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UPDATE: A Guide to MERCOSUR Legal Research: Sources and Documents

By Edgardo Rotman [1]
Update by Euyelit Moreno

Edgardo Rotman is Foreign and International Law Librarian and Senior Lecturer in International & Comparative Law at the University of Miami School of Law. He holds an LL.B (in law, 1959) from the National University of Buenos Aires, LL.M. (in criminology, 1975) from the National University of Buenos Aires, and Ph.D. (in law and social sciences, 1973) from the University of Buenos Aires. He also earned a J.D. at Suffolk University School of Law in 1989. He has practiced law both in Argentina and in Massachusetts, where he served as a staff attorney at Massachusetts Correctional Legal Services. He has been a Professor of Law at the University of Buenos Aires and at the University of El Salvador (in Buenos Aires), as well as a visiting Professor of Law at Boston University, a research fellow at the Max-Planck Institute for Criminal Law in Germany, and a visiting scholar in comparative criminal law at Harvard Law School. He was appointed to represent the United States at the International Penal and Penitentiary Foundation, where he has been a voting member of the Council since 1996. Professor Rotman is the author of four books and numerous articles published in leading American, European and Latin-American journals on international and comparative criminal law, legal translation, and other subjects. He teaches research methods in international, foreign and comparative law; international moot court; and comparative criminal law (in English and Spanish).

Euyelit Adriana Moreno is a J.D. candidate from the University Of Miami School Of Law, expecting to graduate in May 2010. She holds a law degree from the Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, Venezuela, and is licensed to practice law in Venezuela. She is currently a staff editor of the University of Miami Inter-American Law Review, member of the Honor Society of the Bar & Gavel, and Vice-President of the Maritime Law Society of the University Of Miami School Of Law.

Published January/February 2010

Read the archive version!

 

Table of contents

I.      Background

II.    Basic Documents

A. Organization and Structure

B. Investment and Competition

C. Civil Procedure

D. Criminal Procedure

E. Illegal Traffic of Minors

F. Illegal Traffic of Immigrants

G. Transportation

H. Trade in Services

I. Education

J. Consumer Rights

K. Insurance

L. Labor Law

M. Postal Agreements

N. Trademarks

O. Social Security

P. Environment

Q. Agreements between Mercosur and Other Regional Organizations and States

III.           Selected Materials

A. Books by Chronological Order

B. Recent Law Review Articles

C. Journals

D. Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw Database

E. Internet Sources

 

I. Background

On March 26th, 1991 Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay signed the Treaty of Asunción, establishing “Mercosur,” an acronym for Mercado Comun del Sur (Art. 1) that took effect on December 31, 1994. The purpose of the agreement was to set up a common market and eliminate trade barriers among the signatory parties.

 

There are many precedents to Mercosur. The first one was the creation of the unsuccessful Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA) in 1960. In 1980, the Treaty of Montevideo [2] replaced LAFTA with the Latin American Integration Association (ALADI). This new integration initiative was based on a series of bilateral treaties within a flexible framework of multilateral tariff preferences, with no more success than its predecessor. Argentina and Brazil decided to approach a mutual integration process by means of a series of sectoral protocols, subsequent to the 1986 “Declaration of Buenos Aires,” followed by the 1988 Agreement on Argentine-Brazilian Integration, [3] which was joined by Uruguay and Paraguay.[4]

 

Currently, Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and Colombia are associate members of Mercosur. Chile and Bolivia became associate members in 1996 and Peru in 2003. Mexico started talks over a bilateral agreement on tariffs reduction with Argentina and aims at becoming an associate member of Mercosur. [5] Also, the Brazilian Senate approved last December the entry of Venezuela into the Common Market of the South. In this way, Brazil joined Argentina and Uruguay in endorsing Venezuela’s membership, while approval by Paraguay is still pending. In connection to these initiatives, Mercosur and the Andean Community initiated negotiations on the formation of a preferential trade area in 1995. The establishment of a comprehensive preferential trade area between these two customs unions could potentially be a major stepping-stone for the creation of a South American Free Trade Agreement. The result has been negotiations to achieve this objective through automatic tariff reductions and a maximum tariff reduction schedule of 15 years for the most sensitive products. Brazil’s strategic target is to establish a South American Free Trade Area that could be instrumental in the negotiations with the United States on the Free Trade Areas of the Americas.

 

In 2003, the Mercosur countries celebrated the XXIVth presidential summit in Asunción, Paraguay, celebrating its commitment to strengthen the political agenda and expand regional integration creating a genuine single market by 2006.

 

Article 2 of the Asunción Treaty established reciprocity of rights and obligations between the State Parties to Mercosur. This common market would include the gradual elimination of all customs duties among its signatories, the creation of a common external tariff, the adoption of a common trade policy, and the harmonization of economic policies.

 

In December 17th, 1994, the Protocol of Ouro Preto set up the institutional structure of Mercosur, which started to function in 1995.

 

The administration and implementation of Mercosur is entrusted to the Council of the common market and the Common Market Group (Art. 9 of Asunción Treaty). The Common Market Council is composed of the member states’ ministers of foreign relations and ministers of economy (Art. 11). It is the most important and powerful Mercosur institution and is responsible for its political leadership and for decision-making to ensure compliance with the objectives and time frames set for the final establishment of the common market (Art. 10). The Common Market Group is the executive board of Mercosur. Composed of 16 members representing the foreign affairs ministries, the economic ministries, and the central banks of each of the countries, it has established its administrative headquarters in Montevideo, Uruguay. The Common Market Group branches out into the Trade Commission of Mercosur which is responsible for advising and enforcing trade policies, as well as setting directives; the Joint Parliamentary Commission in representation of the four Parliaments; the Economic and Social Consultation Forum which has representatives from the different economic and social groups, and finally the Administrative Secretariat, in Montevideo, which supports the whole operation and is responsible for advising the other offices of Mercosur. In addition, the Olivos Protocol established a Permanent Appellate Tribunal to hear appeals of arbitration awards.[6]

 

