UPDATE: Legal System of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic

 

By Aristotle T. David & Novah Rose S. De Leon-David

Update by Aristotle T. David and Khamphaeng Phochanthilath

 

Aristotle T. David, Managing Partner at ZICOlaw in Lao PDR. Aris studied at the Int’l Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University in The Hague, Netherlands where he earned his postgraduate diploma and holds his Masters of Law from Universitiet van Amsterdam in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Aris is an international lawyer who brings over 17 years of legal experience including more than 11 in Lao PDR. He was admitted to the Bar in the Philippines in 2000 and practiced in the Philippines until 2004. In 2005, he relocated to Laos and has been practicing as a foreign legal adviser in Laos since. Aris joined DFDL in 2005 and VNA Legal in 2012 as a partner and head of legal. He joined ZICOlaw in Lao PDR as the managing partner on September 2015. He combines his local knowledge and experience with international expertise. He has experience in project financing, investment regulatory compliance, investment and project coordination, due diligence, infrastructure, company establishment, corporate and commercial, investment structuring, contracts, real estate, labor, intellectual property registration, energy, mining, international non-governmental organizations, administrative and other government proceedings in the Lao PDR and Philippines. He is lifetime member of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines, admitted to the Supreme Court of Republic of the Philippines, and registered foreign lawyer in Lao PDR.

 

Khamphaeng Phochanthilath, Senior Associate at ZICOlaw in Lao PDR. Khamphaeng completed a degree in Law from the Faculty of Law and Political Sciences, National University of Laos, and Business Administration specialized in Accounting from Pakpasack Technical School. Khamphaeng is a Lao lawyer and member of the Lao Bar Association and Inter-Pacific Bar Association. She has more than 10 years of legal experience from major international full service law firms. Her practice focuses on foreign direct investment, corporate and commercial. Khamphaeng previously worked at DFDL and VNA Legal before joining ZICOlaw in Lao PDR. 

 

Published November/December 2016

See the Archive Version!

 

Table of Contents

1.      Background

2.     State

2.1.   National Assembly

2.2.  President of the State

2.3.  Government

2.4.  Local People Assembly

2.5.   Local Administration

2.6.  People’s Court

2.7.   Office of the Public Prosecutor

2.8.  State Audit

3.     Sources of Law

4.     Selected Government Websites

 

1.     Background

The Lao People’s Democratic Republic (“Lao PDR”) is a land linked country located in Southeast Asia bordered by Cambodia, China, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. It has an area of approximately 236,800 square kilometers with an estimated population of 6,911,544 as of July 2015.[1]

 

Lao PDR can trace its roots in the ancient Lao kingdom of Lane Xang, established in the 14th century under King Fa Ngum.[2] The Lane Xang Kingdom had influence reaching into present-day Cambodia and Thailand.[3] Lao PDR came under the domination of Siam (Thailand) from the late 18th century until the late 19th century when it became part of French Indochina.[4] The Franco-Siamese Treaty of 1907 defined the current Lao border with Thailand.[5] In 1975, the communist Pathet Lao took control of the government ending a six-century-old monarchy and instituting a strict socialist regime closely aligned to Vietnam,[6] with the Lao PDR being established on 2 December 1975.[7] A gradual, limited return to private enterprise and the liberalization of foreign investment laws began in 1988.[8] The Political Report to the 9th Party Congress (March 2010) sets the policy direction on trade liberalization and commercialization. Lao PDR became a member of ASEAN in 23 July 1997[9] and the WTO in 2 February 2013[10]. Lao legislation are being amended towards facilitating trade and investments following the WTO accession and ASEAN integration with the goal of graduating from the status of least developed country by 2020.

 

2.     State

The Lao PDR is a socialist State[11] under the one party system of the Lao People’s Revolutionary Party.[12] Under the Amended Constitution 2015, the State consists of the National Assembly, President, Government,[13] Local People’s Assembly, Local Administration, People’s Court and the Office of the Public Prosecutor.

