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Guinean Legal System and Research

 

By Ibrahima Sidibe

 

Ibrahima Sidibe is Professeur de Droit at the Université General Lansana Conte de Sonfonia-Conakry,   Departement Droit Public Et d'Anglais, Centre Universitaire de Kindia,  Kindia, Republique de Guinee,   West Africa.

 

Published March 2008
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Table of contents

 

Introduction

Executive Power

President of the Republic

Prime Minister

Ministry of Economy, Finance and Planning

Ministry of Public Health

Ministry of Interior and Security
Ministry of economic and financial control, the ethics and transparency

Ministry of social affairs, the status of women and children

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Cooperation and the African Integration and of Guineans abroad
Ministry of transports

Ministry of Mines and Geology

Ministry of Education and Scientific Research

Ministry of Agriculture, Breeding, Environment and Water and Forests

Ministry of Employment, of the Public Service and Reform of the Administration
Ministry of Communication and New Technologies of Information

Ministry of Fishing and Aquaculture 

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights
Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Tourism and Handcrafts

Ministry of Energy and The Hydraulic

Ministry of Youth, Culture and Sports
Ministry of Public Works, Urban Development and Housing

General Secretariat of Government

General Secretariat of Religious Affairs

Legislative power

Organization of the National of Assembly

Procedures of electing Members of Parliament

Prerogative of the National Assembly

Functioning of the National Assembly

Legislative procedures

Judicial Power

Supreme Court

Ordinary courts

Courts of first instance

Justice of the Peace

Tribunal of the First Instance

Second instance court

Courts of exception

Court for minors

High Court of Justice

Court of State Security

Military Tribunal

Tribunal of Labor

Chamber of Arbitration of Guinea

Council of Administration

Committee of Arbitration

Administrative Bureau

Guinean Legal Process

Identifying the offender

Application of law

Means of Redress

Appeal for Annulment or Cassation

Appeal for Revision

Civil Proceedings

Jurisdiction in Civil Proceedings

Means of Redress in Civil Proceedings

Taking issue with a Judge ‘prise à partie’

Rejoinder

Publication of Decision

Guinean law publishers, Law schools and Websites

Conclusion

References

Abbreviations

Annex

 

 

 

Introduction

 

The Guinean Constitution known as the Fundamental Law adopted in referendum, December 23rd, 1990 and promulgated by the Presidential Decree n#250/PRG of December 31,1990 and amended in referendum, November 11, 2001 is the one in force. It has 96 articles regrouped in 12 titles (Chapters): Title I, the Sovereignty; Title II, the Rights, Fundamental Freedoms and duties; Title III, the President of the Republic, Title IV, the National Assembly; Title V, Relationship between the President of the Republic and the National Assembly; Title VI, Treaties and International Accords; Title VII, the Judicial power; Title VIII, the High Court of Justice; Title IX, Economic and Social Council; Title X, Local governments; Title XI, Constitutional Review; Title XII, Transitional Provisions.

 

This Constitution has some particularities that need to be mentioned[1]: it, as reviewed on November 11, 2001, asserts Guinea’s adhesion to the ideals and principles of the United Nations, the Charter of the Organization of the African Unity (now, the African Union), the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It guarantees the separation of powers and dedicates 18 articles to the rights and duties of the citizens. The Presidential power is comparatively exorbitant. It provides no position of Prime Minister, even though we have witnessed the nomination of four different Prime Ministers by the present President of the Republic, General Lansana Conte, who came to power through a military Coup d’Etat, April 3rd, 1984. It provides for the possibility of the National Assembly being dissolved by the President of the Republic.

 

This makes difficult to determine the political regime of Guinea with regard to the classical regimes such as presidential regime and parliamentary regime, even though it is regularly associated to the former. We know that the presidential regime is characterized by a rigid separation of powers, none of which can dissolve the other. In Guinea, the President of the Republic is naturally preponderating like any other presidential regime, but here he has the capacity of dissolving the parliament after the rejection of his proposed bill. However, after the election of the new parliamentary, if the new Members of the Parliament adopt the same position as the previous ones, the President of the Republic will have to resign.

Those specificities of the Guinean regime make it a little different from the presidential regime to which it is associated. To be associated does not mean to be the same.

 

This Constitution, as mentioned before, provides for the separation of the powers of Government. As it will be observed there are discrepancies in this separation, hence the necessity of discussing the powers of the Government.

