UPDATE: Guide to Nigerian Legal Information

 

By Yemisi Dina, John Akintayo & Funke Ekundayo

Updated by Yemisi Dina, John Akintayo & Funke Ekundayo

 

Yemisi Dina, B.A, M.A, LL.B, MLIS, MPPAL is Associate Librarian/Head of Public Services at the Osgoode Hall Law Library, York University, Ontario, Canada. She was formerly Manager of Adult Services at the Central Library, Richmond Hill Public Library, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada; Law Librarian at The College of The Bahamas Law Library, Nassau, The Bahamas; Law Librarian at the Adeola Odutola Law Library, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria and Principal Librarian at the Nigerian Law School, Lagos Campus, Nigeria. Her areas of research include law librarianship, legal research methods and information technology and law.

 

John Oluwole A. Akintayo LL.B (Ibadan), LL.M (Lagos), LL.M (Georgetown), Ph.D. (Ibadan), B.L., is a law teacher at the Faculty of Law, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria and a member of the Nigerian Bar. His areas of research include jurisprudence, private international law, constitutional law and administrative law.

 

Funke Ekundayo BSc, MLS, LL.B, LL.M, B.L., M.A. (London), Ph.D. (London) teaches law at the University of Ibadan and is a member of the Nigerian Bar Association. She worked as Librarian at the Federal Court of Appeal, Ibadan. Her areas of research include family law, legal research methods and international law.

 

Published November/December 2015

(Updated previously on Sept./Oct. 2007, Jan./Feb. 2010,

and by Yemisi Dina and J. Akintayo in March 2013)

See the Archive Version!

 
Table of Contents

1.     Introduction

2.     Legal System

2.1. Constitution

2.2.  Legislation

2.3.  English Law

2.4.  Customary Law

2.4.1.     Ethnic/Non-Moslem Law

2.4.2.     Islamic/Sharia/Moslem Law

2.5.  Judicial Precedents

3.     Government Bodies

3.1. Legislature

3.2.  Executive

3.3.  Judiciary

4.     Primary & Secondary Sources of Information

4.1. Primary Sources

4.1.1.      Law Reports

4.1.2.     Online Services

4.1.3.     Newspapers

4.2.  Secondary Sources

4.2.1.     Journals

4.2.2.     Legal Publishers

4.3.  Government Publications

4.4.  International Law

5.     Legal Education

6.     Legal Profession

7.     Federal Government Agencies & Other Useful Websites

8.     References

 

1.     Introduction

The Federal Republic of Nigeria is located in the Western part of Africa. It became an independent state on October 1, 1960, after about 100 years under British colonization, and attained a republican status within the British Commonwealth three years after in 1963. Since independence, Nigeria has come under both military and civil administrations. The coming into force of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999 on May 29, 1999, ushered in the present democratic dispensation, popularly referred to as "the Fourth Republic." On this day, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, a retired Army General and a one-time military Head of State (February 13, 1976 to September 30, 1979), became the President and Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria following his victory in the presidential election conducted in 1999 as the candidate of the People’s Democratic Party. President Olusegun Obasanjo's ruling party, the People's Democratic Party, also won the second term after another general election in April 2003.  On April 21, 2007, Alhaji Umaru Musa Yar’Adua, the Governor of Katsina State in Northwestern Nigeria between 1999 and 2007, and the flag bearer of the People's Democratic Party, was declared winner of the presidential election and he was subsequently sworn into office as President on May 29, 2007. Dr. Jonathan Ebele Jonathan, President Umaru Musa Yar’Adua’s Vice President, was sworn in as President following the death of Alhaji Umaru Musa Yar’Adua on May 5, 2011. He contested the presidential election in 2011 as the candidate of the ruling People’s Democratic Party and was sworn in as President on May 29, 2011. The current President and Head of State is Muhammadu Buhari. He was sworn on May 29, 2015 as the 15th post-Independence Head of Government. He won the presidential election held in April 2015 as the candidate of the All Progressives Congress (APC) defeating the incumbent President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan of the People’s Democratic Party. Muhammadu Buhari. He is a retired general of the Nigerian Army and was Head of State from December 31, 1983 to August 27, 1985.  In spite of the fact that Nigeria is experiencing its longest period of uninterrupted civilian administration (since May 29, 1999), the country may rightly be said to be in its tender years of democracy in view of the fact that 28 of Nigeria’s post-independence years were spent under the military.