 

2.1  National Assembly

The National Assembly is the legislative branch of the State which has the right to make decisions on fundamental issues of the country and has the role to adopt constitution and laws, and to monitor the implementation of the constitution and laws.[14] The members of the National Assembly are elected by Lao citizens and have a term of office of 5 years.[15] There are currently 149 members representing 18 provincial constituencies.[16]

 

The National Assembly has the following rights and duties:[17]

·       To consider, adopt the Constitution and laws;

·       To consider and adopt strategic plans, socio-economic development plan, State budget plan and the amended State budget plan;

·       To consider, adopt the fundamental policy of financial, money, the percentage of State budget deficit, the percentage of debt of the government, the percentage of debt of public;

·       To consider, adopt the determination, amendment, abrogation or exemption of taxes and duties;

·       To oversee the observance and implementation of the Constitution and laws of the State organizations;

·       To elect or remove the President, the Vice-President and members of the National Assembly Standing Committee;

·       To elect or remove the President and Vice-President of the State based on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee;

·       To elect or remove the Prime Minister based on the recommendation of the President of the State;

·       To elect or remove the Supreme Public Prosecutor, the President of the People's Supreme Court and the President of State Audit based on the recommendation of the President of the State;

·       To consider and approve the proposed appointment or removal of the President, Vice-President of the Committee and Secretary General of the National Assembly based on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee;

·       To consider and approve the proposed appointment or removal of members of the government based on the recommendation of the Prime Minister;

·       To consider and approve the proposed appointment or removal of members of Judge of the People's Supreme Court based on the recommendation of the President of the People's Supreme Court;

·       To consider and approve the organizational structure of the National Assembly, establishment, merge, separate of the ministry, ministry-equivalent organizations, provincial, city based on the recommendation of the Prime Minister;

·       To consider and determine the boundaries of the provinces, cities based on the recommendation of the Prime Minister;

·       To consider to liquidate the People Assembly of the provincial in case that People Assembly has made a huge damage to the interest of the people and country;

·       To consider and approve on granting amnesties based on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee;

·       To consider and approve on the ratification of or withdraw from treaties and agreements which Lao PDR has become a party and international agreements based on the recommendation of the Prime Minister;

·       To consider and approve on matters of war or peace based on the recommendation of the President of the State;

·       To cancel the legislation of other sectors which contradict with the constitution and laws, except the decision on the court proceeding of Public Prosecutor and People's Court;  

·       Assign the rights to the National Assembly Standing Committee to decide on the necessary and urgent matters then report to the National Assembly meeting.

 

The National Assembly Standing Committee is the permanent body of the National Assembly, and is to carry out duties on behalf of the National Assembly during the recess of the National Assembly.[18] The National Assembly Standing Committee consists of the President and Vice President of the National Assembly and members.[19]

 

The National Assembly Standing Committee has the following rights and duties:[20]

·       To prepare and summon the National Assembly into session;

·       To interpret and explain the provisions of the Constitution and the laws, and to propose to establish a new law;

·       To propose the draft Decree to the President of the State;

·       To appoint, transfer or remove the judge of the People's Supreme Court, the President, Vice-President and the judge of the People's Court based on the recommendation of the President of the People's Supreme Court;

·       To appoint the National Election Committee;

·       To decide on granting amnesties on treaties which Lao PDR has become a party and international agreements based on the recommendation of the Prime Minister;

·       To receive and consider the justice application from the people.

 

The National Assembly convenes its ordinary session twice a year[21] at the summons of the National Assembly Standing Committee.[22] The National Assembly Standing Committee may convene an extraordinary session of the National Assembly if it deems it necessary.[23]

 

National Assembly sessions shall be convened only with the presence of more than one-half of the total number of the National Assembly members.[24]

 

Resolutions of the National Assembly shall be valid only when they are voted for by more than one-half of the number of the National Assembly members present at the session,[25] except in the cases of the election of new members prior to the expiration of its term by the incumbent National Assembly legislature;[26] and election of the President of the State,[27] where vote for more than one-half of all members of the National Assembly attending the session is required;[28] Only the National Assembly has the right to amend the Constitution and the amendment of the Constitution  requires the affirmative votes of at least two-thirds of the total number of the National Assembly members.[29]

 

Draft laws may be proposed by the following:[30]

·       President of the State;

·       National Assembly Standing Committee;

·       Government;

·       Office of the Supreme Public Prosecutor;

·       People's Supreme Court;

·       State Audit organization; and

·       Lao Front for National Construction[31] and the mass organizations at the central level.