 

This work shall mainly be built around three parts: Executive power (I); the Legislative power (II) with annex; and the Judicial power (III) with annex; to be completed by the Guinean law publishers, Law schools and Websites (IV) 

 

I        Executive Power

 

It is led by the President of the Republic who is elected for seven years unlimitedly renewable and eventually a Prime Minister.

 

A    The President of the Republic

 

His status and prerogative are provided by the Constitution

 

1   Status of the President of the Republic

He is the first personality of the State; he is politically no responsible for acts accomplished in exercise of his duties. He can only be brought to justice (the High Court) for high treason (Haute trahison). In case of vacancy of power (for impeachment, physical incapacity or death), the President of the National Assembly (the Speaker of the Parliament) takes over as the interim President. If the latter is also impeached, physically incapable or dies, one of the four Vice-Presidents of the National Assembly by order of precedence is designated to be the interim President.

 

The interim President will exercise the power for not more than sixty days during which fresh Presidential election will be held. Within that period the Interim President cannot hold any referendum, he can neither dissolve the National Assembly nor take the initiative of the constitutional amendment. He cannot exercise the Presidential pardon. 

 

The former Presidents of the Republic come after the President in Office in official ranks. They are, by right, members of the Economic and Social Council.

 

2    Prerogative of the President of the Republic

He is the custodian of the Constitution, the guarantor of the national independence, territorial integrity and the respect of international treaties. He appoints Guinean diplomatic representatives and receives foreign ambassadors accredited in Guinea. He is the head of the army and exercises exceptional authorities. He can submit to referendum bills in limitedly determined areas for adoption. He can take the initiative of bills to be submitted to the parliament and the constitutional review.  He appoints and dismisses Ministers and other administrative officials; determines and conducts general policies of the nation. He has at his disposal the authority of regulation He can dissolve the National Assembly once certain conditions are met. He has authority of executive clemency. He is the President of the Superior Council of the Judges.  He has the authority of seisin the Supreme Court for the control of constitutionality of laws. He appoints the President of the Supreme Court, the President of the National Council of the Communication as well the President of the Economic and Social Council. His Mandate is incompatible with any other occupation, be it public or private.  

 

B     The Prime Minister

 

The Guinean Constitution, as mentioned before, does not expressly provided for the position of Prime Minister, however Guinea has had since the taking over of the power by the army four different Prime Ministers. They have been appointed on two main grounds.

 

1    Article 39 of the Fundamental Law

This Article stipulates that the President of the Republic appoints Ministers…He can determine by decree the prerogative of every Minister. He can delegate part of his authorities. The ideologists interpreted this article as allowing the President of the Republic to appoint a Prime Minister to assist him in carrying out his responsibilities.

 

A jurist consult, M. Alhassan Makanera KAKE stated that the constitutional practices in Guinea combined with the interpretation of article 39 gives the constitutional ground for the post of Prime Minister in Guinea.[2]

 

The constitutional practices show that Prime Ministers have been appointed without the position being provided by the Constitution. For instance the Presidential decree 113/72/PRG of April 26 1972 appointed a Prime Minister who was not the Head of government. After the change of Regime in 1984 through a Coup d’Etat, a Prime Minister, Head government was appointed. The post was to be scratched out on December 18, 1984 to be re-established by Presidential decree n# D96/098/PRG/SGG of July 9, 1996, the Prime Minister, Mr. Sidia Toure, being in charge of Economy and Finance portfolio. Later in 1999, a new Prime Minister, Lamine Sidime, was appointed only to be responsible of coordinating the actions of the government. In 2004 another Prime Minister, Francois Lounseny Fall, was appointed but resigned few months later.

 

All these Prime Ministers except the one before the adoption of the Constitution, as observed, were appointed on the ground of article 39. But the current Prime Minister, Lansana Kouyate was appointed on different ground.

 

2   The general strike of the beginning of 2007

At the beginning of the year 2007, Guinea was confronted with a general strike she had never pictured in the recent history of the nation. According to the report of Human rights organization, it claimed about 183 lives including largely among civilians. It was called up by the main Trade Unions. The agreement reached on the January 27, 2007 quelling the unrest provided for the appointment of a Prime Minister, Head of government. The government was consequently restructured from 32 cabinet Ministers to 18 and 3 General Secretariats.