The Brasilia and Olivos Protocols establish Mercosur’s dispute resolution procedures and institutions regarding the interpretation, application, or failure to comply with the Asunción Treaty or any of its Protocols, Council Decisions and Group Resolutions. The Olivos Protocol permits a dispute to be submitted, either by the complainant or by mutual agreement of the parties, to the dispute resolution systems of the World Trade Organization (WTO) or other preferential trade systems that the Mercosur State Parties may have entered into, as long as the parties to the dispute jointly agree on a forum.[7] This dispute resolution mechanism changed Mercosur by making arbitration awards appealable to the Permanent Appellate Tribunal. The Tribunal will decide the controversy based on the dispositions of the Treaty of Asunción, on the decisions of the Common Market Council, the resolutions of the Common Market Group, as well as on the principles and norms of international law, which are applicable to the matter.[8] The Tribunal must render its decision within ninety days.[9] The Mercosur dispute resolution system, even though strengthened by the addition of the Permanent Appellate Tribunal by the Protocol of Olivos, is still wanting because it lacks an effective mechanism to protect the rights of individual entities or persons and is limited to disputes exclusively arising among member states regarding the application of Mercosur norms.[10] Individuals may only file their claims with the National Chapter of the Common Market Group of the State Party where they reside. These claims are considered automatically concluded, with no further formal steps if the matter is not settled within fifteen days from initial notice of the claim.[11]

 

Mercosur represents the third largest trading bloc in the world after the European Union and NAFTA (the FTAA is not taken into account because it is not fully active and has not been completed).[12] Its initial success brought about a reduction of around 95% of trade barriers among its members. Since the signing of the Asunción Treaty in 1991 inter-regional trade has almost tripled from 5.1 billion US dollars to 14.38 billion in 1995, while trade with the rest of the world increased from 67 to 120 billion US dollars (Merco Press, June 15, 2004). The automobile industry is one of the areas that specially boomed as a consequence of Mercosur. In the area of foreign direct investment, the member countries experienced major developments in the late 1990s, because of the process of privatization in telecommunications and investment in financial services. As of 2000, Mercosur’s GDP was $900.9 billion in US dollars.[13] The Protocol of Montevideo signed on December 15th, 1997 attempts to liberalize the trade in services, setting out a ten-year program especially in the areas of financial services, insurance and professional services, satellite communications, and air transportation. Of all the member countries, Argentina has committed itself to a higher rate of liberalization than the other Mercosur countries.

 

Although Mercosur was to a certain extent inspired by the European Union model, it is not a supranational organization. Rather, Mercosur is an intergovernmental organization geared towards the creation of a common market, without discarding a future economic and monetary union, and even a common currency. Mercosur stands at an integration stage known as a customs union. A customs union is characterized by a common external tariff among members of the union as well as elimination of barriers of trade between member states.[14] Mercosur has managed to eliminate most of the trade barriers in goods and services and achieved the establishment of a common external tariff, despite the historic rivalry of the members involved.[15] It has been questioned, however, whether Mercosur can accurately be termed a “customs union,” given its difficulties in maintaining its common external tariff because of the current economic problems of the countries involved.[16]

 

Pitou van Dijck and Marianne Wiesebron, editors of a significant retrospective study on the subject, determined that “by 1999 Mercosur had become the single largest destination of foreign direct investment among newly industrializing countries, larger even than China.”[17] An important reason for its success is the vast reserves of natural resources and energy provided by its members. Currently, economic crisis, currency volatility and economic conflicts among member countries have made investments less attractive and the foreign direct investment flow has become unpredictable. The central theme appears to be in finding equilibrium between macroeconomic stability and policy coordination in order to achieve successful economic integration.

 

The European Union and Mercosur are expected to confirm negotiations and free trade agreements. Although negotiations were suspended in 2004 because of fundamental differences in the trade chapter, political relations have nevertheless evolved, with an agreement made at the last Summit in Lima in 2008 to extend relations to three new areas, science and technology, infrastructure and renewable energy. Despite the desire to create an economic and trade area with significant political dimensions, there is caution because of fundamental differences with the European Union over certain sensitive issues, such as the agricultural subsidies of the industrialized nations. In addition, Mercosur and China will begin negotiating a free-trade agreement.[18]

 

Before presenting the sources it is important to point out that research on Mercosur presents certain difficulties for the English-speaking researcher because a considerable amount of sources and information about Mercosur are available in Spanish and Portuguese and have not been translated to English.

II. Basic Documents

A. Organization and Structure

·       Agreement between Argentina – Brazil – Paraguay – United States of America – Uruguay concerning a council on trade and investment (done in Washington, June 19, 1991), 30 I.L.M. 1034 (1991).

·       Treaty between Argentina – Brazil – Paraguay – Uruguay establishing a common market (Mercado Comun del Sur or Mercosur) (done in Asunsión, March 26, 1991), 30 I.L.M. 1041 (1991).

·       The Protocol of Brasilia for the solution of controversies (done in Brasilia, December 17, 1991)

·       The Protocol of Ouro Preto (done in Ouro Preto, December 17, 1991)

·       The Protocol of Olivos (done in Olivos, February 18, 2002)

B. Investment and Competition

·       Protocolo sobre promoción y protección de inversion provenientes de Estados no Partes del Mercosur (done in Buenos Aires, August 5, 1994) (annex to Treaty of Asunción). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 11/94, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 92).

·       (done in Colonia del Sacramento, Paraguay, December 17, 1994). Mercosur/CMC/ No 13/93 (there is no English translation in the website).

·       Protocolo de Defensa de la Competencia del Mercosur (done in Fortaleza, December 17, 1996). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 18/96, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 102).

·      Memorándum de Entendimiento para el Establecimiento de un Grupo Consultivo Conjunto para la Promoción del Comercio y las Inversiones entre el MERCOSUR y la República de Corea (done in Asuncion, July 23, 2009) available here .

C. Civil Procedure

·       Protocolo de Cooperación y Asistencia Juridical en Material Civil, Commercial, Laboral y Adminstrativa (Las Leñas) (done in Mendoza, June 27, 1992). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 5/97, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 257).

·       Protocolo sobre Jurisdicción en Material Contractual (done in Buenos Aires, April 6, 1994). Reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 275).

·       Protocolo de Medidas Cautelares (the Protocol on precautionary measures) (done in Ouro Preto, December 7, 1994) (there is no English translation in the website).

·       Acuerdo sobre Arbitraje Comercial Internacional del Mercosur (done in Buenos Aires, July 23, 1998). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 3/98, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 284).

·       Acuerdo sobre el Beneficio de Litigar sin Gastos y Asistencia Jurídica Gratuita entre los Estados Partes del Mercosur (done in Florianópolis, December 15, 2000). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 49/00, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 280).

