UPDATE: Researching International Marine Environmental Law

 

By Arundhati Ashok Satkalmi [1]

 

Arundhati Ashok Satkalmi is a Senior Research Librarian at the Rittenberg Law Library of St. John's University School of Law.  Prior to joining St. John's in 1991, Aru worked as the Senior Information Specialist at the corporate headquarters of the Exxon Corporation in New York.  In addition to a Masters in Library Science from St. John's University, she holds a Masters in Government and Politics where she specialized in International Law.  She wrote a thesis entitled International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments of 2004: An Analysis of Logical and Practical Aspects .  She also holds a Master of Science degree in Geology from Poona University.  She has presented on the topic of international marine environmental law to the Indian Society of International Law and American Association of Law Librarians.

 

Published September 2013
(
Previously updated in January/February 2010)
See the Archive Version!

 

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. International Maritime Organization (IMO)
    1. What is the IMO?
  3. Conventions
    1. Conventions of the 20th Century
    2. Convention of The 21st century
    3. Conventions Awaiting Entry into Force
  4. Current Concerns:
  5. Other IMO Resources
    1. How and Where to Find Information?
  6. IMO Components and Affiliates
  7. National and/or Regional Webpages
  8. Websites of Educational Institutions
  9. Periodicals
  10. Monographs
  11. Associations
  12. Shipping Organizations/Associations
  13. Miscellaneous

 

  1. Introduction

 

There was a time when nations felt fortunate if their national boundaries were marked by bodies of water.  This sense seemed to be proportionate to the expanse, depth, and length of the body of water marking the national territory.  Knowing that water is not the natural habitat of humans, nations, particularly those with marine boundaries, felt a sense of security because traversing the expanse of oceans would have been a daunting task.  However, with the progress of civilization, floating vessels appeared on the watery expanses.  The advances in marine navigation and engineering transformed vessels from simple wind-dependent sailboats to steam-propelled engineering marvels weighing thousands of tons.  This, in turn, changed the role of oceans from daunting barriers to routes facilitating marine trade.  In the present age of globalization, not only exotic items but also daily necessities, such as clothing, food products, and oil (the life blood of modern society) are transported over oceanic routes, and claim more than a 90% share of international traffic.  Today, although nations with expansive marine coasts and harbors can be considered fortunate in that they have easy access to global trade, they have also become the recipients of marine pollution caused by oceanic traffic.  Naturally, there is a call for an increase in the regulation of growing pollution caused by international vessel traffic.

 

For decades, such calls were handled by the International Maritime Organization (IMO, or the Organization).  The Organization came into existence as the International Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) on 17 th March, 1958 when the Convention establishing the Organization came into force.  The name of the Organization was changed to the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in 1982 by adoption of a 1975 amendment .   The purposes of the Organization, as summarized by Article 1(a) of the Convention, are "to provide machinery for cooperation among Governments in the field of governmental regulation and practices relating to technical matters of all kinds affecting shipping engaged in international trade; to encourage and facilitate the general adoption of the highest practicable standards in matters concerning maritime safety, efficiency of navigation and prevention and control of marine pollution from ships. [2]   In keeping with the changing times, its mission has evolved from regulation of international shipping to the current mission, described as "safe, secure, environmentally sound, efficient and sustainable shipping through cooperation." [3]   A recent article [4] portrays a clear picture of the present day challenges the IMO faces in protecting the marine environment.   Also, a recently published brochure, IMO and the Environment provides an illustrative alternative.

 

Before we proceed to learn more about the sources of information on the developed and developing legal instrument of international application, due recognition must be given to several Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) [5] and Inter-Governmental Organization (IGOs), [6] which operate at regional or local levels and complement or supplement the efforts of the IMO.   Many of these organizations, including the IMO, [7] have developed impressive websites.  An exhaustive treatment of these resources would fill up volumes and take considerable time and money, so, for the time being, this article will briefly discuss prominent websites and emphasize the sources that reflect the efforts of the IMO to develop international instruments to regulate the marine environment. [8]  For the most part, the information at these sites is made available at no charge.  However, sources that charge for information access, as well as the sources that provide restricted access, are included when appropriate.   

2.   International Maritime Organization (IMO)

 

a.      What is the IMO?

 

“It may look like and ocean, but it really is a highway!” [9] As such, the IMO, a special agency of the United Nations, carries out the responsibilities of regulating the “highway traffic” and maritime affairs by developing necessary international legal instruments to maintain the safety of marine transport, and prevent pollution caused by transport-related activities.  Since its first meeting in January of 1959, the IMO has developed close to 40 conventions.  Although several conventions may have some environment related aspects — such as the Ship Recycling Convention  that is currently in the development stages — six conventions deal entirely with the marine environment.   Five marine environmental conventions of the last century have dealt mainly with age old problems such as oil pollution and the dangers posed to the marine environment by hazardous substances.  The beginning of the 21 st century added another aspect to the protection of the marine environment: protection of marine life from harms caused by routine operations of shipping.  Two new conventions in this area were adopted in the 21 st century. The first — the Anti-Fouling Systems (AFS) Convention — was adopted in 2001 to deal with the harms caused to marine life by the chemicals used in protective coatings of ships.  The second — the Ballast Water Management (BWM) Convention — was adopted in 2004 to deal with ecological effects of the translocation of species.  The AFS Convention came into force in 2008, bringing the number of total conventions in force to six.  The BWM Convention is in the process of entering into force.  While carrying on the responsibilities related to these conventions, the current concerns about climate change have not missed the Organization’s attention.  The issue is on its priority list, and the organization is taking steps to address it. [10] Climate Change - A Challenge for IMO Too !   is a recently-produced downloadable video that explains the connection between climate change and international shipping.

 

Recently updated and improved, the Organization’s website is the door to a treasure trove of resources. The homepage has its usual trappings: latest news, announcements of IMO Meetings, access to private and public Databases links, and an opportunity to learn about the views and bio of the current Secretary-General.  It guides users through a wide range of the Organization’s activities:  from learning about its structure , its working, and working of its committees and sub-committees, to the status of the developed and developing treaties.  To facilitate its use, the website gives a variety of access points.  The blue bar at the top and the grey bar at the bottom lead to inner workings of the Organization.  The blue bar has five tabs — About IMO , Media Centre , Our work , Publications , and Knowledge Centre — which give access to broad categories while the grey bar — with nineteen links — enables direct access  to specific areas such as, Circulars , Conventions , and SeaLibrary .   RSS Feeds link on the grey bar automates information retrieval while Links Directory points to sites of interest to maritime community and provides full text searching as well as searching by subject/Category and Country/Region.  As far as the marine environmental aspect of the website is concerned, the two access points worth noting are the topical arrangement and access to individual environmental treaties. The topical arrangement provides access points,  such as Pollution Prevention , Pollution Preparedness and Response , Ballast Water Management , Anti-fouling Systems , Ship Recycling , and Special Programmes and Initiatives .   Each topical area has links to categories and subcategories as appropriate which gives ease to accessing information.