 

The Federal Republic of Nigeria – is made up of 36 states and a Federal Capital Territory (FCT) located in Abuja. The states and their capital cities are as follows:

 

STATE

CAPITAL CITY

Abia

Umuahia

Adamawa

Yola

Akwa Ibom

Uyo

Anambra

Awka

Bauchi

Bauchi

Bayelsa

Yenagoa

Benue

Makurdi

Borno

Maiduguri

Cross-River

Calabar

Delta

Asaba

Ebonyi

Abakaliki

Edo

Benin City

Ekiti

Ado-Ekiti

Enugu

Enugu

Gombe

Gombe

Imo

Owerri

Jigawa

Dutse

Kaduna

Kaduna

Kano

Kano

Katsina

Katsina

Kebbi

Birnin Kebbi

Kogi

Lokoja

Kwara

Ilorin

Lagos

Ikeja

Nassarawa

Lafia

Niger

Minna

Ogun

Abeokuta

Ondo

Akure

Osun

Osogbo

Oyo

Ibadan

Plateau

Jos

Rivers

Port Harcourt

Sokoto

Sokoto

Taraba

Jalingo

Yobe

Damaturu

Zamfara

Gusau

 

At independence, Nigeria consisted of three regions, namely, the Northern Region, the Eastern Region and the Western Region. Apart from the Mid-Western Region which was carved out of the Western Region in 1964 through the process laid down by the 1963 Republican Constitution, the other five subsequent exercises of creation of states were undertaken by the Military. Because of the multiplicity of these states, they are as a matter of convenience and political expediency grouped into the six geo-political zones of North East, North West, North Central, South East, South West and South South. This grouping has not been accorded any constitutional recognition.

There are close to 400 linguistic groups in Nigeria, but the three major languages are Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba, while English is the official language.

 

2.     Legal System

The Nigerian legal system is based on the English common law legal tradition by virtue of colonization and the attendant incidence of reception of English law through the process of legal transplant. According to Obilade (1979) English law has a tremendous influence on the Nigerian legal system, and "English law forms a substantial part of Nigerian law". The sources of Nigerian law are:

 

 

2.1.  Constitution

The current constitution is the 1 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. The 1999 Nigerian Constitution came into force on May 29, 1999. The 1999 Constitution has been amended three times, all in 2010. The first two amendments deal largely with political issues while the Third Alteration makes provisions for the establishment of the National Industrial Court as a superior court of record. Efforts are ongoing to further amend the 1999 Nigerian Constitution. The 1999 Nigerian Constitution provides the framework for the administration of both the Federal Government of Nigeria as well as the states. No state may therefore adopt its own constitution unlike what obtained until the incursion of the military in government in Nigeria in 1966. The Constitution is supreme and its provisions have binding force on all authorities and persons throughout the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

 

2.2.  Legislation

The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999, as amended, regulates the distribution of legislative business between the National Assembly, which has power to make laws for the Federation and the House of Assembly for each State of the Federation. The current legislation in force at the federal level is largely contained in the 16 volume Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004 (LFN). The Laws of the Federation of Nigeria is printed in loose-leaf in-binder format and it is also available in CD-ROM. The Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004 contains the federal laws including subsidiary legislation in force on the 31st day of December 2002. Before the law revision exercise that culminated in the Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004, the laws in force at the federal level were found in the Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1990 (LFN) and the Annual Volumes of the Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria from 1990 to 2002. Federal laws enacted since January 2003 are contained in the Annual Volumes of the Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. They are also incorporated into the subsequent issues of the Laws of the Federation of Nigeria published from time to time. In May 2007 the National Assembly enacted the Revised Edition (Laws of the Federation of Nigeria) Act, 2007 to give effect and approval to the Laws of the Federation of Nigeria compiled and published under the authority of the Attorney-General of the Federation and Minister of Justice.

 

Each of the 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja has its own laws. These include laws on residual matters, which are within the exclusive legislative competence of states and matters on the concurrent legislative list. Some states periodically undertake law revision exercises to present their laws in a compact and comprehensive form to guarantee easy access.  

 

Primary and subordinate legislation in force on the coming into force of the Constitution are treated by the Constitution as existing laws and deemed to have been made by the appropriate legislative body with competence to do so under the 1999 Nigerian Constitution. Legislation has been described as the most important source of Nigerian law after the Constitution. This is partly because all other sources of Nigerian law are considered as such by virtue of a piece of legislation or the other.

 

2.3.  English Law

This consists of:

 

(a) The received English law comprising:

 

 

(b) English law (statutes) made before October 1, 1960 and extending to Nigeria which are not yet repealed. Laws made by the local colonial legislature are treated as part of Nigerian legislation. The failure to review most of these laws especially in the field of criminal law has occasioned the existence of what may be described as impracticable laws or legal provisions which are honored more in breach than in observance. Despite the influence of English Law, the Nigerian legal system is very complex because of legal pluralism.