 

Legislative drafting and amendment are conducted as follows:[32]

·       Planning for law making and amendment;

·       Drafting a law;

·       Reviewing the consistency of the draft law by the Ministry of Justice;

·       Reviewing the draft law by the Government;

·       Reviewing the draft law and adoption of the law by the National Assembly;

·       Promulgation of the law by the President of the State.

 

All promulgated legislation of general application at national, provincial and capital levels comes into legal force only after 15 days from the publication date in the Official Gazette.[33] Districts/municipalities and villages have the option to bring their legislation into legal force by publishing legislation on the Official Gazette or by posting their approved legislation for 15 days in other local media or in a way that people can access it easily.[34] In special cases where there are necessary or urgent conditions, legislation may be brought into legal force immediately, but in these cases, such legislation must be published in the Official Gazette as quickly as possible.[35]

 

2.2  President of the State

The President is the Head of State and representative of the multi ethnic Lao people.[36] The President of the State is elected by the National Assembly with two-thirds of the votes of all members of the National Assembly attending the session, with a term of office of 5 years and cannot hold the position for more than 2 consecutive terms.[37]

 

The President of the State has the following rights and duties:[38]

·       To promulgate the Constitution and laws;

·       To issue presidential edicts and decrees;

·       To convene and preside at the government’s special meetings, attend the National Assembly Committee Standing meeting if it deems it necessary;

·       To appoint, transfer or remove the deputy Prime Minister and members of the government after approval by the National Assembly;

·       To appoint or remove the Vice-President of the People's Supreme Court, the Deputy Supreme Public Prosecutor, deputy head of State Audit organization based on the recommendation of the President or the head of such organization;

·       To decide on promotions or demotions at the rank of general in the national defense and security forces based on the recommendation of the Prime Minister;

·       To appoint, transfer or remove the Head of Presidential Office which has the position equivalent to minister;

·       To appoint the ambassador and plenipotentiary representatives of the Lao PDR to or recall from foreign countries based on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, and to accept the plenipotentiary representatives of foreign countries accredited to the Lao PDR;

·       To announce the appointment of the National Election Committee, election date, number of applicant, number of member of National Assembly and member of People Assembly of the provincial in each constituency based on the recommendation of the National Assembly Standing Committee;

·       To declare on matters of war or peace based on the recommendation of the National Assembly, decide on general or partial military conscription and to declare states of emergency all over the country or in any particular locality;

·       To handover or decide on conferring national gold medals, orders of merit, medals of victory and the highest honor titles of the State and to praise by other forms based on the recommendation of the Prime Minister;

·       To decide on granting amnesty based on the recommendation of the government; announce on granting amnesty after approval by the National Assembly;

·       To decide on granting political foreigner refugee; and

·       To negotiate or sign on treaties, international agreement on behalf of the State; issue the ratification of, become a party or secession from treaties and agreements signed with foreign countries.

 

The President of the State may have a Vice-President as elected by the National Assembly with the votes of more than two-thirds of the number of National Assembly members attending the session. The Vice-President of the State executes all tasks assigned by the President and acts on behalf of the President if the latter is occupied on other matters. In case the President cannot perform his/her duty, the Vice-President will perform the duty until the National Assembly elects a new President.[39]

 

2.3  Government

The Government is the executive branch of the State.[40] The government consists of the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers and chairmen of the ministry-equivalent organizations.[41] The term of office of the Government is 5 years and officials cannot hold the position for more than 2 consecutive terms.[42]

 

The Government has the following rights and duties:[43]

·       To implement the Constitution, the laws and resolutions of the National Assembly’s meeting, resolutions of the National Assembly Standing Committee, presidential edicts and decrees;

·       To submit draft laws to the National Assembly, submit draft Presidential Edicts to the National Assembly Standing Committee and to submit draft Presidential Decrees to the President of the State;

·       To issue decrees and resolutions on State administration, socio-economic management, and management in the fields of science-technology, national resources, environment, national defense and security, and foreign affairs;

·       To determine strategic plans on socio-economic development and annual State budgets and to submit them to the National Assembly for consideration and approval;

·       To propose the National Assembly for approving of the establishment, merge, separate or liquidate of ministry, ministry-equivalent organizations, provincial, city and determine the boundaries of the provinces, city;