 

3.   C onventions

 

a.      Conventions of the 20 th Century

 

·        MARPOL 73/78: The official name of MARPOL 73/78 is International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto. [11]   As a matter of fact, it is a combination of two conventions.  The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, adopted in 1973, was the first.  This convention dealt with marine pollution caused by the discharge of oil, chemicals, and harmful substances in packaged form, sewage, and garbage, and represents the MARPOL 73 portion of the convention.  After adoption, and as it was proceeding to enter into force, several oil tanker mishaps in 1976-1977 caught the attention of the Organization.   As a result, the Protocol of 1978 relating to the 1973 International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (1978 MARPOL Protocol)   was adopted in 1978.  It addressed tanker safety and the prevention of pollution.  The 1978 Protocol, together with MARPOL 73, which was still at the adoption stage, jointly entered into force on 2 nd October 1983 as MARPOL 73/78.  MARPOL 73/78 is by far the most encompassing international legal instrument that addresses the regulation of marine pollution.  Provisions of this convention, frequently, work in association with other legal instruments. Therefore, updates to such provisions may appear elsewhere in this article.

 

 

·        Intervention Convention: This convention, officially known as the International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties, [15] was adopted in response to 1967 Torrey Canyon oil tanker disaster in 1969, and came into force on May 6, 1975.  The tanker ran aground while approaching the Isles of Scilly off England and spilled 120,000 tons of oil into the sea.  At the time of the disaster, public international law was unclear about the rights of the coastal states in protecting their territory from environmental harm caused by approaching oil.  This convention affirmed the rights of coastal states to take appropriate actions to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate harm to their coastlines in the event of a disaster similar to Torrey Canyon happening on the high seas.   With the passage of time, injuries caused by substances other than oil were added to the provisions of this convention by the 1973 protocol and its amendments.  A snap shot of the convention presents a good picture of its provisions.  Additional information regarding the languages of official versions,  related IMO publications,  IMO documents, and cites to other resources can be obtained by accessing Sources and Citations of IMO Conventions , [16] selecting Marine Pollution Conventions link,   and clicking on the link for this convention . [17]

 

 

·        London Convention: Officially known as the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 [18] and 1996 Protocol [19] , this is one of the earliest conventions to regulate pollution caused by dumping or discharging materials from ships.  It was adopted on 13 th November 1972 and entered into force on 3o th August 1975.   Since then, through amendments, it has addressed a range of issues, such as incineration — an age-old pollutant — to the modern-day issue of carbon dioxide sequestration.  Even the issue of placement of artificial reefs is addressed by this convention.   List of London Convention and London Protocol Resolutions is helpful in tracking the developments of this Convention.  A brief description familiarizes the reader with the  general nature and provisions of the 1972 convention while the overview of 1996 Protocol is equally helpful in learning about the provisions and progress of the protocol.  Additional information regarding the  languages of official versions,  related IMO publications,  IMO documents, and cites to other resources can be obtained by accessing Sources and Citations of IMO Conventions , [20] selecting the Marine Pollution Conventions link,   and clicking on the link for this convention . In addition, Key international marine environment protection convention celebrates 40 years of progress also provides links to London Convention origins: historical events and documents, the London Convention and Protocol website, and related public relations events.

 

·        International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation . [21] : OPRC is the shorter nickname of this convention.  The Convention provides a global framework for international co-operation in combating major incidents or threats of marine pollution caused by oil.  The convention was adopted on 30 th November 1990 and entered into force on 13 th May 1995.    Parties to the Convention are required to establish measures for dealing with pollution incidents, either nationally or in co-operation with other countries, and provide assistance to others in the event of a pollution emergency for which reimbursement provisions are available.  Under this convention, reporting spill incidences to coastal authorities is one of the several requirements of ships.  Prompt notification of pollution incidences enables mobilization of appropriate response and mitigates the damage.  A short description acquaints the reader about the convention provision. The Responding to Oil Spills link connects the searcher to various guidelines and reports related to this convention and many hyperlinked sources.  Additional information regarding languages of official versions,  related IMO publications,  IMO documents, and cites to other resources can be obtained by accessing Sources and Citations of IMO Conventions , [22] selecting the Marine Pollution Conventions link   and clicking on the link for this convention .

 

·        Protocol on Preparedness, Response and Co-operation to pollution Incidents by Hazardous and Noxious Substances. [23] : This convention, similar to the previously described convention, emphasizes the establishment of a global framework to combat incidents or threat of incidents of pollution by the discharge of hazardous and/or noxious substances.  Often, the convention is referred to by its shorter name:  OPRC-HNS Protocol.  The convention was adopted on 15 th March, 2000 and entered into force on 14 th June, 2007.   It regulates substances other than oil, which, if released into the marine environment, will likely have hazardous effects on human health, living resources, and marine life.  As one of the requirements of this convention, ships transporting noxious or hazardous substances are subjected to preparedness-and-response regimes. A short description of the convention gives a good introduction. Additional information regarding the languages of official versions,  related IMO publications,  IMO documents, and cites to other resources can be obtained by accessing Sources and Citations of IMO Conventions , [24] selecting the Marine Pollution Conventions link  and clicking on the link for this convention .

 

b.     Convention of The 21 st century

 

  • Anti-Fouling Systems Convention: Officially known as the International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling Systems on Ships, [25]   the AFS is truly the first convention of this century because it was adopted on the 5 th October 2001 and entered into force on 15 th September 2008.  The Convention defines “anti-fouling systems” as “a coating, paint, surface treatment, surface or device that is used on a ship to control or prevent attachment of unwanted organisms.  It prohibits use of certain substances — known as organotin compounds — used on ships’ surfaces, which were useful in preventing or controlling  encrustations on submerged surfaces of the vessels.   Unprevented or uncontrolled growth of organisms results in a thick crust referred to as fouling,   which reduces the efficiency of ships because the crust increases the weight of a vessel and also offers resistance to ship’s movement.   Although the coatings were beneficial to the shipping industry, their leaching into water caused harm to marine life.  The background, and a good summary, of this convention are accessible through the Anti-fouling Systems link.  Additional information regarding the languages of official versions,  related IMO publications,  IMO documents, and cites to other resources can be obtained by accessing Sources and Citations of IMO Conventions , [26] selecting the Marine Pollution Conventions link  and clicking on the link for this convention .