 

2.4.  Customary Law

The traditional classification of customary law is into the following categories:

 

 

In the states in the Southern part of the country, Moslem/Islamic law, where it exists, is integrated into and has always been treated as an aspect of the customary law. Since 1956, however, Islamic law has been administered in the Northern states as a separate and distinct system. Even then, until recently, it has only been in relation to Muslim personal law.  However, it is better to accord Islamic law its distinct status as a separate source of law because of its peculiarities in terms of origin, nature and territorial and personal scope of application.

 

2.4.1.     Ethnic/Non-Moslem Law

The ethnic customary law is the indigenous law that applies to the members of the different ethnic groups. Nigeria is made up of several ethnic groups each with its own variety of customary law. Customary law is a system of law that reflects the culture, customs, values and habits of the people whose activities it regulates. It has been described as a mirror of accepted usage. Customary law is particularly dominant in the area of personal and family relations like marriage, divorce, guardianship and custody of children and succession. Naturally, differences in the customary laws of different ethnic groups do exist and this must not be taken for granted. Even within an ethnic group, instances of pockets of differences in aspects of customary law are noticeable. For example, the marriage customs and inheritance rules of the Igbos of the South Eastern Nigeria are different from those of the Yorubas of the South Western Nigeria. Beyond this, the customary values and systems of various Yoruba sub-ethnic groups are bound to be different even if they are in the same State. Unfortunately, ethnic customary law is unwritten, uncertain and difficult to ascertain. It is flexible and has the capacity to adapt to social and economic changes without losing its character. There have been instances of legislative interventions to modify and at times abrogate rules of customary law. Customary law is usually enforced in customary courts, the courts at the lowest rung of the hierarchy of courts, which in most cases are presided over by non-legally trained personnel, though higher courts are equally permitted to observe and to enforce the observance of rules of customary law by their enabling laws. It is to be noted the bulk of causes on the Cause List of customary courts, especially in South Western Nigeria, are matters relating to the dissolution of traditional marriages.

 

2.4.2.     Islamic Law/Sharia/Moslem Law

Islamic law, unlike ethnic customary law, is written. Its principles are clearly defined and articulated. This system of law has worked with detailed thoroughness and incisive precision. It is based on the Islamic religion and was introduced into Nigeria by its practitioners as a consequence of a successful process of Islamization. This system of law is based on the Holy Koran and the teachings of Prophet Muhammad. In some areas, Islamic law after its introduction completely supplanted the pre-existing system of customary laws whereas in other areas, it became incorporated with customary law and the two systems have become fused and are jointly administered. Islamic law is being enforced in some states of Nigeria especially in the Northern part where populations are predominantly Moslem. The scope of operation of Islamic law has broadened since the introduction of the Sharia legal system in the present democratic dispensation in a number of Northern states such as Zamfara, Kano, Kaduna, and Sokoto among others. The principal feature of this new development is the introduction of religious based criminal offences, especially on matters of morality and the introduction of punishments sanctioned by the Koran. The apex court, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, has not had the opportunity to pronounce on the constitutionality of punishments like amputation and stoning of a person to death, which the Sharia prescribes for certain offences.

 

2.5.  Judicial Precedents

The Supreme Court is the highest court of the land. It replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1963 as the final court of appeal. The Court of Appeal (originally known as the Federal Court of Appeal) was established in 1976 as a national penultimate court to entertain appeals from the High Courts, which are the trial courts of general jurisdiction. The Court of Appeal sits in Judicial Divisions in locations throughout the country; but it is still a single court and is ordinarily bound by its own decisions. The Court of Appeal and all lower courts are bound by the decisions of this Supreme Court. The High Courts and other courts of coordinate and subordinate jurisdiction are equally bound by the decisions of the Court of Appeal. The doctrine of judicial precedents does not apply rigidly to certain courts like the customary/area courts and the Sharia courts in Nigeria.

 

 

Figure 1: Judicial System (depicting an illustration of the Nigerian Judicial System)

 

In states with Customary Courts of Appeal, appeals generally go to Customary Courts of Appeal on questions of customary law and to the High Court in other cases. Whereas in some states, appeals go to the Magistrates Court from the Customary Court. Often these states do not have the Customary Court of Appeal. However, it is through the process of application for judicial review (certiorari) that the judgments of Customary Courts are questioned before High Courts in states without a Customary Court of Appeal.