D. Criminal Procedure

·       Plan de Cooperación y Asistencia Recíproca para la Seguridad Regional en el Mercosur (done in Buenos Aires). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 5/98, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 297).

·       Protocolo de Asistencia Jurídica Mutua en Asuntos Penales (done in San Luis, June 25, 1996). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 2/96, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 306).

·       Convencion de Cooperación y Asistencia Recíproca entre las Administraciones de Aduanas del Mercosure Relativo a la Prevención y Lucha Contra Ilícitos Aduaneros. Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 1/97, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 318).

·       Acuerdo sobre Extradición entre los Estados Partes del Mercosur (done in Río de Janeiro, December 10, 1998). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 14/98, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 337).

·       Acuerdo de Asunción sobre Restitución de Vehículos Automotores Terrestres y/o Embarcaciones que Trasponen Ilegalmente las Fronteras entre los Estados Partes del Mercosur (done in Montevideo, December 7, 1999). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 16/99, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 325).

·       Memorandum de Entendimiento sobre Intercambio de Información y Asistencia Recíproca sobre Vehículos Automotores y Conductores de los Estados Partes del Mercosur, la República de Bolivia y la República de Chile (done in Montevideo, December 7, 1999). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 14/99, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 333).

·       Convenio de Cooperación entre los Bancos Centrales de los Estados Partes del Mercosur para la Prevención y Represión de Maniobras Tendientes a la Legitimación de Activos Provenientes de Actividades Ilícitas. Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 40/00, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 349).

E. Illegal Traffic of Minors

·       Complementación del Plan General de Cooperación y Coordinación Recíproca para la Seguridad Regional en Materia de Tráfico de Menores. Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 6/00, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 361).

 

F. Illegal Traffic of Immigrants

·       Acuerdo Contra el Tráfico Ilícito de Migrantes entre los Estados Partes del MERCOSUR.

(Done in Belo Horizonte, on December 16 2004) Mercosur DEC. Nº 37/04) available

here.

·       Acuerdo Contra el Trafico Ilícito de Migrantes entre los Estados Partes del MERCOSUR, la Republica de Bolivia y la Republica de Chile (Done in Belo Horizonte, on December 16 2004) Mercosur DEC. Nº 37/04

G. Transportation

·       Acuerdo sobre Transporte de Mercancías Peligrosas en el Mercosur. Mercosur/GMC/Dec. No 2/94, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 385).

·       Protocolo de San Luis en Materia de Responsabilidad Civil Emergentes de Accidentes de Tránsito entre los Estados Partes del Mercosur (done in San Luis, June 25, 1996). Reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 399).

·       Documentos de cada Estado Parte que Habilitan el Tránsito de Personas en el Mercosur. Mercosur/GMC/Res. No 75/96, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 405).

·       Acuerdo sobre Documentos de Viaje de los Estados Partes del MERCOSUR y Estados Asociados (done in San Miguel de Tucumán, June 30, 2008) available here .

H. Trade in Services

·       The Montevideo Protocol on Trade in Services of Mercosur (done in Montevideo, Uruguay, December 15, 1997). Mercosur/GMC/Dec. No 12/98.

I. Education

·       Protocolo de Integración Educativa y Reconocimiento de Certificados, Títulos y Estudios de Nivel Primario y Medio No Técnico (done in Buenos Aires, August 5, 1994). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 4/94, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 458).

·       Protocolo de Integración Educativa para la Prosecución de Estudios de Post-Grado en las Universidades de los Países Miembros del Mercosur (done in Fortaleza, December 17, 1996). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 8/96, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 451).

·       Protocolo de Integración Educativa para la Formación de Recursos Humanos a Nivel de Post-Grado entre los Países Miembros del Mercosur (done in Fortaleza, December 17, 1996). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 9/96, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 455).

·       Acuerdo de Admisión de Títulos y Grados Universitarios para el Ejercicio de Actividades Académicas en los Estados Partes del Mercosur (done in Asunción, June 14, 1999). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 4/99, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 447).

·       Protocolo de Intenciones entre el MERCOSUR y la Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (done in San Miguel de Tucumán, June 30, 2008) available here .

J. Consumer Rights

·       Protocolo de Santa María sobre Jurisdicción Internacional en Materia de Relaciones de Consumo (done in Santa María, November 20, 1996). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 10/96, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 475).

K. Insurance

·       Condiciones Generales de Seguro de Responsabilidad Civil del Operador de Transporte Multimodal (OTM) en el Ambito del Mercosur – Daños a la Carga. Mercosur/GMC/Res. No 62/97, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 485).

·       Convenio de Cooperación entre Autoridades Supervisoras de Empresas Aseguradoras de los Estados Partes del Mercosur. Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 8/99, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 494).

L. Labor Law

·       Creación de la Comisión Socio Laboral del Mercosur. Mercosur/GMC/Res. No 15/99, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 511).

M. Postal Agreements

·       Norma Relativa al control Aduanero del Intercambio Ppostal entre Ciudades Situadas en Región de Frontera (Res. GMC No 29/98). Mercosur/GMC/Res. No 21/99, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 530).

N. Trademarks

·       Protocolo de Armonización de Normas en Materia de Diseños Industriales (done in Río de Janeiro, December 10, 1998). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 16/98, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 535).

·       Protocolo de Armonización de Normas sobre Propiedad Intelectual en el Mercosur en Materia de Marcas, Indicaciones de Procedencia y Denominaciones de Origen. Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 8/95, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 542).

O. Social Security

·       Acuerdo Multilateral de Seguridad Social del Mercado Común del Sur (done in Montevideo, December 14, 1997). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 19/97, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 551).

P. Environment

·       Directrices Basicas en Materia de Política Ambiental. Mercosur/GMC/Res. No 10/94, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 565).

Q. Agreements between Mercosur and Other Regional Organizations and States

·       Memorandum de Entendimiento Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID) – Mercosur. Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 24/97, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 567).

·       Proyecto de Entendimiento de Cooperación en Materia de Comercio e Inversiones entre Mercosur y Canada. Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 14/97, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 569).

·       Acuerdo de Complementación Económica Mercosur – Chile (ACE No 35) (done in Potrero de los Funes, June 25, 1996). Reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 573).

·       Participación de Chile en Reuniones del Mercosur. Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 12/97, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 589).

·       Acuerdo de complementación Económica Mercosur – Bolivia (ACE No 36) (done in Fortaleza, December 17, 1996). Reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 592).