 

Here is the composition of that government, known as the Government of large consensus, as stipulated by the Presidential decree D/2007/ 041/PRG/SGG of March 14, 2007, published in the Journal Officiel de la République (JORG), the Officiall Gazette of March 20, 2007:

 

i   Ministry of Economy, Finance and Planning

 

The Ministry of Economy, Finance and Planning's mission is the conception, implementation and monitoring of government policy in the economic, financial and budgetary matters as well as programs of economic and social development. As such, it is particularly in charge of conceiving, planning and monitoring the policies and programs of economic, social and cultural development of local government - scheduling public investment - ensuring the collection, centralization and dissemination of statistical and economic information - to organize national censuses; - participating in the organization of joint commissions - organizing and supervising Public Accounts and the Treasury - negotiating and signing all funding received by the State and Local Government;- ensuring management of aid and other funding from international agencies - managing internal and external debt - ensuring the development,  implementation, monitoring and administrative control of the annual budget of the Government - to develop and implement the Government's policy of Tax and Customs -developing and monitoring the implementation of the technical and financial budget for investment and operation - regulating and approving public procurement; - ensuring financial management of the portfolio and Heritage of the State; - organizing and controlling gambling - coordinating joint commissions to monitor the management of public buildings- participating, in collaborating with the Ministry of Urban  Development and Housing, the land conservation, land registry and management of public property - conceiving and implementing Government's policy of participation, restructuring and disengagement in semi-public sector.

 
ii. Ministry of Public Health

 

The Ministry of Public Health's mission is: the conception, development and implementation of government policy in the field of Public Health. As such, it is particularly in charge of - conceiving the rules on medical and health matters - conceiving strategies of intervention in national health – ensuring the coordination and technical control of primary health care, traditional medicine and hospitals, laboratories, pharmacies and food centers - proceeding with the planning and programming of public programs and development projects in the short, medium and long term of the Ministry - Ensuring the supply of Health Services of drugs and specialized equipment - identifying needs and participating in the training of health care workers - providing the local authorities with all the assistance necessary to the establishment and equipping of health facilities - promoting operational research to solve health problems.

 

iii. Ministry of Interior and Security

 

The Ministry of the Interior and Security's missions are as follows: the development, implementation and monitoring of government policy in the areas of the Territorial Administration, Decentralization, Public Freedoms, Humanitarian Assistance and Security.
As such, it is particularly in charge of:  organizing, promoting and coordinating the services of the Territorial government - guaranteeing civil liberties determined by the Fundamental Law and general regulations - conceiving and implementing decentralization, reform on Local Administration, the exercise of guardianship of the state on local communities and promote development at the grassroots - organizing elections - coordinating and implementing humanitarian affairs; - maintaining order, the security of persons and their property as well as internal and external security of the state -implementing legislative and regulatory Acts relating to the safety of persons and property and maintaining public order; - for the prevention and the fight against organized crime, economic and financial crime as well as terrorism - coordinating and strengthening the fight against urban and cross-border crime and the fight against drugs and the proliferation of small arms and illicit trafficking along the borders - implementing the laws and regulations in the  context of civil protection, environmental protection, prevention and relief in the event of natural disasters in conjunction with the departments concerned - coordinating all operations of intervention in the context of fire fighting, accidents, disasters and catastrophes.


iv. Ministry of economic and financial control, the ethics and transparency

 

The Ministry of Economic and Financial Control, of the Ethics and Transparency's missions are: the conception, development and implementation of government policy in the areas of Economic and Financial Control of promoting good governance and combating corruption.
As such, it is particularly in charge of:  Developing and implementing the National Program for the Promotion of Good Governance (PNPBG) - developing and overseeing the implementation of government policy in terms of control as Institution Superior Control of the state - ensuring the implementation of economic and financial policy established by the Government - ensuring compliance with the laws, regulations and instructions governing the administrative and financial functioning of the accounting of government agencies and semi-public organization; - contributing to the betterment of the mobilization and securing of resources on the one hand, and the rationalization of public expenditures on the other - to identify and propose measures to improve the efficiency and 'efficiency of the economic and financial management of the state - giving its opinion on the content of agreements and other obligations of the state in economic, financial and tax before their signatures - ensuring the ongoing operations financial state, administrations and public institutions, local authorities, other public bodies and, in general, all entities that receive public assistance or loan, advance, Grant, Downstream, guarantee or capital - participating in the development of economic, financial regulation and accounting applicable to the State, public institutions, local governments and other public  agencies - evaluating the performance of systems and supervisory bodies - evaluating the execution of financial transactions of government and public institutions and, in general, all entities receiving public funds – ensuring the compliance with the rules governing mechanisms of economic and monetary policies, including the implementation of a restrictive policy of credit - conducting an assessment of programs and investment projects - ensuring the implementation of the policy of Audit and the Commissioner for Accounts - promoting cooperative relations with other structures of administrative, judicial and parliamentary control on the one hand,  associations or foreign institutions of control on the other - conceiving, developing and implementing from the results of investigations, the strategy and plan of action to combat corruption and assimilated practices - to participate in the moralization of public life - carrying out any mission assigned to it by the Government.