 

Appeals from Area Courts may go either to the High Courts or the Sharia Court of Appeal depending on the way the courts are organized. In states with or without Sharia Court of Appeal, appeals lie from Area Courts to Customary Court of Appeal on matters of customary law if there is a Customary Court of Appeal in the state.

 

Notwithstanding the federal status of Nigeria, the federal and the state court systems are not in two parallel lines. It is only to a limited extent that it may be asserted that each state has its own legal system, as it will be shown below.

 

3.     Government Bodies

The system of government in the Federal Republic of Nigeria is modeled after the American presidential system with the following arms of government:

 

 

3.1.  Legislature

The Federal Legislature, referred to as the National Assembly,  is responsible for law making and it follows law making procedures as specified in Sections 58 and 59 of the 1999 Constitution. The legislature is bicameral and made up of the:

 

 

The Senate consists of 109 elected members while the House of Representatives has 360 members. The membership of the Senate is on the basis of equality of states with each state having three Senators. The Federal Capital Territory (FCT) is represented by one senator. The number of Representatives elected by each State is determined on the basis of population.

 

Each state also has its own law-making organ known as the House of Assembly. The members elected into the Houses of Assembly represent the various state constituencies usually delineated on the basis of population.

 

All legislators are elected for a 4-year term, though the electorates reserve the power to recall any legislator.

 

3.2.  Executive

The executive power of the Federation is vested in the President by virtue of Section 5(1) (a) of the 1999 Constitution. Such powers can be exercised directly or through the Vice-President or Ministers or officers of the Government. Similarly, in the states, the executive power of a state is vested in the Governor and may be exercised directly by the Governor or through the Deputy Governor, Commissioners or other public officers.

 

See the Nigerian constitution for the functions of the Executive.

 

3.3.  Judiciary

By virtue of Section 6 (1) of the Nigerian Constitution 1999, as amended, the following courts are established in the Federal Republic of Nigeria:

 

  1. the Supreme Court of Nigeria;
  2. the Court of Appeal;
  3. the Federal High Court;
  4. the High Court of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja;
  5. a High Court of a State;
  6. the National Industrial Court;
  7. the Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja;
  8. a Sharia Court of Appeal of a State;
  9. the Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja;
  10. a Customary Court of Appeal of a State. The courts established by the Constitution are the only superior courts of record in Nigeria. The Constitution empowers the National Assembly and the Houses of Assembly to establish courts with subordinate jurisdiction to the High Courts. Courts established pursuant to the Constitution are invariably inferior courts of record notwithstanding the status of the officer presiding in the courts.

 

The Supreme Court is the highest court and all decisions from the court are binding on all other courts. In Nigeria, the state court structure dovetails into the federal court structure at the level of the Court of Appeal. The Court of Appeal entertains appeals from the decisions of the High Courts, the Sharia Courts of Appeal and the Customary Courts of Appeal. Appeals from the decisions of the Court of Appeal go to the Supreme Court.  In effect the Supreme Court is not only a Supreme Court on federal matters, it is also the final court in respect of state laws.

 

However, in terms of administrative responsibility, State High Courts are the most important courts in each state. This assertion is strengthened because whereas the Constitution has established a High Court for each State directly, each state has an option to establish a Sharia Court of Appeal or a Customary Court of Appeal or both. The inferior courts, which are established by legislation made pursuant to the powers conferred by constitutional provisions, pursuant to constitutional provisions, include Magistrate Courts, District Courts, Area/Sharia Courts, and Customary Courts. By and large, these courts are established by State Laws, except for the Federal Capital Territory and the judicial hierarchy and the nomenclatures of inferior courts are dissimilar. The High Courts and other specialized courts exercise supervisory and appellate jurisdiction over the inferior courts.

 

4.     Primary & Secondary Sources of Information

Like all jurisdictions of the world, legal literature of the Nigeria is made up of primary and secondary sources. The list of these materials is non exhaustive. A number of them are available at the Library of Congress, the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, London, leading academic and research libraries all over the world.

 

4.1.  Primary Sources

Many law reports have been published over the years in Nigeria. However, there is no government organ solely responsible for law reporting. There are many commercial law reports even though their life span is rather epileptic because of the prohibitive costs of production. 

 

4.1.1.     Law Reports

The following is a list of law reports:

 

 

4.1.2.     Online Services

The following electronic publishers also publish electronic law reports:

 

 

4.1.3.     Newspapers

Some Nigerian daily newspapers have a comprehensive section for law reporting and other legal matters (especially unreported judgments) as listed below:

 

 

4.2.  Secondary Sources

Members of Nigerian academia, the bench, and the bar have written a lot of legal textbooks.  This list is not exhaustive but we will attempt to mention a few of them.