·       Protocolo de Intenciones entre el Mercado Común del Sur (Mercosur) y la Organización de Naciones Unidas para la Educación, La Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO) (done in Montevideo, December 15, 1997). Mercosur/CMC/Dec. No 22/97, reproduced in Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integracion y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001 (page 609).

·       Memorandum of Understanding between the European Community and Mercosur Concerning the Multiannual Guidelines for the Implementation of Community Cooperation (Annex to the Mercosur-European Community Regional Strategy Paper (2002-2006) issued by the European Commission (External Relations Directorate General) on September 10, 2002).

·       Memorando de Entendimiento para el Establecimiento del Mecanismo de Diálogo Político y Cooperación entre los Estados Parte y Estados Asociados del Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR) y la Federación de Rusia. (Done in Brasilia, on December 15, 2006) available here.

·       Memorándum de Entendimiento entre el Gobierno de la República Argentina, el Gobierno de la República Federativa del Brasil, el Gobierno de la República del Paraguay, el Gobierno de la República Oriental del Uruguay y el Gobierno de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela para Establecer un Grupo de Trabajo Especial sobre Biocombustibles (Done in Brasilia, on December 15, 2006) available here .

·       Acuerdo de Sede entre la República del Paraguay y el Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR) para el Funcionamiento del Instituto Social del MERCOSUR. (Done in Asuncion on June 29, 2007) available here .

·       Acuerdo de Sede entre la República Oriental del Uruguay y el Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR) para el Funcionamiento del Parlamento del MERCOSUR (Done in Asuncion on June 29, 2007) available here .

·       Memorándum de Entendimiento sobre Cooperación en Materia de Comercio e Inversiones y Plan de Acción entre el MERCOSUR y la República de Singapur (Done in New York, on September 24, 2007) available here .

·       Tratado de Libre Comercio entre el MERCOSUR y el Estado de Israel (Done in Montevideo, on December 18, 2007) available here .

III. Selected Materials

A. Books by Chronological Order

Most of the books cover a variety of subjects; the only exceptions are Sardegna’s work on labor law and Baigún and da Rocha’s study on economic crimes. On the other hand, there has been a fast development in many areas, turning older literature less useful. On this basis, a chronological index seems to be the most appropriate format.

 

·       Gustavo Magariños, Uruguay en el Mercosur. Montevideo: Fundacion De Cultura Universitaria, 1991.

This book specifically deals with Uruguay’s participation in Mercosur and how it benefited from it. The author takes the position that Mercosur is not necessarily dependent on the larger countries and that its success is rather a result of the participation of all its members. He offers significant information concerning Mercosur’s role in the global arena and its relations with other common markets. It is important to point out in this regard that Uruguay and Paraguay refused any differential treatment with respect to partners possessing larger economies.

·       Ana Maria M. De Aguinis, Empresas e Inversiones en el Mercosur. Buenos Aires: Abeledo-Perrot, 1993.

This book focuses on a comparative analysis of the basic economic law applicable to businesses located within the Mercosur member states. It exposes the adventages and alternative costs regarding investments, transference of utilities and capitals, societies and joint ventures, tax matters, among other important topics to be considered by businessess and investors.

·       Associação Nacional Das Instituições Do Mercado Aberto, Relatório Econômico Mercosul. Rio de Janeiro, 1993.

This volume contains information about the market trends toward globalization; the origins of Mercosur, its organization, its monetary and fiscal policies; entrepreneurial relationships, including joint ventures and franchising; and the relations of Mercosur with the United States, the European Union, NAFTA, and GATT.

·       Luiz Olavo Baptista, Mercosul, A Estratégia Legal dos Negócios, Sao Paulo: Editora Maltese Ltda, 1994

This book discusses the economic perspectives of the business in MERCOSUR. It also analyzes the corporate structures that these business apply when dealing within the Member States.

·       Atilio Anibal Alterini, El Sistema Juridico en el Mercosur. Buenos Aires: Abeledo-Perrot, 1995.

This book contains and analyzes the general structure of the main and complemantary instruments for Mercosur.

·       Atilio Anibal Alterini, La Mora en el Mercosur. Montevideo: Ed. Bibliografica Uruguaya, 1995.

This book analyzes the issues of the default, delay, and defaulted creditor, and proposes certain changes to transform the legislation on this topic in Mercosur.

·       Deisy de Freitas Lima Ventura, ed., O Mercosul em movimento. Porto Alegre: Livraria do Advogado, 1995.

This book contains analyses of the following topics: relations with the European Union, joint ventures, environmental problems, administrative organs, automotive industry, agriculture, Brazil and the European integration, human rights, international commercial contracts, and transborder problems.

·       Jorge Pérez Otermin, El Mercado Comun Del Sur: Desde Asunción a Ouro Preto. Montevideo: Fundación de Cultura Universitaria, 1995.

This book is a legal analysis of Mercosur’s founding treaties, including the Asunción Treaty, the Brasilia and Ouro Preto Protocol.

·       Maristela Basso, Mercosul, Seus Efeitos Jurídicos, econômicos e políticos nos estados-membros. Porto Alegre: Livraria do Advogado Ltda:1995

This book discusses the legal, economical and political effects of Mercosur among non-member states.

·       Miguel A. Sardegna, Las Relaciones Laborales en el Mercosur. Buenos Aires: Ediciones La Rocca, 1995.

After analyzing the socio-cultural dimension of Mercosur, including the migration of workers. This book covers the labor and social security legislation and their proposed harmonization. It also compares the Mercosur labor relations with those of NAFTA and the European Union.

·       Durval de Noronha Goyos, Jr., GATT, Mercosul & NAFTA. Brasilia: Dados Internacionais de Catalogação na Publicação, 2 ed, 1996.

This second edition considerably expands a series of papers and presentations made by the author on the basic legal, social, and economic issues involving GATT, Mercosur and NAFTA. Its second edition includes the WTO and, in what concerns Mercosur, its legal structure and functional organization; common external tariff; rules of origin; partnership with the European Union; and agriculture and financial services.

·       Elizabeth Accioly Pinto de Almeida, Mercosul & União Européia, Estrutura Jurídico- Institucional, Curitiba: Juruá Editora, 1996

This book discusses the intent of Mercosur in becoming the second common market in the world, and in this way, taking the place of the European Common Market.