·       To decide the establish or liquidate of sub-ministry, department or department equivalent organizations;

·       To decide the establish or liquidate of districts, municipalities, city and determine the boundaries of the districts, municipalities, city after approval by the People Assembly of the provincial;

·       To establish or liquidate of Special and Specific Economic Zone;

·       To organize, monitoring and oversee the activities of the sectoral organizations, local administrations and the national defence and security forces;

·       To decide on conferment, withdrawal, relinquishment and re-acquisition of Lao nationality;

·       To decide on granting a foreigner to become a honorary person;

·       To make, enter into, interpret and implementing the treaties and international agreements which Lao PDR has become a party;

·       To suspend the implementation of or cancel decisions or instructions of the ministries, ministry-equivalent organizations, organizations under the government's management, and local administrations if they contradict the laws and other legislation, except the decision on the court proceeding of Public Prosecutor and People's Court; and

·       To report on its performance to the National Assembly, the National Assembly Standing Committee, and the President of the State.

 

The Prime Minister is the head of the Government, and represents the Government; leads and manages the work of the Government and local administration; appoints, transfers or removes Vice-Ministers, Vice-chairmen of the ministry-equivalent organizations, heads of Sub-ministry, deputy heads of  Sub-ministry, heads of department; appoints or remove governors, mayors of cities after approval by the People Assembly of the provincial; propose to promotes or demotes general officers; promotes and demotes colonels in the national defense and security forces.[44]

 

The Deputy Prime Ministers[45] are the assistants of the Prime Minister and execute the tasks assigned to them by the Prime Minister.[46] The Prime Minister may assign a particular Deputy Prime Minister to carry out work on his behalf in the event that he is occupied on other matters.[47]

 

The National Assembly may pass a vote of no confidence in the Government or any member of the Government if the National Assembly Standing Committee or one-fourth of the total number of National Assembly members raises the issue.[48]

 

The President of the State has the right to bring the no confidence question to the National Assembly for reconsideration or make a decision for he/she to resign.

 

2.4  Local People Assembly

Local People Assembly is the representative of rights and interest of the Lao people. It is a State local organization.[49] The Local People Assembly consists of People Assembly of provincial, district level and village level.[50] The National Assembly may decide to establish a People Assembly district level and village level.[51] The People Assembly of provincial has the same term as the National Assembly.[52]

 

The People Assembly of provincial has the following rights and duties:[53]

·       To consider and adopt plans for socio-economic development and the State budget of provincial level; to adopt the organization structure of the local administrative of provincial level; to appoint, transfer or remove Vice-governors, Vice-governors of cities, heads of department, heads of department equivalent organization at provincial level; establish, liquidate, separate, merge department and department equivalent organization at provincial level; districts, municipalities, city and determine the boundaries of the districts, municipalities, city  based on the recommendation of the provincial and city governors;

·       To consider and adopt the important legislation of the provincial level;

·       To monitor the implementation of the constitution and laws within its organization;

·       To elect or remove the President, Vice-president and People Assembly Standing Committee of the provincial;

·       To consider and adopt the structure of People Assembly of the provincial;

·       To elect or remove the governors, governors of cities; to consider and adopt the appointment of the head of Public Prosecutor, the President of the Local People's Court based on the recommendation of the People Assembly Standing Committee of the provincial;

·       To cancel the decision, instruction, guideline or legislations of other sectors which contradict with laws, except the decision on the court proceeding of Public Prosecutor and People's Court;

·       Assign the rights to the National Assembly Standing Committee to decide on the necessary and urgent matters then report to the People Assembly meeting.

 

The People Assembly Standing Committee of the provincial is the permanent body of the People Assembly of the provincial, and is to carry out duties on behalf of the People Assembly of the province during the recess of the National Assembly.[54] The People Assembly Standing Committee of the provincial consists of the President and Vice President of the People Assembly and a number of members.[55]

 

The People Assembly Standing Committee of the provincial has the following rights and duties:[56]

·       To prepare and summon the People Assembly of the provincial into session;

·       To appoint, transfer or dismiss the Vice-governor of the provincial, Vice-governor of the cities;

·       To consider and appoint, transfer or remove the Vice-President and the judge of the People's Court based on the recommendation of the President of the provincial’s People's Court, city’s People’s Court;

·       To receive and consider the justice application from the people within its responsibility.