 

Administrative Law:

 

·       Oyebode, A., Law and Nation-Building in Nigeria: Selected Essays. Lagos: Centre for Political and Administrative Research (CEPAR), 2005.

·       Oyewo, A.T., The Law of Local Government in Nigeria.  Ibadan: Jator Publishing Company, 1991.

 

Arbitration Law:

 

·       Orojo, J. O., & Ajomo, M. A., Law and Practice of Arbitration and Conciliation in Nigeria. Lagos: Mbeyi & Associates Nig. Ltd, 2009.

·       Principles of Negotiation and Mediation edited by E. Azinge & C. Ani. Lagos: Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 2012.

 

Civil Procedure:

 

·       Modern Civil Procedure Law edited by A. F. Afolayan & P. C. Okorie. Lagos: Dee-Sage Nigeria Limited, 2007.

 

Commercial Law:

 

·       Etomi, G. Introduction to Commercial Law in Nigeria. Lagos: MIJ Publishers, 2014.

·       Kenna Associates, Legal and Regulatory Aspects of Commercial Issues in Doing Business in Nigeria. Lagos: Commercial Law Development, 2007.

·       Smith, I. O., Nigerian Law of Secured Credit.  Lagos: Ecowatch Publications (Nigeria) Limited, 2001.

·       Uvieghara, E.E., Sale of Goods (and hire-purchase) Law in Nigeria.  Lagos: Malthouse Press, 1996.

 

Conflict of Laws:

 

 

Constitutional Law:

 

·       Edeko, S.E., Fundamental Issues in Nigerian Constitutional Law.  Benin City: Anointed Tesa Printing Press, 2002.

·       Nwabueze, B. O., Ideas and Facts in Constitution-Making.  Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited, 1993.

·       Nwabueze, B. O., The Machinery of Justice in Nigeria. London: Butterworths, 1963.

·       Nwabueze, B., Constitutional Democracy in Africa Vol. 1-5. Ibadan: Spectrum, 2004.

·       Ojo, A., Constitutional Law and Military Rule in NigeriaIbadan: Evans Brothers (Nigeria Publishers) Ltd., 1987.

·       Oluyede, P. A., & Aihe, D.O., Cases and Materials on Constitutional Law in Nigeria.  Ibadan: University Press, 2003.

·       Oyewo, O., Constitutional Law in Nigeria, The Netherlands: Kluwer International, 2013.

 

Contract Law:

 

 

Corporate Law:

 

·       Olawoyin, C. A. Status and Duties of Company Directors. Ile-Ife: University of Ife Press, 1977.

·       Orojo, J. O., Company Law and Practice in Nigeria. 5th ed. Butterworth: LexisNexis: 2008.

 

Criminal Law:

 

·       Aguda, T. A. The Criminal Law and Procedure of the Southern States of Nigeria. 3rd ed., London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1982.   

·       Arowosaiye, I. Y., Economic crimes and ICT: Response of the Nigerian Criminal Law. Saarbrücken LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2014.

·       Chukkol, K. S., Defences to criminal liability in Nigerian law: a critical appraisal.  Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press, 1980.

·       Chukkol, K. S., The Law of Crimes in Nigeria.  Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press, 1988.

·       Dambazau, A. B., Law and criminality in Nigeria: an analytical discourse. Ibadan: University Press, 1994.

·       Karibi-Whyte, A. G., Criminal Policy: Traditional & Modern Trends. Lagos, Nigeria: Nigerian Law Publications, 1988.

·       Karibi-Whyte, A. G., Groundwork of Nigerian Criminal Law. Lagos: Nigerian Law Publications, 1986.

·       Karibi-Whyte, A.G., History and Sources of Nigerian Criminal Law. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited, 1993.

·       Madarikan C.O. and Aguda, T. A., Brett and McLean's The Criminal Law and Procedure of the Six Southern States of Nigeria.  London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1982.

·       Momodu, B., Law and Practice of Criminal Investigation and Prosecution in Nigeria. Ibadan: Stirling Horden Publishers (Nig.) Ltd., 2007.

·       Okeyode-Adesina, A., Guide to the Development of Criminal Justice System in Nigeria. Ibadan: University Press PLC, 2014.

·       Okonkwo, C. O., Okonkwo and Naish: Criminal Law in Nigeria. 2nd ed., Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited, 1990.

·       Ola, C.S., Criminal Responsibilities and Defences under the Nigerian Law Lagos: CSS Ltd., 2001.

·       Ola, C.S., Mens rea in Statutory Offences in Nigeria.  Lagos: Malthouse Press, 1990.