 

c.      Conventions Awaiting Entry into Force

 

  • International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments. [27] :The Ballast Water Management or BWM Convention link enables researchers to learn about this upcoming convention.  Ballast water — water from the oceans taken in or discharged by the ships to maintain balance and stability during their voyage — facilitates translocation of marine organisms.  Most of the organisms do not survive the voyage or the new environment at the port of discharge.  However, some of these organisms, when discharged along with ballast water at other ports, acquire an invasive character due to the lack of predators or the presence of favorable environmental conditions, and disturb the ecological balance at that location.   Along with the ecological harm, it also causes great economic harm.  To control these and related losses, this convention was adopted on 13 th February, 2004.  The Convention requires adoption of ballast water management systems to control the number of discharged organisms through ballast water.  The Ballast Water Management link offers an excellent background and overview of the convention.  As of June 3, 2013, 36 countries have become contracting parties to the Convention.  As prescribed, the Convention has reached the required number of ratifications but it has not yet met the gross tonnage requirement, and as a result, is awaiting entry into force.   Globallst , a special programme and initiative of the IMO, gives supplementary information about this convention.

 

  • Ship Recycling: After serving the global shipping industry for years, ships lose seaworthiness and, in the interest of safety, must be taken out of the fleet.  Recycling of ship components is one of the options for these vessels.  Recycling of ships is a flourishing industry in the developing world.  However, some components of ships could be hazardous to the environment.   With safety the of the environment and workers in mind, a collaborative effort of the IMO, the Basel Convention   and the International Labour Organization   resulted in adoption of the Ship Recycling Convention in 11-15 May 2009, which is officially known as  The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships. [28]  The Guidelines for the Development of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials were adopted in the 59 th session of MEPC, which was held from 13-17th July 2009. [29] These guidelines were updated in 2011. [30] The Ship recycling link leads researchers to the Background of the Convention and other resources such as, Information Resources on Recycling of Ships , links to various MEPC Resolutions, and other links of interest.     The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships link should be explored for further details.

 

 

4.      C urrent Concerns:

 

  • Climage Change: Today’s global concern about climate change did not miss the IMO’s attention.  Emissions of gases impacting climate change do not come from land-based sources only.  Although the shipping industry contributes less than 3% of global industrial CO2 emissions, [31]  the IMO is concerned about ocean acidification and is taking steps to reduce the contribution of the shipping industry.   The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) of the IMO in July 2009 has agreed to disseminate a package of interim and voluntary technical and operational measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping. [32]  Proposed amendments in October 2008 to the MARPOL Annex VI regulations — which have entered into force on 1 July, 2010 [33] — is an attempt to reduce harmful emissions from ships even further.  A cover story Climate Change: Challenge for IMO Too [34] published in conjunction with 2009 World Maritime Day, and the Second IMO GHG Study [35] 2009 (dated April 9, 2009), which updated an earlier study published in 2000, witnesses the IMO’s sustained concern about climate change. Information Resources on Climate Change and the Maritime Industry informs researchers about resolutions, circulars, circular letters, conferences and final reports of the meeting sessions, reports by the IMO staff, press releases, news articles, and other Internet resources.  Many of these documents have hyperlinks.

 

  • Polar Regions: The continued trend of climate change and associated global warming has affected the Arctic and Antarctic regions.  Melting of polar ice caps has increased the possibility of international shipping through newly-exposed water regions.  Undoubtedly, this activity is going to increase the environmental vulnerability of these areas, which were once pristine.  The Marine Environment Protection Committee, in collaboration with Maritime Safety committee, is developing Polar Code with the safety of the environment and seafarers in mind. The progress of this project is described in Update on work to develop the Polar Code (April 2013) .  In addition, the IMO through document MEPC 60/22, has developed and adopted a new MARPOL regulation on 26 March, 2010, to protect Antarctic from heavy grade oils.  The documents created in relation to an IMO Workshop on Environmental Aspects of the Polar Code , which was conducted at Cambridge, U.K. during 27 – 30 September, 2011, is good source for familiarization about the issue.  Additional details are available at Shipping in Polar Waters .

 

  • Sensitive Sea Areas: As international shipping is growing in the age of globalization, the IMO is making concerted efforts to avert the harmful effects of shipping on ecologically sensitive or socio-economically important areas by designating such areas as Particular Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSA).  Thus far fourteen PSSAs are recognized.  The latest addition to the PSSA list was the Saba Bank in the North-eastern Caribbean area of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 2012   Revised guidelines for the identification and designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas are contained in A.982(24) . [36]   By adopting changes in shipping routes and implementing provisions of MARPOL Annexes I,II,IV,V, and VI, the IMO provides a higher level of protection from pollution to PSSAs. [37]    MARPOL also designates Special Areas, which are linked to provisions of each Annex except Annex III, to provide appropriate protection. Special Areas under MARPOL has a list of such areas. Relevant provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) also become applicable in providing protection from pollution.  The IMO website, through the Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas link, provides further details.   An interactive display on how PSSAs help protect fragile environments , which was launched on 16 May, 2013, is an engaging and educational tool.

 

 

 

 

5.      Other IMO Resources

 

Thus far this article has described information access points related to particular conventions and current concerns.  However, there are many general purpose access points that are useful in retrieving numerous articles, reports, official documents, and circulars at the IMO website. A click on the Knowledge Center tab is the gateway to a mother lode of information.  Although it is the last tab on the blue bar, it should be the first tab to be opened by anyone who wants to find anything about the IMO.  Some of the access points are described below.

 

a.     How and Where to Find Information?

 

This question is answered by an aptly titled link: How and Where to find IMO Information .  Unquestionably, it is the source for novices, seasoned researchers and delegates alike.  The links, which link to links, which in turn link to even more links, function like a GPS for a car driver and enable the researcher to arrive at the proper destination.  References and archives , IMO Conferences, Finding amendments to IMO conventions and other instruments , Numerical List of MEPC and MSC Circulars , List of IMO Meetings, Circulars and Conferences by Acronym and Dates , Travaux Preparatoires of IMO Conferences,    Abbreviations of IMO Codes , Abbreviations of IMO Conventions , Index of IMO Resolutions ,   are just a sample of few of its links. Thousands of documents and publications such as codes, reports, working papers, resolutions, recommendations, circulars, circular letters, and notes verbales are produced by the IMO each year.