 

The People Assembly of the provincial convenes its ordinary session twice a year[57] at the summons of the People Assembly Standing Committee of the provincial.[58] The People Assembly Standing Committee of the provincial may convene an extraordinary session of the People Assembly of the provincial if it deems it necessary.[59]

 

People Assembly of the provincial sessions shall be convened only with the presence of more than one-half of the total number of the People Assembly of the provincial members.[60]

 

Resolutions of the People Assembly of the provincial shall be valid only when they are voted for by more than one-half of the number of the People Assembly of the provincial members present at the session.[61]

 

2.5  Local Administration

Local administration is divided into three levels, namely:[62]

·       Provincial level;

·       District level; and

·       Village level.

 

Local administration has the role to manage the State within its location and has responsibility to the government and the People Assembly. [63] 

 

Provinces are governed by governors, cities are governed by governors of cities, districts are governed by mayors, municipalities are governed by chiefs of municipalities and villages are administered by village chiefs.[64] Governors, mayors, chiefs of municipalities and village chiefs have deputies to assist them in their work.[65] The governors, governors of cities, mayors, chiefs of municipalities cannot hold the position for more than 2 consecutive terms. [66]

 

A key policy direction on decentralization, Decree No. 9/PMO 2012 known as the Sam Sang Policy (Three-builds), assigns the provinces as strategic units, districts as comprehensively strong units responsible for planning and budget preparation, and villages as development units. The rationale of the Decree is to strengthen government ownership and accountability in local implementation of national programs, priority development projects and projects covered in the Public Investment Programs (PIP) relative to the local needs and priorities, good governance and socio-economic management of local administration, and improve public service delivery. Recent developments included formulation of rules and mechanisms on village administration and revision of administrative arrangements on empowering local administrative units and decision-making capacity.

 

2.6  People’s Court

The People's Courts constitute the judicial branch of the State and consist of:[67]

·       People's Supreme Court;

·       Local People’s  Courts;[68] and

·       Military Courts.

 

In the event that it is deemed necessary, the National Assembly Standing Committee may decide to establish a special court.[69]

 

The People's Supreme Court is the highest judicial organ of the State.[70] The People's Supreme Court examines and reviews the decisions of the people’s courts and military courts.[71]

 

The National Assembly Standing Committee appoints, transfers and removes Judges of the People's Supreme Court; the President, Vice-President and Judges of People’s Courts.[72]

 

The Vice-President of the People's Supreme Court is appointed or removed by the President of the State.[73]

 

The People's Courts make decisions in panels. In their adjudication, Judges must be independent and strictly comply with the laws.[74]

 

Cases shall be conducted in open court proceedings except if otherwise provided by the laws.[75] Representatives of social organizations have the right to take part in court proceedings as provided by the laws.[76]

 

Decisions reached by the People's Courts, when final, must be respected by parties, State organizations, the Lao Front for National Construction, mass organizations, social organizations and all citizens, and must be implemented by the concerned individuals and organizations.[77]

 

Note however that court judgments in Lao PDR are not publicly published and it is difficult to get access to past judgments.

 

2.7  Office of the Public Prosecutor

The Office of the Public Prosecutor has the duty to monitor the implementation of the laws.[78] The Office of the Public Prosecutor consists of:[79]

·       Office of the Supreme Public Prosecutor;

·       Offices of the Local Public Prosecutor;[80] and

·       Office of the Military Prosecutor.

 

The Office of the Supreme Public Prosecutor supervises the activities of the offices of the Public Prosecutor at all levels.[81]

 

The Deputy Supreme Public Prosecutor is appointed or removed by the President of the State.[82]

 

Public prosecutors, deputy public prosecutors  prosecutor officials, are appointed, transferred or removed by the Supreme Public Prosecutor.[83]

 

2.8 State Audit

State Audit is to audit the management of the use of State budget, financial and State assets.[84] The State Audit will conduct by the State Audit Organization which consists of State Audit at central level and State Audit at regional level. [85]

 

The President of State Audit reports the matters of State Audit to National Assembly, Prime Minister and National Assembly Standing Committee.[86] The President of the State appoints, transfer or remove Vice-president of State Audit bade on the recommendation of the President of State Audit.[87]

 

3.     Sources of Law

The primary source of law is legislation. There are two types of legislation in Lao PDR: legislation of general application and legislation of specific application.[88]

 

Legislation of general application consists of:[89]

 

Legislation of specific application includes:[90]

 

Jurisprudence is not recognized as a source of law and is not part of the legal system.