·       Owoade, M. A., Law of homicide in Nigeria.  Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Obafemi Awolowo University Press, 1990.

·       Principles of Criminal Liability in Nigerian Law.  2nd ed., edited by T. Akinola Aguda & Isabella Okagbue, Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books Nigeria PLC, 1990. 

 

Criminal Procedure:

 

·       Zalman, M., Cases and materials on the law of criminal procedure in the northern states of Nigeria, with a chapter on confessions by Greta Zalman. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University, 1969.

·       Babalola, Afe Injunctions and Enforcement of Orders Ile-Ife: Obafemi Awolowo University Press, 2000.

·       Babalola, Afe Enforcement of Judgments.  Ibadan: Afe Babalola, 2003

 

Cultural Heritage Law:

 

 

Customary Law:

 

·       Badaiki, A. D. Development of Customary Law, 2nd ed. Lagos: Tiken Publishers, 2001.

·       Towards a Restatement of Nigerian Customary Laws edited by Y. Osinbajo & A.U. Kalu, Lagos: Federal Ministry of Justice, 1991.

 

Law of Equity:

 

 

Election Law:

 

 

 

Environmental Law:

 

·       Ladan, M. T., Laws, Cases and Policies on Energy, Mineral Resources, Climate Change, Environment, Water, Maritime and Human Rights in Nigeria. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press, 2009.

·       Law and Climate Change in Nigeria edited by W. O. Egbewole, M. A. Etudaiye, & O. A. Olatunji. Ilorin: Faculty of Law, University of Ilorin, 2011.

·       Ndukwe, O.U., Elements of Nigerian Environmental Laws. Calabar: University of Calabar Press, 2000.

·       Okorodudu-Fubara, M.T., Law of Environmental Protection: Materials and Text.  Ibadan: Caltop Publication, 1998.

·       Ola, C.S., Town and Country Planning and Environmental Laws in Nigeria Ibadan: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1987.

·       The Law and the Environment in Nigeria edited by F. Shyllon. Ibadan: Vantage Publishers, 1989.

·       Usman, A. K., Environmental Protection Law and Practice. Ibadan: Ababa Press, 2012.

·       Worika, I.L., Environmental Law and Policy of Petroleum Development: Strategies and Mechanisms for Sustainable Development in Africa. Port Harcourt: Anpez Centre for Environment and Development, 2002. 

 

Evidence Law:

 

·       Nwadialo, F., Modern Nigerian Law of Evidence, 2nd ed. Lagos: University of Lagos Press, 1999.

·       Okekeifere, A.I., Circumstantial Evidence in Nigerian Law. Port Harcourt: Lawhouse Books, 2000.

·       Osinbajo, Y., Cases and Materials on Nigerian Law of Evidence.  Lagos: Macmillan, 1992.

·       Uzo, I. D., Law and Practice on Documentary Evidence. Enugu: Digest Publishing Co., 2002.

 

Family Law:

 

·       Law of domestic violence in Nigeria Lagos: Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 2012.

·       Nwogugu, E.O., Family Law in Nigeria.  Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books (Nigeria), 2014.

·       Obi, S.N.C., Modern Family Law in Southern Nigeria.  London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1966.

·       Osondu, A. C., Modern Nigerian Family Law and Practice: with full commentary on the Matrimonial Causes Rule 1983. Lagos: Printable Pub. Co., 2012.

·       Sagay, I., Nigerian Family Law: Principles, Cases, Statutes and Commentaries. Ikeja: Malthouse Press Ltd, 1999.

 

Gender Law:

 

 

Human Rights:

 

·       Perspectives on Human Rights edited by A. U. Kalu & Y. Osinbajo. Lagos: Federal Ministry of Justice, 1992.

·       Udombana, N.J., Human Rights and Contemporary Issues in Africa. Ikeja: Malthouse Press, 2003.

 

Intellectual Property & Copyright Law:

 

·       Ola, O., Copyright collective administration in Nigeria: lessons for Africa, London: Springer, 2013.

·       Shyllon, F., Intellectual Property Law in Nigeria.  Munich: Verlag C.H. Beck, 2003.

 

International Law:

 

·       Umozurike, U.O., Introduction to International Law. Ibadan; Spectrum Books Limited, 1993.

·       Yakubu, J. A., International Contracts: Evolution and Theory. Ikeja: Malthouse Press Ltd, 1999.

·       Agbede, I. O. Legal Pluralism. Ibadan: Shaneson, 1991.