 

  • Status of Multilateral Conventions: Knowing the current status of any legal instrument is a must for good research.  Status of multilateral Conventions and instruments in respect of which the International maritime Organization or its Secretary-General performs depositary or other functions fulfills the need.  This document provides information about signatures, ratifications, acceptances, approvals, accessions, deposits of formal documents, declarations, and final acts for each of the included instrument.  Most importantly, the document provides information about instruments that are in force or applicable, but which are no longer fully operational because they have been superseded by later instruments.  Information about instruments not yet in force and not intended to enter into force is also available.   However, it lacks information about actions taken by China prior to 23 May, 1972. [40] The document is updated frequently. [41]  

 

  • Catalog of the SeaLibrary: SeaLibrary Online is the online bibliographic catalog of the Sea Library.   The library holds selected IMO documents and publications to support daily activities of the Organization.  Users who want to use indexing terms in searching can access them through the The IMO Thesaurus which was revised in December 2012.  The lending policy allows library holdings for inter-library loan with certain restrictions.

 

  • Current Awareness: The Current Awareness Bulletin is a treat for any information seeker.  The Bulletin is published monthly and contains citations to articles from legal and technical sources.  The site provides links to individual issues going back to May 2008.  Prior issues published up to January 200o are accessible through the archives .    A FREE electronic copy of this publication can be requested by using the link provided at the site.

 

  • Current Topics: Information Resources on Current Topics –   Among the several topics included, two topics are related to environmental issues:  Air Pollution and GHG emissions caused by ships and Recycling of ships . A short description of each topic is associated with a link that opens up resources such as citations to published articles, official documents, and IMO publications, including CDs or videos about that particular topic.  The format is similar to that of the Current Awareness Bulletin.  Hyperlinks are provided where possible.

 

  • Index of IMO Resolutions: The Index of IMO Resolutions , as the name suggests, is the up-to-date index of the Assembly (A), the Council (C), the Facilitation Committee (FAL), the Consultative Meeting of Contracting Parties to the London Convention (LC), the Legal (LEG), the London Protocol (LP), the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC), the Maritime Safety Committee (MSC), and Technical Cooperation Committee (TC) resolutions.  Documents from January 1959 — when the IMCO met for the first time — are included, and their current status is indicated.  The resolutions are arranged by resolution numbers in reverse numerical order.  Resolutions can be located by using either the List of Resolutions according to subject headings  or any of the following links if the body considering the resolution is known:

 

o    Assembly (A)  

o    Council (C)

o    Facilitation Committee (FAL)

o    London Convention (LDC, LC) and London Protocol (LP)

o    Legal (LEG)

o    Marine Environment Protection Committee(MEPC)

o    Maritime Safety Committee (MSC)

o    Technical Co-operation Committee (TC)

 

·        Links Directory:

 

    • IMO Links Directory – As mentioned previously, the IMO’s work is supplemented and complemented by several NGOs and IGOs from all over the world and various bodies within the IMO.  Links to approximately thirty institutions are available here.  Each institution has its own expertise.   This tool allows free text searches, as well as searches within a specific subject or a geographical area by using the “drop down” menu.  I found this tool particularly useful to identify conferences or seminars conducted by various institutions.  Some of these institutions even make their proceedings/papers available online.

 

    • List of IMO Meetings, Circulars and Conferences by Acronym and Dates opens up into three separate links:  meetings, circulars, and conferences.  Each entry is associated with the date range of the documents or events.  This source does not contain information past 2010.   Though useful in decoding the abbreviations, the utility of the acronyms would be enhanced if the SeaLibrary catalog could be searched by the abbreviations.

 

6.      IMO Components and Affiliates

 

  • The Marine Environment Protection Committee   is one of the five main committees of the IMO. Don’t be surprised if the link opens up the United States Coast Guard ( USCG ) home page.  This is because the documents issued in connection with MEPC sessions are available to citizens of the parties through appropriate government bodies.  The committee plays a vital role in developing legal instruments to protect the marine environment. Often, the committee consults and collaborates with the Maritime Safety Committee, Legal committee, Facilitation Committee, and Secretariat of the IMO when appropriate.  The Provisional Agenda of forthcoming meeting can be accessed from this page. In addition, the final reports of the past meetings, going back to the 53 rd session are accessible.  Similarly, information about the activities of IMO Assembly, Council, other main Committees and subcommittees, along with links to relevant documents, is easily accessible from the tabs in the left hand column.  

 

  • GESAMP — This acronym represents the joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection.  It is an advisory body consisting of about 15 experts from environment related fields.  GESAMP is sponsored by the IMO , Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations or FAO , Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO or UNESCO-IOC , World Metrological Organization or WMO, International Atomic Energy Agency or IAEA , UN , United Nations Environmental Programme or  UNEP , and United Nations Industrial Development Organization or UNIDO .  The Group deals with all scientific aspects of the prevention, reduction and control of the degradation of the marine environment; conducts studies; and provides authoritative, independent, interdisciplinary scientific analyses and advice to organizations and member governments to support the protection and sustainable use of the marine environment.  GESAMP publications include reports of its sessions and in-depth scientific studies which are accessible at no cost.  

 

  • GloBallast — Global Ballast Water Management Programme.  This was a cooperative effort of the IMO, Global Environment Facility  (GEF), and the United Nations Development Programme  (UNDP).  Its purpose was to a ssist developing countries in raising awareness about the danger of invasive species and to consider measures to minimize the adverse impacts of aquatic species transferred by ships through ballast water.  The program was initiated in 2000 and successfully completed in 2004.  A new phase known as GloBallast Partnerships has become operational in 2007 and will continue through 2016. [42]  The full name of the Globallast Partnership is Building Partnerships to Assist Developing Countries to Reduce the Transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms in Ships’ Ballast Water.  Fourteen developing sub-regions, thirteen Lead Partnering Countries, and over 40 other nations are expected to participate in the project . [43]  

 

In carrying out its responsibilities of raising awareness about the impact of translocated alien species, Globallast has published several publications such as a newsletter, the Globallast Monograph Series, awareness materials, and posters, as well as a film, Invaders from the Sea , which can be viewed either from the website or by watching a DVD.  Also, do not forget to click on the links link and access a hyperlinked list of institutions around the world, which are involved with this project.

 

  •   Global Marine Litter Information Gateway is an informative website about the global, regional, and local problem of marine litter.   Marine litter, though beyond the range of the average human’s eyesight, poses considerable risk to the marine environment.   The “very slow rate of degradation of most marine litter items, mainly plastics, together with the continuously growing quantity of the litter and debris disposed, is leading to a gradual increase in marine litter” is an apt description of the problem. [44]  Several downloadable publications about this issue are available here .  And don’t forget to visit the photo gallery because if a picture worth a thousand words, the gallery will speak volumes.

