fax: 22 24 01 30, E-mail: email@example.com
Justis- og politidepartementet, Lovavdelingen
(Ministry of Justice and Public Security, Legislation Department)
Visiting address: Gullhaug Torg 4 A, OSLO
Postal address: Pb 8005 Dep, NO-0030 OSLO
Phone +47 22 24 90 90, Fax +47 22 24 95 33, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Høyesterett (The Supreme Court of
Visiting address: Høyesteretts plass 1, OSLO
Postal address: Pb 8016 Dep, NO-0030 OSLO
Phone +47 22 03 59 00, Fax +47 22 33 23 55
Domstolene (The Courts of Justice)
Universitetet i Oslo, Det juridiske fakultet (University of Oslo, The Faculty of Law)
Visiting adress: Domus Academica (Urbygningen), Karl Johansgt. 47, 0162 Oslo
Postal adress: Det
juridiske fakultet, Postboks 6706, St. Olavs plass, NO-0130 Oslo
Tlf +47 22 85 95 00, Telefax +47 22 85 96 58, E-mail: email@example.com
i Bergen, Det juridiske fakultet (University of
Bergen, Faculty of Law)
Magnus Lagabøtes plass 1, N-5010 BERGEN
Postal address: Pb 7800, NO-5020 BERGEN
Phone +47 55 58 95 00, Fax +47 55 58 95 71, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
i Tromsø, Juridisk fakultet (University of
Tromsø, Faculty of Law)
Visiting address: Universitetsvegen 30, Teorifagbygget Hus 4, 3. et.N-9037 Tomsø
Postal address: NO-9037 TROMSØ
Phone +47 77 64 41 97, Fax +47 77 64 47 75, E-mail: email@example.com
Juridisk bibliotek (Faculty of Law
Visiting address: Karl Johans gate 47, Domus Bibliotheca NO-0162 OSLO
Postal address: Pb 6713 St. Olavs plass, NO-0130 OSLO
Phone +47 22 85 98 85, Fax +47 22 85 98 80, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Det juridiske fakultetsbibliotek
(Faculty of Law Library) Bergen
Visiting address: Dragefjellet, Magnus Lagabøtes pl 1
Postal address: Pb 7808, 5020 Bergen
Phone +47 555 89595, Fax +47 555 89522, Email: email@example.com
Bibliotek for psykologi og jus –
PJ-biblioteket (Psychology and Law Library) Tromsø
Visiting address: Universitetsvegen 30 (østre inngang), Teorifagbygget
Postal address: Universitetsbiblioteket i Tromsø, PJ-biblioteket , 9037 Tromsø
Phone +47 776 46780, Fax +47 776 46789, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Stortingsbiblioteket (Parliament Library)
Stortinget, NO-0026 OSLO
Phone +47 22 31 36 90, Fax +47 22 31 38 59
Universitetsbiblioteket i Oslo
(University of Oslo Library)
Visiting address: Moltke Moes vei 39, Blindern
Postal address: Pb 1085 Blindern, NO-0317 OSLO
Phone +47 22 84 40 50 Fax +47 22 84 42 50
Gyldendal Akademisk (Publishers)
Kristian IVs gate 13, Pb 6730 St Olavs Plass, NO-0130 OSLO
Phone + 47 22 03 43 00, Fax + 47 22 03 05
Akademika Universitetsbokhandel (Akademika University Bookshop at Blindern)
Akademika Jus (Akademika University Bookshop,
St. Olavsplass 5, 0165 Oslo
Tlf: 2242 5450
Faks: 2298 0222
Gyldendal Rettsdata (Publishers)
Postboks 6664 St. Olavs plass
Phone: + 47 22 99 04 00, Telefax: + 47 22 99 04 50
Norlis Bokhandel (Norli's Bookshop)
Universitetsgaten 20-24, NO-0162 OSLO
Phone + 47 22 00 43 00, Fax + 47 22 42 26 51
Universitetsforlaget A/S (Publishers)
Sehesteds gate 3, Pb 508 Sentrum, NO-0105 OSLO
Phone + 47 24 14 75 00, Fax + 47 24 14 75 01
Kristian IVs gate 13
Postboks 6664 St. Olavs plass
Phone +47 22 99 04 00, Fax + 47 22 99 04 50
Lovdata (Law Information Systems)
Visiting address: Haakon VII gate 2, Oslo
Postal adress: PB 2016 Vika, NO-0125 Oslo
Phone +47 23 11 83 00, Fax +47 23 11 83 01
Innovasjon Norge (Innovation Norway) has replaced the following four organisations: The Norwegian Tourist Board, the Norwegian Trade Council, The Norwegian Industrial and Regional Development Fund, SND and the Government Consultative Office for Inventors, SVO
Visiting address: Akersgata 13 Postal address: PO Box 448 Sentrum, N-0104 Oslo
(Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise)
Visiting address: Essendropsgate 9, Majorstuen
Postal address: NHO,, PO Box 5250 Majorstuen,
Phone +47 23088000, Fax +47 23088001
13. List of Works Cited
Aagenæs, Janet (1993) Norsk-engelsk økonomisk ordbok [Norwegian-English economic dictionary]. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget
Aarbakke, Magnus and Helgesen, Jan (1982) Sources of law in Norway. In The sources of law. A comparative study. National systems of sources of law, ed. by Chantal Kourilsky, Attila Rácz and Heinz Schäffer, pp.189-225. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó
Advokatbladet. Medlemsblad for Den Norske Advokatforening. (1985-) Oslo: Den Norske Advokatforening
Al-Araki, Kirsten (2000) Nordisk sjørettsbibliografi 1880-1998 (Bibliography of Nordic maritime law). Oslo: Det juridiske Bibliotekfond
Andenæs, Johs. (1994) Innføring i rettsstudiet [Introduction to the Study of Law] 4th ed. Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk
Andenæs, Mads T. and Wilberg, Ingeborg (1987) The constitution of Norway. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Anderson, Ralph J.B. (1977) Anglo-Scandinavian law dictionary. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Avkortningsnemnda (1990) Avkortningsnemndas uttalelser. [Committee of Reduction concerning reduction in insurance cases] Oslo: Avkortningsnemnda
Bankklagenemnda (1988/89-) Bankklagenemndas uttalelser [The Complaint Board for Consumers in Banking and Finance Matters] Oslo: Bankklagenemnda
Bertnes, Pål A. (red.)(1997) Juridisk oppslagsbok. 19th ed. Oslo: Ad Notam Gyldendal
Bertnes, Pål A. (2011) Legal Information inNorway. Electronic and printed sources. Det juridiske fakultetsbiblioteks skriftserie nr. 19.
Bertnes, Pål A., Kongshavn, Halvor and Trygstad, Kristian Dahle (2012) Praktisk rettskildelære: juridisk informasjonssøking. 4. utg. Oslo: Gyldendal
Bertnes, Pål A. and Halvor Kongshavn. Praktisk rettskildelære. En innføring. Web-version.
Bertnes, Pål A. and Kongshavn, Halvor (1992) Praktisk rettskildelære. Juridisk kildesøking i Norge, øvrige nordiske land og EF [Textbook on Sources to Legal Information. Legal Information Retrieval in Norway, the other Nordic Countries and EEC]. Oslo: Det juridiske bibliotekfond, Ad Notam Gyldendal
Bertnes, Pål A. (1993) Sources to Legal Information in Norway. International Journal of Legal Information, 21, 154-166
Bertnes, Pål A. (1997) Norway. Information sources in law, 2nd ed., 341-361
Boe, Erik (2010) Innføring i juss : juridisk tenkning og rettskildelære [Introduction to Law]. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Bø, Knut Lage (2007) Norsk-engelsk, English-Norwegian: ordbok for kriminalomsorgen
Chaffey, Patrick N. (1994) (ed.) Norsk-engelsk administrativ ordbok. Navn og termer fra offentlig virksomhet. Norwegian-English administrative Glossary. Rev. ed. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Chaffey, Patrick N and Ronald Walford. (1992) Norsk-engelsk juridisk ordbok. Strafferett, straffeprosess og andre termer. Norwegian-English Law Dictionary. Criminal Law and Procedure and miscellaneous Terms. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Complex. (1981-) Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Craig, Ronald L. (1999) Stor norsk-engelsk juridisk ordbok: med engelsk-norsk register (Great Norwegian-English law dictionary: whith English-Norwegian register) Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Craig, Ronald L. (1999) Norsk-engelsk juridisk ordbok. Kontraktsrett. Norwegian-English law dictionary. Contract law. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Dommer og kjennelser av arbeidsretten. [Decisions of the Labour Disputes Court] (1916/17-) Oslo: Grøndahl