 

International treaties and agreements[91] that Lao PDR has ratified also form part of the sources of law. 

 

There are no codes in print and no legal journals, however, the following section lists selected online sources of law.

 

4.     Selected Government Websites

 



[2] Preamble, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[3] The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. See: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/la.html.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Id.

[6] Id.

[7] Preamble, 2016 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[8] The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency. See: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/la.html.

[11] Preamble, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[12] Article 3, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[13] The Government is the executive branch of the Lao PDR. See: Chapter 7, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[14] Article 52, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[15] Article 54, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[17] Article 53, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[18] Article 55, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Article 56, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[21] Sessions are generally held on June and November of each year.

[22] Article 57, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[23] Ibid.

[24]. Ibid.

[25] Article 58, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR

[26] Article 54, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[27] Article 66, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[28] Article 68, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[29] Article 118, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[30] Article 59, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[31] The Lao Front for National Construction is a political coalition organization, a voluntary union of political organizations, socio-political organizations, social organizations and individuals representing all classes, social strata, ethnic groups, religions and Lao overseas. See: http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session8/LA/LFNC_UPR_LAO_S08_2010_LaoFrontforNationalConstruction.pdf.

[32] Article 19. Law on Law Making No. 19/NA 12 July 2012.

[34] Ibid.

[35] Id.

[36] Article 65, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[37] Article 66, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[38] Article 67, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[39] Article 68, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[40] Article 69, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[41] Article 71, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[42] Ibid. The term of office of 5 years applies to the Prime Minister. The Constitution does not provide for any restriction on re-election of office.

[43] Article 70, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[44] Article 72, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[45] The term of office of the Deputy Prime Minister depends on the Prime Minister and party directives.

[46] Article 73, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[47] Ibid.

[48] Article 75, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[49] Article 76, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[50] Ibid.

[51] Id.

[52] Id.

[53] Article 77, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[54] Article 78, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[55] Ibid.

[56] Article 79, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[57] Sessions are generally held on June and November of each year.

[58] Article 80, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[59] Ibid.

[60] Id.

[61] Article 81, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR

[62] Article 85, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[63] Article 86, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Id.

[66] Id.

[67] Article 90, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[68] The Constitution does not provide the definition of People’s Local Courts. Pursuant to Article 19 of the Amended Law on the People’s Courts provided that People’s Court of provincial, municipality and juvenile court, People’s Regional Courts and People’s Area Courts are People’s Local Courts.

[69] Ibid.

[70] Article 92, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[71] Ibid.

[72] Article 93, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[73] Ibid.

[74] Article 94, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[75] Article 95, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[76] Article 97, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[77] Article 98, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[78] Article 99, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[79] Article 100, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[80] The Constitution does not provide the definition of Offices of the Local Public Prosecutor. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Amended Law on the Office of the Public Prosecutor 2009 provided that the Office of the Regional Public Prosecutor, Office of the Public Prosecutor at provincial, municipality, and Office of the Area Public Prosecutor are Offices of the Local Public Prosecutor.

[81] Article 101, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[82]  Article 102, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[83] Ibid.

[84]  Article 104, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[85]  Article 105, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[86]  Article 106, 2015 Constitution of the Lao PDR.

[87] Ibid.

[88] Article 3, Law on Making Legislation No. 19/NA dated 12 July 2012 (“Law on Making Legislation”).

[89] Article 4, Law on Making Legislation.

[90] Article 5, Law on Making Legislation.

[91] See i.e. Lao People’s Democratic Republic IP Laws and Treaties at http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/profile.jsp?code=LA; see also UN Depositary Notifications at https://treaties.un.org/Pages/CNs.aspx?cnTab=tab2&clang=_en – in the Participant field, search for Laos and/or Lao People’ Democratic Republic.