7.   N ational and/or Regional Webpages  

Though several nations have laws and regulations regarding marine environmental protection, the information is not always available in English.  One option is to locate a regional NGO or IGO and see if they have publications in English.  Another option is to use a source similar to the World Law Guide , and look for the laws of a particular country or do a search across the countries related to marine environmental laws.  The following pages inform us about national and regional laws and policies available in English, and may have a bearing on the international instrument(s): 

 

  • Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Center — Assists Mediterranean coastal States in the implementation of the Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency.  Contains information contributed by member countries in the region, technical publications, and meeting related documents.

8.   Websites of Educational Institutions

Through their specialized programs, activities, research, along with their libraries, publications and publications of distinguished authors and scholars associated with the institutions provide valuable clues for furthering research.  Some such institutions are:

 

9.   Periodicals

Some of the relevant periodicals are listed below.  Full texts of a number of them are searchable and accessible electronically by Lexis and Westlaw.  In addition, a relatively new service, HeinOnline , also offers electronic searching and retrieval capability for some of the publications listed below although it lacks sophisticated search capability.  However, HeinOnline retrieves articles in PDF format.

 

10.                Monographs

An exhaustive list of relevant monographs would certainly overwhelm this article.  Therefore, a representative list of publications in English covering the 2010-2013 time span was compiled using Worldcat . This list is divided by subject.  The previous versions of this article will cover prior years.  Detailed bibliographic records of the items as well as libraries which have the item of interest in their collection can be found out by using the hyperlinks.  In addition, publications of various consultative organizations, NGOs and IGOs , associations, as well as the publications catalogue of the IMO are good places to search.

 

  • MARPOL 73/78

·        MARPOL : Annex VI and NTC 2008 with guidelines for implementation. 2013

·        Combating marine pollution : international laws and regulations 2013 Maritime Legislation Amendment Bill 2012 2012

·        Sustainable maritime transportation and exploitation of sea resources : proceedings of the 14th International Congress of the International Maritime Association of Mediterranean (IMAM), Genova, Italy, 13-16, 2011 2012

·        Report 123 : Treaties tabled on 13 October, 2, 22 and 24 November 2011. 2012

·        Marpol : Articles, Protocols, Annexes, Unified Interpretations of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as Modified by the Protocol of 1978 Relating Thereto ; 2012. Report 124 : Treaties tabled on 22 November 2011 and 7 February 2012. 2012 www.parliament.wa.gov.au

·        Treaties tabled on 22 November 2011 and 7 February 2012 2012 Marpol : Articles, Protocols, Annexes, Unified Interpretations of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as Modified by the Protocol of 1978 Relating Thereto . 2012.  

·        Report 124 : Treaties tabled on 22 November 2011 and 7 February 2012. 2012

·        www.parliament.wa.gov.au  

·       

·        MARPOL : articles, protocols, annexes, unified interpretations of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the 1978 and 1997 protocols. 2011

·        Protection of the Sea (Prevention of Pollution from Ships) Amendment (Oil Transfers) Bill 2011[electronic resource] 2011.

·        Navigation : protocol of 1997 to amend the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships, 1973, as modified by the protocol of 1978 realting thereto, London, 26 September 1997, in force for Canada 26 June 2010 = Navigation, protocole de 1997 modifiant la convention internationale de 1973 pour la prévention de la pollution par les navires, telle que modifiée par le protocole de 1978 y relatif, Londres, le 26 septembre 1997, en vigueur pour le Canada le 26 juin 2010. 2011

·        Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability : the Law and Politics of Sustainability. 2011

·        MARPOL Consolidated edition 2011 : articles, protocols, annexes, unified interpretations of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the 1978 and 1997 protocols. 2011

·        MARPOL : articles, protocols, annexes, unified interpretations of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the 1978 and 1997 protocols. 2011

 

·        Protection of the Sea (Prevention of Pollution from Ships) Amendment (Oil Transfers) Bill 2011[electronic resource] 2011

 

·        Report 116 : Treaties tabled on 24 and 25 November 2010, 9 February and 1 March 2011 : Treaties referred on 16 November 2010 (part 3). 2011

 

·        Protection of the Sea Legislation Amendment Bill 2010 2010

·        Maritime pollution liability and policy : China, Europe, and the US 2010

·        Treaties tabled on 18, 25 (2) and 26 November 2009 and 2 February 2010 2010

·        Troubled waters : ocean science and governance 2010  

 

  • Intervention Convention:

 

·        Combating marine pollution : international laws and regulations 2013  

·        Response to sea pollution incidents : international framework, regional cooperation and national approach 2011

 

  • London Convention:
    • Amendment to article 6 of the 1996 Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Waste and Other Matter 1972 : Adopted on 30 October 2009. http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/cm80/8046/8046.asp   2011
  • OPRC
    • Manual on oil pollution. Section I, Prevention 2011

 

  • Anti-Fouling Systems:

 

·        Pollution : control of harmful anti-fouling systems on ships, 2001 : convention between the United States of America and other governments, done at London, October 5, 2001. [2013?]

 

·        Rules for marine pollution prevention systems ; Guidance for marine pollution prevention systems ; Rules for safety equipment ; Guidance for safety equipment ; Rules for radio installations ; Guidance for radio installations ; Rules for anti-fouling systems on ships ; Guidance for anti-fouling systems on ships. 2013. 2013

 

·        Draft anti-fouling and in-water cleaning guidelines : submissions analysis. 2012

 

·        Iron corrosion : anti-fouling and anti-corrosive paints. 2012

·  

·        Amphiphilic hyperbranched fluoropolymer networks as passive and active antibiofouling coatings : from fundamental chemical development to performance evaluation 2012

·  

·        International Convention on the control of harmful anti-fouling systems on ships, 2001 : London, 5 October 2001. 2012

·  

·        Peg hydrogels as anti-fouling coatings for reverse osmosis membranes. 2011

·  

·        Release rates and toxicity of metals from anti-fouling paints and the role of chemical speciation 2011.

·  

·        Nanostructured anti-biofouling surfaces : physical deposition of PS-b-PAA langmuir-blodgett films 2011.

·        Draft anti-fouling and in-water cleaning guidelines 2011.

 

·        Navigation : International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, 2001, London, 5 October 2001 ; in force for Canada 8 July 2010 = Navigation : Convention internationale de 2001 sur le contrôle des systèmes antisalissure nuisibles sur les navires, Londres, le 5 octobre 2001 ; en vigueur pour le Canada le 8 juillet 2010. 2011.