·       Vicente Guillermo Arnaud, Mercosur, Unión Europea, NAFTA y Los Procesos de Integración Regional. Buenos Aires: Abeledo-Perrot, 1996.

This book deals with Mercosur within a comprehensive study of a number of regional integration processes in America, Europe, and Asia. It has a very interesting historical section regarding American integration. It also includes a rich documentary supplement.

·       Masaaki Kotabe, Mercosur and Beyond: The Imminent Emergence of the South American Markets. Austin: Center for International Business Education and Research, 1997. This book discusses various economic aspects of Mercosur as an emerging market in South America. Taking into account the broader South American context, it focuses on the following issues: Brazil as the largest economy in Latin America; Chile as an emerging market in Latin America; and the integration of Venezuelan and Colombian markets.

·       Ricardo Alonso García, Tratado de Libre Comercio, Mercosur y Comunidad Europea: Solución de controversias e interpretación uniforme. Madrid: McGraw-Hill, 1997.

The author discusses and compares the different methods through which NAFTA, Mercosur, and the European Union resolve controversies within their respective organizations.

·       Victor S. Antunes Correia, Estudos da Integração: Análise Jurídico-Política do Mercosul (11th Volume). Brasília: Associação Brasileira de Estudos da Integração, 1997.

This book analyzes Mercosur from a legal and political perspective discussing the history of the member states. The book addresses socio-political, economic, legal, and sociological issues.

·       Luis Olavo Baptista, O Mercosul, Suas Institutuições e Ordenamento Jurídico. São Paulo: LTr, 1998.

This book analyzes Mercosur as a force within the global economy. It discusses its origins; its role as an international organization and its relations with others; and its legal and administrative structure. It concludes with a section listing a number of Mercosur treaties and protocols.

·       Nadia de Araujo, Frederico V. Magalhães Marques & Márcio Monteiro Reis, Código do Mercosul: Tratados e Legislação. Rio de Janeiro: Renovar, 1998.

This book consists of a compilation of treaties and protocols related to Mercosur until 1998. It includes the founding treaties; institutional organization; judicial cooperation; consumer rights; investments; trade; movement of people across borders; education; and agreements between Mercosur and other regional organizations and states.

·       David Baigún and Joaquín Pedro da Rocha, eds., Delitos Económicos En La Esfera Del Mercosur. Buenos Aires: Rubinzal – Culzoni Editores, 1999.

This book deals with various criminal law issues related to the integration of the South American markets. The various contributors cover the following chapters: tax frauds; custom violations; criminal protections of free competition; and criminal law protection of intellectual property.

·       Jorge L. Tosi, Comercio internacional y Mercosur. Buenos Aires: Ediciones La Rocca, 1999.

After an interesting introductory chapter on the significance of international commerce and its relations with economic development, this book addresses subjects such as imports, and exports, including the use of land transportation, customs and tariffs, and export incentives. Each chapter provides a comparison between the customs codes of the member countries as well as the applicable provisions to each of the subjects dealt with by the author.

·       Ricardo Xavier Basaldúa, Mercosur y Derecho de la Integración. Buenos Aires: Abeledo-Perrot, 1999.

This book focuses on giving an educational overview regarding the systematic study of Mercosur. Among the topics, the reader will find the economic integration, stages for the processes of economic integration, right to economic integration, background of Mercosur, Objectives of the Treaty of Asuncion, its characteristics, among others.

·       Yves Chaloult and Paulo Roberto de Almeida, eds., Mercosul, Nafta e Alca. Sao Paulo: Ltr, 1999.

The book contains a series of studies on liberalization of commerce and integration processes in general. It stresses the legal aspects but it also takes into account economic sociology and political science. It includes chapters on the social dimension of integration processes; the relationship between Mercosur and a possible future with NAFTA and the FTAA, as well as with the European Union; political and social problems, social movements, and transnationalization of trade union practices.

·       Antonio Carlos Rodrigues do Amaral, and others, O Dereito Tributário No Mercosul, Rio de Janeiro: Editora Forense, 2000

This book is a compilation of the necessary material in the area of International Taxation, and analyzes the legislation on that matter within the Member States.

·       Jorge Pueyo Losa & Ernesto J. Rey Caro, eds., Mercosur: Nuevos Ambitos y Perspectivas en el Desarrollo del Proceso de Integracion. Buenos Aires: Universidad del Salvador, 2000.

This work is the product of cooperation of Spanish and Argentine professors. It contains studies on the following subjects: genesis and structure of the Treaty of Asunción; legal principles of integration in Latin America; procedures of conflict resolution; relations between the European Union and Mercosur; Mercosur and the law of the sea and the integration of the fishery industry; Mercosur and transborder cooperation; Mercosur and the environment; and the harmonization of Mercosur and the World Trade Organization.

·       Comissão Parlamentar Conjunta do Mercosul, Mercosul: Legislação e Textos Básicos. Brasilia, 2000 (3rd ed.).

This book is a compilation produced by the Brazilian Congress and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of all the basic Mercosur documents, as well as those dealing with conflict resolution, certificates of origin, competition, customs, foreign relations, judicial cooperation, education, and technical cooperation.

·       Paulo Borba Casella, ed., Mercosul: Integração Regional e Globalização. Rio de Janeiro: Renovar, 2000.

This book contains a series of important scholarly contributions dealing with various Mercosur related subjects, such as globalization, regional integration, citizenship, conflict resolution, relations with the European Union, free movement of persons, competition, commercial contracts, human rights, and constitutional issues.

·       Ruben B. Santos Belandro, Bases Fundamentales del Derecho de la Integración y Mercosur. Montevideo: Asociación de Escribanos del Uruguay, 2001.

This is an exceptionally comprehensive compilation of documents related to Mercosur. It covers its structural aspects, including all the treaties and protocols; investment and competition policies; capital markets; agreements of mutual assistance in civil procedure; agreements of cooperation in the areas of criminal law, extradition, and illegal traffic of children; transportation; trade in services; education; consumer rights; insurance; labor law; postal agreements; trademarks; social security; environment; agreements between Mercosur and other regional organizations and states; and constitutional law of the Mercosur countries.

·       Beyond Borders: The New Regionalism in Latin America. Washington, DC: John Hopkins University Press, 2002.