 

Islamic Law:

 

·       Ibrahim, H., Practising Shariah Law: Seven Strategies for achieving Justice in Shariah Courts. Chicago: American Bar Association, 2012.

·       Peters, R., Islamic criminal law in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books, 2003.

 

Jurisprudence:

 

·       Nigerian Essays in Jurisprudence edited by T.O. Elias & M.I. Jegede. Lagos: MIJ Publishers, 1993.

 

Labour & Employment Law:

 

·       Ogunniyi, O., Nigerian Labour and Employment Law in Perspective, 2nd ed. Ikeja: Folio Publishers Ltd, 2004.

·       Uvieghara, E.E., Labour Law in Nigeria. Lagos: Malthouse Press, 2001.

·       Uvieghara, E.E., Trade Union Law in Nigeria. Benin-City: Ethiope Pub. Co., 1976.

 

Legal Profession:

 

·       The Legal Profession and the Nigerian Nation: Essays in Honour of Chief Afe Babalola edited by Y. Akinseye-George, Ibadan: International Legal and Allied Research Network. 2000. 

 

Legal System:

 

·       Current Themes in Nigerian Law edited by I. O.  Agbede & E. O. Akanki. Lagos: University of Lagos, 1997.

·       Introduction to Nigerian Legal Method. 2nd ed. edited by A. Sanni. Ile-Ife: Obafemi Awolowo University Press Limited, 2006.

·       Jegede, O., Bibliography of Nigerian Law Reports.  Lagos: Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 1995.

·       Jegede, O., Nigerian Legal Bibliography: A classified list of materials related to Nigerian Law. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Published for the Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, Lagos by Oceana Publications, 1983.

·       Malemi, E., The Nigerian Legal Method. Lagos: Princeton Publishing Co., 2010.

·       Nigerian Legal Methods edited by C. C. Ohuruogu & O. T. Umahi. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013.

·       Nwalimu, C., The Nigerian Legal System New York: Peter Lang, 2005 (3 volumes).

·       Obilade, A. O., The Nigerian Legal System.  London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1979.

·       Ogbu, O. N., Modern Nigerian Legal System. Enugu: Cidjap Publishers, 2002.

·       Ogbuinya, O., Understanding the Concept of Jurisdiction in the Nigerian Legal System. Enugu: Snaap Press, 2008.

·       Ogwurike, C., Concept of Law in English-Speaking Africa. New York, London & Lagos: NOK Publishers International, 1979.

·       Olong, A., The Nigerian Legal System. 2nd ed. Lagos: Malthouse Law Books. 2007.

·       Park, A.E.W., The Sources of Nigerian Law.  Lagos & London: African Universities Press and Sweet & Maxwell, 1963. 

·       Tobi, N., Sources of Nigerian law.  Lagos: MIJ Professional Publishers Ltd., 1996. 

 

Media Law:

 

·       Nigerian Press Law edited by T. O. Elias, London & Lagos: Evans Brothers & University of Lagos, 1979.

·       Osinbajo, Y., & Fogam, K., Nigerian Media Law. Lagos: Gravitas Publications, 1991.

 

Medical Law:

 

 

Oil & Gas Law:

 

·       Etikerentse, G., Nigerian Petroleum Law. London: Macmillan, 1985.

·       Omorogbe, Y., Oil and Gas Law in Nigeria Simplified. Ikeja: Malthouse Press, 2003.

·       Omorogbe, Y., The Oil and Gas Industry: Exploration and Production Contracts. Lagos: Malthouse, 1997.

 

Property Law:

 

·       Olawoye, C. O., Title to Land in Nigeria. Ibadan: Evans Brothers, 1974.

·       Oluyede, P. A., Nigerian Law of Conveyancing. Ibadan: Ibadan University Press, 1978.

·       Oluyede, P. A. O., Modern Nigerian Land Law.  Ibadan: Evans Brothers, 1989.

·       Utuama, A.A., Nigerian Law of Real Property.  Ibadan: Shaneson, 1989.

 

Succession, Trusts, Wills & Estate Law:

 

·       Jegede, M.I., Law of Trusts, Bankruptcy and Administration of Estates. Lagos: MIJ Professional Publishers, 1999.

·       Law of Wills in Nigeria edited by A. A. Utuama and G.M. Ibru, 2001.

·       Sagay, I., Nigerian Law of Succession: Principles, Cases, Statutes and Commentaries.  Lagos: Malthouse Press, 2007.

·       Tobi, N., Cases and Materials on Nigerian Land Law.  Lagos: Mabrochi Books, 1997.

 

Taxation Law:

 

 

Tort Law:

 

·       Kodilinye, G.  & Aluko, O., Nigerian Law of Torts. 2nd ed., Ibadan: Spectrum Books Limited, 1999.