·  

·        Polyelectrolyte polymer brushes as anti-biofouling coating 2010.

·  

·        Anti-fouling for NSW coastal pools and platforms : the final report for a research project (Dec 2008 - Mar 2010) on new anti-fouling coatings and alternative cleaning methods to control growth of algae on coastal pools and platforms 2010.

·  

·        Rules for marine pollution prevention systems; Guidance for marine pollution prevention systems; Rules for safety equipment; Guidance for safety equipment; Rules for radio installations; Guidance for radio installations; Rules for anti-fouling systems on ships; Guidance for anti-fouling systems on ships. 2010. 2010

·  

·        2009 MODU code : code for the construction and equipment of mobile offshore drilling units, 2009. 2010.

·        Biofouling : types, impact, and anti-fouling 2010.

·  

·        Synthesis and investigation of UV-cured, complex amphiphilic polymer films for use in anti-biofouling applications 2010.

·  

·        Atmospheric plasma deposition of nanometer thick anti-fouling coatings 2010.

 

·        Anti-biofouling properties of ionic block cpolymer surfaces : a thesis 2010

·        Effect of surface conditions on fouling behavior : a project in Industrial Technology

2010.

 

  • Ballast Water:
    • Step by step : discharge regulations : discussions continue on bi-national, international alignment (Jan.-Mar. 2013).
    • Canadians lambast US ballast-water rules   (May 2, 2013)  Ballast Water Management Legal Approaches   (2012) View Now View online
    • Regulations calendar.  (Dec. 2012/Jan. 2013). Convention faces questions.   (Jan. 26, 2012).
    • Now what? : what to expect after publishing the Ballast Water Discharge Standard (July-Sept. 2012).
    • Reducing regulatory burdens, ensuring the flow of commerce, and protecting jobs : a commonsense approach to ballast water regulation : joint hearing before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation and the Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, first session, July 13, 2011.   2011 View Now   www.gpo.gov
    • Regulations calendar.   (Dec. 2011).
    • Ballast Water Management Convention (Dec. 2011).
    • Commercial Vessel Discharges Reform Act of 2011 : report (to accompany H.R. 2840) (including cost estimate of the Congressional Budget Office). 2011 View Now   PDF version:   Text version:
    • Shipboard operations : Oil. 2011
    • Controlling the risks of the Ballast Water Convention (Apr. 2011).
    • Battle over ballast water : bill would create a federal standard for ballast water discharges. (Nov. 2011).
    • Regulations calendar. (Dec. 2010).
    • Ballast water management to combat invasive species 2010
    • Regulations on Ballast Water & Invasive Species - a Comparative Approach 2010 View Now View online
    • Ballast water invasive species management and threats to coral reefs : hearing before the Subcommittee on National Ocean Policy Study of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, first session, June 15, 2005. 2010 View Now Text version:   PDF version:
    • Implement ballast water management through legislation in wider Caribbean Region 2010
    • Guidelines for development of a national ballast water management strategy 2010
    • Ballast water management : [understanding the regulations and the various treatment technologies] 2010
    • Oil record book. (Part 2), Cargo/ballast operations (oil tankers) 2010
    •  

      • Ship Recycling:
        • The Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships: Progress?   2012 View online
        • Green ships, eco shipping, clean seas : [proceedings of] the 12th Annual General Assembly of the International Association of Maritime Universities, Gdynia Maritime University in Gdynia, 12-14 June, 2011 2011 From shipbreaking to sustainable ship recycling : evolution of a legal regime 2010
        • Climate Change:

        ·        Interpretive approaches to global climate governance : (de)constructing the greenhouse 2013

        ·        Dictionary of environmental and climate change law 2013

        ·        Climate change and international trade 2013

        ·          Greenprint : A New Approach to Cooperation on Climate Change. 2013 Confronting ecological and economic collapse : ecological integrity for law, policy and human rights 2013

        ·        International environmental law and distributive justice : the equitable distribution of CDM projects under the Kyoto Protocol 2013

        ·        Climate change and the law   2013

        ·        Legal issues for implementing the clean development mechanism in China 2013

        ·        International trade policies and climate change governance 2012

        ·        Climate law in EU member states : towards national legislation for climate protection 2012

        ·        Insurance systems in times of climate change : insurance of buildings against natural hazards 2012

        ·          Promoting compliance in an evolving climate regime 2012

        ·          The EU Emissions Trading Scheme : a challenge to U.S. sovereignty 2012

        ·          Human rights and climate change : EU policy options [2012]

        ·        Design and impact of water treaties : managing climate change 2012

        ·        Climate change and existing law : a survey of legal issues past, present, and future 2012. View Now

        ·        Climate Change, Forced Migration, and International Law 2012 View Now

        ·        Arctic science, international law and climate change : legal aspects of marine science in the Arctic Ocean ; Papers from the International Conference at the German Federal Foreign Office in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland, Berlin, 17/18 March 2011 2012 View Now

        ·        Local climate governance in China : hybrid actors and market mechanisms 2012 View Now

        ·        Comparative ocean governance : place-based protections in an era of climate change 2012. View Now

        ·        Sustainable maritime transportation and exploitation of sea resources : proceedings of the 14th International Congress of the International Maritime Association of Mediterranean (IMAM), Genova, Italy, 13-16, 2011 2012

         

        ·        The politics of climate change 2011 View Now

        ·        Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation. 2011 View Now

        ·        The Kyoto Protocol in the EU : European community and Member States under international and European law 2011 View Now

        ·        The evolution of the climate change regime after the Copenhagen Accord / Jozanne Dickason 2011 View Now

         

        ·        The role of the patent system in stimulating innovation and technology transfer for climate change : including aspects of licensing and competition law 2011  View Now

         

        ·        Safeguarding a liberal system of states : reinterpreting states' freedoms in increasing interdependence 2011

        ·        The Kyoto protocol : international climate policy for the 21st century 2011

        ·        Assessing the design of international water supply and hydropower arrangements for managing certain climate change scenarios 2011

        ·        Climate Change Law and Policy : EU and US Perspectives 2010

        ·        Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. March 2010. 2010 Crucial issues in climate change and the Kyoto Protocol : Asia and the world 2010

        ·        Linking the landscape: legal and policy tools to promote connected habitats in fragmented landscapes 2010

        ·        Climate change policy in the United States : the science, the politics, and the prospects for change 2010

        ·        Changement climatique et pollution de l'air : droits de propriété, économie et environnement = Climate change and air pollution : property rights, economics and environment 2010

        ·        Report of the in-depth review of the fifth national communication of Ireland 2010

        ·        The China Syndrome: Challenges for Addressing Climate Change in the 21st Century. 2010