This book contains a global survey of regional integration in Latin America. Its first chapter, which is a summary and an agenda, gives a comprehensive picture of the various areas of regional integration. In the following chapters the book analyses the various aspects of regional integration; economic and trade dimensions; market access and trade liberalization; regional institutions and dispute settlement mechanisms; financial integrations; regional infrastructure and the significance of improved transportation; telecommunications and energy services; macroeconomic coordination among the member countries of each trade bloc; trade agreements and exchange rate disagreements; currency unions; effects of regional integration and foreign direct investment; regional integration matters for productivity; and regional integration and wage inequality.

·       Pitou van Dijck and Marianne Weisebron, eds., Ten Years of Mercosur. Amsterdam: Centre for Latin American Research and Documentation, 2002.

The book is elementary in its analysis of Mercosur but gives a good description as to its history and the current obstacles it is facing; analyzes the challenge of integrating the Mercosur with the FTAA; and discusses the strengths, as well as the weaknesses of Mercosur and provides an analysis of how it can succeed in a region with very different social and economic policies. Furthermore, the literature includes a number of articles comparing and contrasting Mercosur with other customs unions and competitors in commerce.

·       Suranjit Kumar Saha & David Parker, eds., Globalisation and Sustainable Development in Latin America. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2002.

This book consists of a number of articles about several aspects of Mercosur. The core objective of the book is to understand how the forces of globalization are impacting upon the prospects of sustainable development in Latin America. It includes issues such as privatization and neoliberalism; a socio-economic profile of Latin America; Mercosur’s options for the future; Latin American integration; the possible consequences of privatization in Chile; the impact of regional integration in Brazil; and issues of mediation and social conflict. The book also includes tables offering statistical information on a number of issues.

·       Ana Margheritis, ed., Latin American Democracies in the New Global Economy. Miami: North South Center Press, 2003.

Although this book deals with economic integration in Latin America in general, it contains an interesting chapter by Roberto Bouzas, “Economic Integration in the Southern Cone.” After providing a summary account of the performance of Mercosur since 1991, it offers a review of the factors that help to account for performance. It also challenges four fallacies that pervade in the present policy debate on the future of Mercosur: a) that Mercosur is an imperfect customs union; b) that Mercosur cannot move forward due to national constitutional impediments; c) the paralysis of Mercosur is the result of a macroeconomic crisis; and d) that the “trading” Mercosur should be replaced by a “political” Mercosur. The fourth and final section of this article assesses the prospects of Mercosur in light of Argentina and Brazil’s new administrations.

·       Helio Jaguaribe and Álvaro de Vasconcelos, eds., The European Union, Mercosul and the New World Order. London: Frank Cass, 2003.

This book provides a compilation of articles about Mercosur as a contender in the global marketplace. These articles cover the European Unions relations with Mercosur; the effects of multilateralism and regionalism from a European perspective; the future prospects of Mercosur; Mercosur’s international political role; Argentina and Mercosur; a study of Mercosur’s history and future projections; and Brazil’s current foreign policy within a globalizing world.

·       Mirta Elizabeth Laciar, Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustenable: Los Desafíos del Mercosur. Buenos Aires: Editorial Ciudad Argentina, 2003.

This book deals with the relationship between trade and the environment within the Mercosur context; the role of the environment in the Asunción Treaty and in the Ouro Preto Protocol; political agreements reached by the Mercosur countries in the environmental area; and a comparative analysis of the role of the environment and sustainable development within the European Union and NAFTA. The last chapter contains a study of the various strategically alliances of Mercosur in the area of sustainable development. It also includes an annex with the various environmental norms adopted by the member states.

·       Philip Arestis & Luiz Fernando de Paula, eds., Monetary Union in South America. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2003.

This important contribution on Mercosur’s future explores the possibility of a monetary union among Mercosur’s member states. Some of these studies focus on the EMU experience and whether its model of monetary union is appropriate and feasible for Mercosur. Other articles include concrete proposals of a monetary union in the long term, issues concerning the macro economy of Mercosur, and problems associated with monetary integration in economies that are structurally different.

·       Heber Arbuet-Vignali, Claves Jurídicas de la Integración. Buenos Aires: Rubinzal-Culzoni, 2004.

This is an ambitious book that covers not only the legal norms, but also the historical, sociological, political, and economical frameworks of integration. It mainly addresses Mercosur and the European Union. Many of the aspects of the law of integration are treated at a jurisprudential level. In this regard, this book deals with the general notions of legal integration and integration systems and their jurisprudential basis; the sources and the subjects of coordination systems; and international organizations as instruments of integration.

·       Hofmeister, Wilhelm, ed., Solução de Controvérsias na OMC, União Européia e Mercosul. Fundação Konrad Adenauer: Río de Janeiro, 2004.

This book contains a series of important studies of conflict resolution within the WTO, Mercosur, and the European Union.

·       Kleinheisterkamp, Jan, International Commercial Arbitration in Latin America: Regulation and Practice in the MERCOSUR and the Associated Countries, Dobbs Ferry, NY : Oceana Publication, 2005

This book gives practitioners and scholars quick access to and in-depth analysis of the laws of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay, as well as of the relevant international treaties, such as the MERCOSUR-Agreements of 1998. The book follows the structure of the UNCITRAL-Model Law. It also includes a bilingual annex with the English translations of all relevant legislation.

·       Porrata-Doria, Jr, Rafael A., MERCOSUR : The Common Market of the Southern Cone, Durham, N. C. : Carolina Academic Press, 2005

This book comprehensively describes MERCOSUR—its history, institutions, and legal system—in the English language. It gives information essential to the understanding of MERCOSUR and its legal system.

·       Chãzal Palomo, José Antonio de, Arbitraje Comercial en el MERCOSUR, Santa Cruz de la Sierra; Editorial El Pais, 2006

This book discusses the modernization of two areas of the law: The integration in the MERCOSUR, and international commercial arbitration as the means for resolving controversies.

·       Morales, Mirta, Un Estudio Comparativo de la Protección Legislativa del Consumidor en el Ambito Interno de los Países del Mercosur, Rio de Janeiro: Renovar, 2006

This book makes a comparative analysis regarding consumer protection in each Member- State of MERCOSUR. It also reaffirms that the micro system doctrine is the best legislative technique to give a better flexibility to consumer protection laws.

·       Roberto Pedro Lopresti, Constituciones del Mercosur. Buenos Aires: La Ley, 2007.