Dommer, uttalelser m.v. i skattesaker og skattespørsmål. [Decisions and opinions in tax cases] (1922-) Bergen: Ligningsnevndenes landsforbund
Eckhoff, Torstein (2001) Rettskildelære [Sources of Law Theory] 5th ed. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Eurorett. Orientering om nye regler og rettsavgjørelser fra EU og EØS organer. [Guide to new rules and decisions from EC and EEA Agencies] (1994-) Oslo: Lovdata
Fife, Rolf Einar (1991) Fransk-norsk juridisk oppslagsbok. Lexique juridique franco-norvegien. Rev.ed. Oslo: Tano
Fleischer, Carl August (1998) Rettskilder og juridisk metode [Sources of Law] Oslo: Ad Notam Gyldendal
Gisle, Jon og Kristian Andenæs (2007) Jusleksikon. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget
Gulbransen, Egil (1994) Juridisk leksikon [Law Dictionary] 8th ed. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget
Hagelien, Per, Vonen, Marie (1993) The Norwegian Legal System. In EFTA Legal Systems. An introductory Guide, Eds. Maurice Sheridan, James Cameron, John Toulmin. Norway ; 51. London: Butterworth
Haider, Inger Erikson (1993) Recent Legal Developments in the Nordic Countries. A selected bibliography of works written in English, German, French and Italian, 1982-1992. International Journal of Legal Information, 21, 33-64
Hansen, Einar and Lind, Åge (2008) Engelsk-norsk økonomisk juridisk ordbok. (English-Norwegian economic law dictionary) Oslo: Cappelen akademisk forlag
Hansen, Einar and Lind, Åge (2010) Norsk-engelsk økonomisk-juridisk ordbok
Haukaas, Kaare (1967) Norsk juridisk litteratur 1962-1966 Oslo.Universitetsforlaget
Haukaas, Kaare (1967) Norwegian Legal Publications in English, French and German. A list. Norsk bibliografisk bibliotek, no 33. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Haukaas, Kaare (1977) Norwegian Legal Publications in English, French and German 1966-76. A list. Scandinavian Studies in Law, 21, 261-293
Høeg, Tom Arbo (1990) Lov og dom. Lovregister til Norsk retstidende 1836-1968. [Statutory Index to Norsk retstidende 1836-1968] Oslo: Det juridiske bibliotekfond/Ad Notam
Høeg, Tom Arbo (1990) Lov og dom. Lovregister til Norsk retstidende 1969-1988. [Statutory Index to Norsk retstidende 1969-1988] Oslo: Det juridiske bibliotekfond/Ad Notam
Høeg, Tom Arbo (1992) Lov og dom. Lovregister til Rettens Gang 1933-1989. [Statutory Index to Rettens Gang 1933-1989] Oslo: Det juridiske bibliotekfond/Ad Notam
Iuul, Stig, Malmstrøm, Åke and Søndergaard, Jens (1961) (eds.) Scandinavian legal bibliography. Acta Instituti Upsaliensis iurisprudentiae comparativae, no 4. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell
Jacobsen, Kirsti Lothe (2009) Norwegian law in foreign languages, a bibliography
Jacobsen, Kirsti Lothe (1994) Juridisk fakultetsbibliografi. Systematisk og alfabetisk bibliografi over publikasjoner utgitt ved Det juridiske fakultet. Biografi over ansatte ved fakultetet 1969-1994. Det juridiske fakultets skriftserie, no 47. Bergen: Universitetet i Bergen
Juristkontakt. Medlemsblad for Norges juristforbund. (1967-) Oslo: Norges juristforbund
Knophs oversikt over Norges rett. [Knoph on Norwegian Law] (2009) 13. ed. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget
Kongshavn, Halvor (2003) Nordisk juridisk festskriftbibliografi : innholdet i juridiske festskrift fra Danmark, Finland, Island, Norge og Sverige : 1998-2002. Oslo:Gyldendal
Kongshavn, Halvor (1994) A bibliography of articles in non-Scandinavian languages 1963-1993 in Norwegian legal festschriften. Det juridiske fakultetsbiblioteks skriftserie, no 10. Oslo: Det juridiske bibliotekfond
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