        ·        Climate change justice 2010

        ·        Climate Change and Human Rights: A Case Study of the Canadian Inuit and Global Warming in the Canadian Arctic. 2010

        ·        The water framework directive : action programmes and adaptation to climate change 2010

        ·        The European Union greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme : abilities and prospects of a climate governance instrument 2010

        ·        Impacts of pending federal greenhouse gas legislation on the Texas transportation sector 2010 View Now ; swutc.tamu.edu

        ·        The evolution of multilateral regimes : implications for climate change 2010

        ·        Climate change adaptation strategy [2010]

        ·        Environmental Law and Climate Change 2010

        ·        Report of the in-country in-depth review of the fifth national communication of Finland 2010

        ·        Public bodies climate change duties : putting them into practice : consultation on draft guidance required by part 4 of the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009. 2010

        ·        The international regulation of sustainable forest management : doctrinal concepts, governing institutions and implementation 2010

        ·        Issues for Engagement: Asian Perspectives on Transnational Security Challenges. 2010

        ·        Global Change: Impacts on Water and food Security 2010

        ·        Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. 2010

        ·        Developing CDM projects in the Western Balkans : legal and technical issues compared 2010

        ·        The emissions trading scheme : advising your client on their obligations [2010]

        ·        Report of the in-depth review of the fifth national communication of Switzerland 2010

        ·        Effect of cumulative carbon emissions over the 21st century and beyond 2010

        ·        Building Energy Efficiency Disclosure Bill 2010 2010

        ·        Climate Change Bill 2010 2010

        ·        Report of the in-depth review of the fifth national communication of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 2010

        ·        Crucial issues in climate change and the Kyoto Protocol : Asia and the world 2010

        ·        The change of legal nature of the climate change regime : from analysis about the relationship between process and outcome 2010

        ·        Legal issues for implementing the clean development mechanism in China 2010

        ·        Report of the in-depth review of the fifth national communication of Denmark 2010

        ·        Report of the in-depth review of the fifth national communication of the Czech Republic 2010

        ·        Impacts of reducing shipboard NOx ̳ and SOx ̳ emissions on vessel performance 2010

         

        11.                 Associations

        Associations’ web pages make a good resource to learn about members' mindsets and clues about their support or opposition to specific legal instruments.  Also, they provide links to texts or abstracts of their publications.  Overall, these pages keep interested parties abreast of  new developments about an issue.

         

        • American Society of International Law
        • British Maritime Law Association
        • Canadian Maritime Law Association
        • Comite' Maritime International
        • Hong Kong Maritime Law Association
        • Maritime Law Association of Australia and New Zealand
        • Maritime Law Association of South Africa
        • Maritime Law Association of the United States
        • OSPAR Commission
        • Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers
        •  International Union for Conservation of Nature
        • 12.                Shipping Organizations/Associations

                         These sites provide information similar to that provided by Association's web pages.

           

          • BIMCO - The Baltic and International Maritime Council
          • HELMEPA - Hellenic Marine Environment Protection Association
          • INTERTANKO - International Association of Independent Tanker Owners
          • International Shipping Federation
          • Chamber of Shipping of America

          13.                Miscellaneous

           

          • ECOLEX- the gateway to environmental law : A service jointly operated by FAO, IUCN, and UNEP.
          • Electronic Information system for International Law :  A service provided by the American Society of International law.
          • International Institute for Sustainable Development : Covers and reports on international conferences relating to environmental law.
          • Institute of Marine Engineering, Science & Technology (IMarEST): A rich collection of resources dealing with oceans and shipping.
          • Marine Technology Abstracts :  A service of the Institute of Marine Engineers/British Maritime Technology.
          • Guide to International Fisheries Law
          • International Marine Environmental Law : Institutions, Implementation and Innovations
          • Cambridge Scientific Abstracts : A collection of full text and bibliographic databases.
          • Science Direct : A vast collection of journal and book titles.
          • Springerlink :  A powerful central access point for researchers and scientists.
          • Todd Kenyon's Admiralty Law Guide .
          • Library of Congress Call Numbers - K3589.6; K3590.4.
          • International Conference on Aquatic Invasive Species ICAIS .
          • Worldcat :  Is the world's largest network of library content and services.  Along with the bibliographic information, the service informs about libraries which have the item(s) of your interest in their collection.

           



[1] I am thankful to William Manz for reading and editing this article.

 

[3]  IMO's mission statement , as stated in Resolution A.1037(27 ).  Accessed from http://www.imo.org/About/strategy/Documents/1037.pdf on June 28, 2013.

 

[4] World Maritime Day 2007: IMO's response to current environmental challenges; Available at http://www.gc.noaa.gov/documents/IMO_WMD_2007_Paper.pdf .  Accessed on June 28, 2013.

 

[5] Non-Governmental international Organizations which have been granted consultative status with IMO.  Available at   http://www.imo.org/blast/mainframe.asp?topic_id=315&doc_id=851 .  Accessed on June 28, 2013.

 

[6] Intergovernmental Organizations which have concluded agreements of co-operation with IMO.  Available at http://www.imo.org/About/Membership/Pages/IGOsWithObserverStatus.aspx .  Accessed on June 28, 2013.

 

[8] An article by Heidi Frostestad Kuehl titled A Basic Guide to International Environmental Legal Research was published in May 2006 issue of Globalex, and updated in 2010 is a good source of complementary information.

 

[9] International shipping and sustainable development: IMO activities on reduction of emissions from ships ; Paper delivered at the ICTSD conference on climate change, trade and tourism; November 2008.  Available at http://ictsd.org/downloads/2008/11/international-shipping-and-sustainable-development.pdf .  Accessed on July 3,2013.

 

[10] Additional information is available at Climate Change and the Maritime Industry and can be accessed   here , here , and here .

 

[11] Brief description of the provisions are available at http://www.imo.org/about/conventions/listofconventions/pages/international-convention-for-the-prevention-of-pollution-from-ships-(marpol).aspx Text of “Protocol of 1978 relating to the International Convention for the prevention of pollution from ships, 1973 (with annexes, final act and International Convention of 1973).  Concluded at London on 17 February 1978”.  Available at http://treaties.un.org/untc//Pages//doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%201340/volume-1340-I-22484-English.pdf .  Accessed on June 30, 1978.

 

[12] The link for Annex III is from an official source.  Contacting the IMO for the text of the Annex is recommended.

 

[14] This source covers the period of up to 2008 and is no longer updated.  However the information has historical value.