This book analyzes the structure and integration of Mercosur, as well as the constitutional law of its member-states. It is an excellent book for those who want to research more in depth the relationship of the constitutional law of a specific member state and MERCOSUR.

·       Gabriel Gari, The Liberalisation of Trade in Services in Mercosur, London: Cameron May, 2008

The book examines the legal framework for the liberalization of trade in services in MERCOSUR, discusses the reasons for the current state of affairs, and proposes some alternatives for unlocking the integration process as far as its deep economic integration objectives are concerned.

·       Paolo Giordano, Blyde, Juan S., Fernandez Arias, Eduardo, Deepening Integration in Mercosur - Dealing with Disparities, Inter-American Development Bank, 2008.

This book analyzes the most important issues of economic integration and policy coordination that countries face when they advance towards deeper integration and are urged to address development disparities among partner countries.

·       Mercosur Economic Integration: Lessons for ASEAN, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2009.

The ASEAN Studies Centre of the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies in Singapore

requested the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the

Caribbean and Dr Pang Eul-Soo and Dr Laura Jarnagin, professors in Colorado School of

Mines in the United States, to do two separate studies from two different viewpoints on

the experience of MERCOSUR and on the lessons that experience may hold for ASEAN.

·       Gobbi, José, Environmental Effects of Implementing Mercosur in Argentina: An

integrated assessment, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2009.

This book examines the incorporation of the environmental dimension in the integration process, and explores the environmentally trade-related effects of implementing Mercosur on Argentina’s agricultural sector.

·       Gardini,Gian Luca, The Origins of Mercosur: Democracy and Regionalization in South America, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010

This book will explore the diplomatic history of the formation of Mercosur and will analyze the precise place of democracy in the process.

B. Recent Law Review Articles

·       Marcos Aurélio Pereira Valadao, Washington Consensus and Latin America Integration: Mercosur and the Road to Regional Inconsistencies--to Where are we Going Exactly? 15 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 207 (2009).

·       Alicia Dolores Basanta, Comienzo de la Existencia de la Persona Humana: Técnicas de Reproducción Humana Asistida. Recepción Legislativa en el Marco del Mercosur, 41 Rev. Juridica U. Inter. P.R. 439 (2007).

·       Gabriel Gari, Legal Instruments for the Liberalization of Trade in Services at the Sub-Regional Level: The Mercosur Case, 25 Penn St. Int'l L. Rev. 659 (2007).

·       Kristi Schaeffer, Mercosur and Labor Rights: The Comparative Strengths of Sub-Regional Trade Agreements in Developing and Enforcing Labor Standards in Latin American States, 45 Colum. J. Transnat'l L. 829 (2007).

·       Summit Communiqué of the Presidents of the State Members of Mercosur, 12 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 625 (2006).

·       Cindy Fazzi, Book Note, 61 APR Disp. Resol. J. 85 (2006) (reviewing Jan Kleinheisterkamp, the State of Commercial Arbitration in Mercosur International Commercial Arbitration in Latin America (2005))

·       Samuel A. Arieti, The Role of Mercosur as a Vehicle for Latin American Integration, 6 Chi. J. Int'l L. 761 (2006)

·       Mario J.A. Oyarzábal, Jurisdiction over International Electronic Contracts: A View on Inter-American, Mercosur, and Argentine Rules, 19 Temp. Int'l & Comp. L.J. 87 (2005)

·       Raúl Emilio Vinuesa, Enforcement of Mercosur Arbitration Awards within the Domestic Legal Orders of Member States, 40 Tex. Int'l L.J. 425 (2005)

·       Thomas Andrew O'Keefe, Economic Integration as a means for Promoting Regional Political Stability: Lessons from the European Union and Mercosur,  80 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 187 (2005)

·       Mario J. A. Oyarzábal, Book Note, 36 U. Miami Inter-Am. L. Rev. 361 (2005) (reviewing Diego P. Fernandez Arroyo, Derecho Internacional Privado de los Estados del Mercosur (2003))

·       Teodora Zamudio, Mercosur: General Ideas, 32 Int'l J. Legal Info. 627 (2004)

·       Marcos Valadao & Nara Galeb Porto, Mercosur, Nafta, Ftaa and its Effects in Federal Taxation of International Transactions between the United States and Brazil: A Comparative Study, 10 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 705 (2004)

·       Gabriel Gari, Free Circulation of Services in Mercosur: A Pending Task, 10 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 545 (2004)

·       Eva Holz, Mercosur: Lessons From The Recent Past -- The Case of the Financial Services, 10 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 299 (2004)

·       Luiz Alfeu Beluti, Frank C. Mena, Brazil Enacts Mercosur Agreement, 58-JAN Disp. Resol. J. 7 (2004)

·       Martin, Viviana Gisela, Mercosur: Un Nuevo Tribunal, Dos Modelos Alternativos a Seguir. Supplemento a Revista del Colegio Público de Abogados de la Capital Federal. No 34 April 2004, page 5.

·       Drs. Graciela Storni & Alfredo Carella, Hacia un “Nuevo” Mercosur. Revista del Colegio Público de Abogados de la Capital Federal. No 75 April 2004, page 10.

·       Dr. Julio A. J. Carrillo, El Mercosur Jurídico. Revista del Colegio Público de Abogados de la Capital Federal. No 75 April 2004, page 14.

·       Dr. Graciela Leticia Storni, El Proceso de Integración Sudamericana. Revista del Colegio Público de Abogados de la Capital Federal. No 75 April 2004, page 16.

·       Dr. Sara Felstein de Cárdenas, Sistema de Solución de Disputas en el Mercosur. Revista del Colegio Público de Abogados de la Capital Federal. No 75 April 2004, page 18.

·       Porrata-Doria, Jr., Rafael E, Mercosur: The Common Market of the Twenty-First Century? 32 Ga. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 1 (2004).

·       Carranza, Dr. Mario E., Mercosur, The Free Trade Area of the Americas, and the Future of U.S. Hegemony in Latin America. 27 Fordham Int’l L. J. 1029 (2004).

·       Cordonier Segger, Marie-Claire, Sustainable Development in the Negotiation of the FTAA. 27 Fordham Int’l L. J. 1118 (2004).

·       Borba Casella, Paulo, The Common Market of the South (Mercosur): Models and Qualitative Mutations for Consolidating an Integrated Economic Area. 9 Ann. Surv. Int’l & Comp. L. 1 (2003).