·       The Law of Defamation: Challenges in the Face of Rapid ICT Developments edited by G.M. Ibru, John Akintayo & Lanre Idowu. Lagos: Diamond Publications, 2013.

 

4.2.1.     Journals

 

 

4.2.2.     Legal Publishers

The following are prominent legal publishers in Nigeria:

 

 

4.3.  Government Publications

There is the Federal Government Press Department, which is responsible for the publication and sale of Gazettes and other government notices. The Federal Government Press is located in Lagos and Abuja. Each state has a government press, which is also responsible for state government publications.

 

4.4.  International Law

Nigeria has ratified many international instruments and treaties. Nigeria is a member of the United Nations, The Commonwealth, the African Union and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) among others. It is also important to note that several Nigerian judges have served and are still serving on a number of international tribunals and courts.

 

5.     Legal Education

The Council of Legal Education is the supervisory body responsible for the accreditation, control and management of legal education in Nigeria. The Council established under the Legal Education (Consolidation) Act, Cap L10 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004 is in charge of the Nigerian Law School, a vocational institution responsible for the education and training of prospective legal practitioners in Nigeria. The Nigerian Law School's headquarters is located in Abuja and there are other 5 campuses of the Nigerian Law School in Enugu, Kano, Lagos, Yenagoa and Yola.  Persons wishing to study law in Nigeria must first undergo undergraduate training in Nigerian universities for the award of an LL.B degree after which they proceed to the Nigerian Law School for practical training in any of its campuses. Successful candidates in the Bar Final examinations are called to the Nigerian Bar if they satisfy the Benchers that they are of good character. The Council of Legal Education also recognizes some foreign degree holders from accredited overseas institutions for purposes of admission. In order to qualify to practice as a legal practitioner in Nigeria, a person called to the Nigerian Bar must enroll as a Solicitor and Advocate of the Supreme Court of Nigeria. 

 

6.    Legal Profession

It is by virtue of enrolment at the Supreme Court that an individual can become a legal practitioner and a member of the legal profession in Nigeria. A legal practitioner is enrolled in Nigeria both as a Solicitor and Advocate (Barrister) because, unlike in England, the legal profession is fused. The activities and conduct of members of the legal profession are regulated by statutory bodies like the General Council of the Bar and the Body of Benchers. The bodies are established by the Legal Practitioners Act, Cap. L 11, LFN 2004.

 

The Nigerian Bar Association:

 

(N.B.A) is the foremost professional association in the legal profession. Though the N.B.A. is not a statutory body, it is recognized by statutes and it appoints members to supervisory bodies in the legal profession. In fact, the representatives of the N.B.A. participate in the deliberation of constitutional organs like the National Judicial Council and the Federal Judicial Service Commission for the purpose of considering the names of persons for appointment to the superior courts of record. The N.B.A., which had been organized at national level before independence, now has 100 recognized branches organized along judicial divisions of State High Courts, with at least one Branch in each of the 36 states. It has recently approved establishment of sections along the lines of the International Bar Association. Membership of the Association is open to all legal practitioners. The Association is funded in part through the annual practicing fees payable by legal practitioners to secure right of audience in court. The N.B.A., through its Disciplinary Committee, conducts preliminary investigation into cases of professional misconduct brought against legal practitioners. Cases of persons found to be prima facie guilty are then forwarded to the Legal Practitioners Disciplinary Committee of the Body of Benchers for consideration and determination. A person aggrieved by the decision of the Disciplinary Committee has a right of appeal to the Supreme Court of Nigeria whose decision is final. In addition, the Supreme Court may exercise original disciplinary jurisdiction over a legal practitioner who appears to the Court to have been guilty of infamous conduct in any professional respect with regard to any matter of which a court of record in Nigeria is seized. The N.B.A nominates members into regulatory bodies established by statutes for the legal profession like the Body of Benchers, the General Council of the Bar, and the Council of Legal Education.  

 

7.     Federal Government Agencies & Other Useful Websites

Below is a list of some important website addresses:

 

 

 

 

 

·       Federal Judicial Service Commission – The Federal Judicial Commission is one of the Federal Executive bodies created by Section 153 of the Nigerian Constitution. The Commission has the power to advise the National Judicial Council persons to be appointed to the office of the Chief Justice of Nigeria, a Justice of the Supreme Court, the President of the Court of Appeal, Justice of the Court of Appeal, Chief Judge of the Federal High Court, Judge of the Federal High Court, Chairman and members of the Code of Conduct Tribunal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.    References