 

[15] Text of “International Convention relating to intervention on the high seas in cases of oil pollution casualties (with annex, official Russian and Spanish translations and Final Act of the International Legal Conference on marine pollution damage, 1969).  Concluded at Brussels on 29 November1969.”  Available at http://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%20970/volume-970-I-14049-English.pdf .  Accessed on June 30, 2013.

 

[16] Sources & Citations of IMO Conventions is not updated past 2008.  Moreover, the recent website reorganization has affected the contents.  This link retains some of the descriptions and makes an effort to direct researcher to appropriate locations.  Plans for updating this resource are under consideration.

 

[18] Text of “Convention on the prevention of marine pollution by dumping of wastes and other matter” is available at http://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%201046/volume-1046-I-15749-English.pdf and http://www.gc.noaa.gov/documents/gcil_lc.pdf .  Accessed on June 30, 2013.

 

[19] Unofficial text of “1996 Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other matter, 1972” is available at http://www.admiraltylawguide.com/conven/protodumping1996.html .   Additional information is available in Status of multilateral conventions and instruments in respect of which the International Maritime Organization or its Secretary-General performs depositary or other functions , pages 518-522. 

 

[20] Sources & Citations of IMO Conventions is not updated past 2008.  Moreover, the recent website reorganization has affected the contents.  This link retains some of the descriptions and makes an effort to direct researcher to appropriate locations.  Plans for updating this resource are under consideration.

 

[21] Text of “International convention on oil pollution preparedness, response and cooperation, 1990 (with annex and proces-verbal of rectification).  Concluded at London on 30 November 1990” is published in the U.N. Treaty Series and is available at http://dinrac.nowpap.org/documents/convention/International%20Convention%20on%20oil%20pollution%20preparedness,%20response%20and%20cooperation,%201990.pdf .  Accessed on June 30, 2013.   IMO has published International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, 1990 : including Final Act of the Conference and attachment (resolutions 1 to 10) in 1991.  Additional information is available in Status of multilateral conventions and instruments in respect of which the International Maritime Organization or its Secretary-General perforrms depositary or other functions , pages 463-467.

 

[22] Sources & Citations of IMO Conventions is not updated past 2008.  Moreover, the recent website reorganization has affected the contents.  This link retains some of the descriptions and makes an effort to direct researcher to appropriate locations.  Plans for updating this resource are under consideration.

 

[23] Text of “Protocol on Preparedness, Response and Co-operation to pollution Incidents by Hazardous and Noxious Substances, 2000 (OPRC-HNS Protocol)” is available in Australian Treaty Series.   Also see Status of multilateral conventions and instruments in respect of which the International Maritime Organization or its Secretary-General performs depositary or other functions , pages 468-469.  Both sources accessed on June 30, 2013.

 

[24] Sources & Citations of IMO Conventions is not updated past 2008.  Moreover, the recent website reorganization has affected the contents.  This link retains some of the descriptions and makes an effort to direct researcher to appropriate locations.  Plans for updating this resource are under consideration.

 

[26] Sources & Citations of IMO Conventions is not updated past 2008.  Moreover, the recent website reorganization has affected the contents.  This link retains some of the descriptions and makes an effort to direct researcher to appropriate locations.  Plans for updating this resource are under consideration.

 

[29] MEPC 59 Review; Oil Spill Intelligence Report ; v. 32, # 34; August 13, 2009; p. 3. 

 

[30] 2011 Guidelines for the Development of the Inventory of Hazardous Materials ; Adopted on 15 July 2011; Resolution MEPC. 197(62); Annex 3.

 

[31] Shipping, World Trade and the Reduction of CO2 Emissions; page 3.  Available at http://www.shippingandco2.org/CO2%20Flyer.pdf .  Accessed on July1, 2013.

 

[32] IMO environment meeting issues technical and operational measures to address GHG emissions from ships; MEPC 59 TH Session; 13-17 July, 2009; Briefing 27, 20 July, 2009.  Available at  http://www.imo.org/blast/mainframe.asp?topic_id=1773&doc_id=11579 .  Accessed on July 1, 2013.

 

[33] IMO environment meeting adopts revised regulations on ship emissions; Briefing 46; 10 October 2008.  Available at http://www.imo.org/blast/mainframe.asp?topic_id=1709&doc_id=10262 .  Accessed on July 1, 2013.

 

[34] Climate Change: A challenge for IMO too; IMO New Magazine ; Issue 3, 2009, pp 4-5 and 21-28.

 

[35] See also: Prevention of air Pollution from Ships , Second IMO GHG Study; MEPC 59/INF.10.  Available at http://www.seas-at-risk.org/1mages/MEPC%2059-INF.10%20(The%20Second%20IMO%20GHG%20Study%202009).pdf .  Accessed on July 1, 2013.

 

[36] IMO Assembly Resolution 982; Revised Guidelines for the Identification and Designation of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas under MARPOL 73/78.  (Dec. 1, 2005).

 

[37] List of Special Areas Under MARPOL and Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas ; MEPC.1/Circ. 778; 26 January 2012.  Available at http://www.imo.org/blast/blastDataHelper.asp?data_id=30979&filename=778.pdf .  Accessed on July 2, 2013.

 

[38] Towards Sustainable Shipping ; Presentation by Bruno Dabouis at Mare Forum in Marseille - France ; 16 September 2008.  Available at http://www.mareforum.com/Marseille_Maritime_2008_papers/DABOUIS.pdf . Accessed on July 3, 2013.

 

[39] International shipping and sustainable development: IMO activities on reduction of emissions from ships ; Paper delivered at the ICTSD conference on climate change, trade and tourism; November 2008.  Available at http://ictsd.org/downloads/2008/11/international-shipping-and-sustainable-development.pdf .  Accessed on July 3,2013.

 

[40] Refer to Council Resolution c.53(XXVII) of 23 May 1972.  Available at http://www.imo.org/blast/blastDataHelper.asp?data_id=22202&filename=53(28).pdf .  Accessed on July 3, 2013.

 

[41] As of July 3, 2013, the document was updated on June 30, 2013.  The prior update was June 4, 2013.

 

[42] See Annex 2; Status Report on the Major Projects Related to the Protection of the Marine Environment (2 July 2012 to February 2013).  Available at MEPC 65-15-1 Accessed on July 4, 2013.

 

[43] IMO News; No 3, 2007; Funding approved for next phase of GloBallast Partnerships.; p. 10.

 

[44] Available here .

 

[45] Sea Grant Abstracts ceased publication with vol. 20, no. ¾, 2005.  The link will direct the user to the National Sea Grant Library's comprehensive bibliographic online database which is updated monthly.  The records provide links to abstracts or full texts or both.  However, the records retrieved by search do not display dates clearly.