·       Pallares, Beatriz, International Regime of Commercial Companies in Argentina and Mercosur, 32 Stetson L. Rev. 785 (2003)

·       Blackaby, Nigel & Sylvia Noury, Internation Arbitration in the Mercosur – Is Harmonization the Solution? 9. L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 445 (2003).

·       Wiltse, Jessica S., An Investor-State Dispute Mechanism in the Free Trade Area of the Americas: Lessons from NAFTA Chapter 11. 51 Buff. L. Rev. 1145 (2003).

·       Whttinghill, Christina L., The Role and Regulation of International Commercial Arbitration in Argentina. 38 Tex. Int’l L. J. 795 (2003).

·       Olivera García, Ricardo, Dispute Resolution Regulation and Experiences in Mercosur: The Recent Olivos Protocol. 8 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 535 (2002).

·       Bruner, Christopher M., Hemispheric Integration and the Politics of Regionalism: The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). 33 U. Miami Inter-Am. L. Rev. 1 (2002).

·       Michael Cornell Dypski, An Examination of Investor-State Dispute Resolution under the Mercosur and Nafta Regimes, 8 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 217 (2002)

·       Lauro Da Gama E Souza Jr, The Unidroit Principles of International Commercial Contracts and their Applicability in the Mercosur Countries, 36 R.J.T. 375 (2002)

·       Enrique J. Aramburu, Historical Perspective: The Evolution of Mercosur in a South American Integration, 13 Pace Int'l L. Rev. 183 (2001)

·       Dr. Eva Holz, The “Samba” Effect in Mercosur6 NAFTA: L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 515 (2000)

·       Jorge M. Guira, MERCOSUR: The Emergence of a Working System of Dispute Resolution, 6 NAFTA: L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 255 (2000)

C. Journals

·       Max-Planck Institut für ausländisches und internationales Privatrecht. Wirtschafsrecht des Mercosur. Baden-Bade: Nomos, 1999.

·       Mercosur, Boletín official del Mercosur = Boletim official do Mercosul. Montevideo, República Oriental del Uruguay: Secretaría Administrativa del Mercosur, 1997-.

·       Revista de direito do Mercosul = Revista de derecho del Mercosur. Buenos Aires: La Ley, 1997-.

·       Institute for the Integration of Latin America and the Caribbean, Informe Mercosur/ Intal. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo, Departamento de Integración y Programas Regionales: Instituto para la Integración de América Latina y el Caribe, 1997-.

·       Temas de integraçåo. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Livraria Cultural de Guanabara, 1996-.

·       Index Mercosur. Buenos Aires: Servicios Informáticos S.A., 1991.

·       Argentina. Secretaría de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, Mercosur agropecuario. Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Economia y Obras y Servicios Públicos, 199-.

·       Argentina. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería y Pesca, Exportaciones agroalimentarias argentines totales y al Mercosur. Buenos Aires: La Dirección, 1996.

D. Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw Database

·       Lexis-Nexis

In the International Trade Library (ITRADE), under Reports/Publications, search the database EIU Latin American Research Report from September 1997 (EIULAR).

·       Westlaw

In the library section International Materials, under South America: News and Business Information, search by database name South American Business Information with the identifier SOAMBUS. This includes more recent coverage starting on June 1999.

E. Internet Sources

·       Mercosur website

·       Mercosul Website

General information about Mercosur. Includes historical, political, and geographical information.

·       European Commission- External Relations

         General information about the European Union and Mercosur. It contains treaties,               bilateral agreements, and latest information regarding the negotiations between them.

·       Red Académica Uruguay

Contains important information about the history, legal framework, bibliography, publications and research about Mercosur.

·       Brazil – Ministry of Foreign Relations

Useful site for background information in addition to current dealings among the Mercosur countries.

·       Centro de Economía Internacional

Various summaries covering topics such as an analysis of the macroeconomic cooperation among Mercosur, the Mercosur-European Union Agreement, and the Mercosur-Andean Community Agreement.

·       Red Mercosur

Includes various briefs and articles involving a number of issues concerning the Mercosur, such as its relationship with the FTAA and NAFTA.

·       SICE of the OAS (Organization of American States)

·       Mercosur

·       Lanic – Trade in Latin America

Mercosur can be found under the link Trade Agreements and Negotiations.

·       Summit of the Americas Center

Contains an excellent overview of all of Mercosur’s key issues until 1998. It is presently being updated.

MercoPress – South Atlantic’s News Agency



[1] © 2004 Edgardo Rotman

[2] 20 I.L.M. 672 (1981).

[3] 27 I.L.M. 901 (1988).

[4] Evelina Teubal de Alhadeff, Introductory Note to the Treaty establishing Mercosur. 30 I.L.M 1041 (1991).

[5] Latin American News Digest (June 8, 2004).

[6] Protocol of Ouro Preto.

[7] Olivos Protocol, Article 1-2

[8] Brasilia Protocol, Article 19-20, Olivos Protocol, Article 16, 34.

[9] Id.

[10] Rafael A. Porrata-Doria, Jr., Mercosur: The Common Market of the Twenty-First Century? 32:1 Ga. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 20 (2004).

[11] Olivos Protocol, Article 39-42.

[12] Christopher M. Bruner, Hemispheric Integration and the Politics of Regionalism: The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). 33 U. Miami Inter-Am. L. Rev. 1 (2002).

[13] World Bank, World Development Report 2002: Building Institutions for Markets 236-237 (2001).

[14] General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT), Article XXIV.

[15] Otero-Lathrop, Miguel, Mercosur and NAFTA: The Need for Convergence. 4 NAFTA: L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 116 (1998). See also Maria Angélica Espinosa, The Andean Community: Reaching Out to Bolivar’s Dream. 7 L. & Bus. Rev. Am. 329.

[16] Mario Esteban Carranza, South American Free Trade Area or Free Trade Area of the Americas? Open Regionalism and the Future of Regional Economic Integration in South America, cited by Christopher M. Bruner, Hemispheric Integration and the Politics of Regionalism: The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) in 33 U. Miami Inter-Am. L. Rev. 28, at n. 126 (2004).

[17] Pitou van Dijck and Marianne Weisebron, Ten Years of Mercosur 10 (Amsterdam: Centre for Latin American Research and Documentation 2002).

[18] Brazil: Lula’s China Commitments in Economist Intelligence Unit – Business Latin America, available in 2004 WL 63625789 (June 7, 2004).