The area of jurisdiction of the Ministry of Economic and Financial Control, of the Ethics and Transparency covers all structures and public entities whatever the method of management or geographical location, including offices and public entities including the Central Bank of the Republic of Guinea (BCRG), the public and semi-public companies, programs and public projects, the Guinean diplomatic missions, local, judicial and military administrations.

 
The Ministry of Economic and Financial Control, of the Ethics and Transparency is receiving the reports of activities of government departments, the Audit and reports of inspections, especially those of the General Inspectorate of Finance and the reports of Audit of private firms and councils interesting government and the public sector.


In the context of fulfilling its mission, the Ministry of Economic and Financial Control, of the Ethics and Transparency receive copies of all legislation and regulations relating to economic management, finance and accounting, including agreements on the major contracts of the state. It is the recipient of periodic financial statements of public institutions, companies with state financial programs and public development projects.


The Ministry of Economic and Financial Control, of the Ethics and Transparency corresponds directly, in all matters within its competence, with the heads or representatives of public service, public entities of an administrative, industrial and commercial or any other body in connection with its services, and sends a copy of his correspondence to the Minister of guardianship.


No objection can be made to its requests for submission of information under penalty of applying the provisions of the Act in this regard. Similarly, it will take all measures in the event of a lapse in the management of the audited agencies.

v    Ministry of social affairs, the status of women and children

 

The Ministry of Social Affairs, Status of Women and Children's missions are as follows: to conceive, develop, coordinate, implement and monitor government policy in the fields of Social Affairs and the Status of Women and Children. As such, it is particularly in charge of: developing and monitoring the implementation of laws and regulations in its area of intervention; - conceiving and implementing policies for the promotion and expanded social protection - providing assistance to disadvantaged and / or other victims of a social nature - organizing and protecting for vulnerable groups including women, children, the elderly and people with disabilities by promoting structures for 'appropriate supervision - providing research and resource mobilization material, technical and financial resources for the implementation of programs and projects set up by associations and groups of different departmental targets.

 

vi   Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Cooperation and the African Integration and of Guineans abroad

 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Cooperation and African Integration and of Guineans abroad has the following missions: to conceive, develop, implement and monitor the foreign policy of the Government in terms of diplomacy, consular relations, International Cooperation, Integration and management of Guineans abroad.
As such, it is particularly responsible of:
- guiding, promoting and coordinating political relations and economic cooperation, social, cultural, technical and scientific cooperation between the Republic of Guinea and all partners in progress - organizing and managing the diplomatic and Consular representations and of the Guineans abroad – managing the relations with the Diplomatic and Consular Missions and International Institutions Accredited in Guinea - developing and monitoring relations of cooperation between the Republic of Guinea and African Organizations, regional and sub-regional integration - seeking and mobilizing external aid and technical assistance to the Republic of Guinea and ensuring coordination - promoting, within the framework of the Decentralized Cooperation and micro-finance, partnership and consistency in the mobilization of aid to development between Guinean public, private sectors and foreign partners - developing and promoting policies and strategies for the involvement and the effective participation of Guinean nationals abroad to the national development effort - fostering the mobilization and the repatriation of savings of Guinean from abroad and facilitate their return and reintegration - ensuring the mobilization and monitoring of the management of donations in the context of international cooperation programs in connection with the Ministry of Economy, Finance and Planning - participating, in conjunction with other ministries, in the negotiation and the conclusion of agreements and financing agreements, and following up on economic reforms with the international financial institutions - promoting the integration of Guinean managers within organizations and international institutions - developing and popularizing the implementation of treaties, agreements, conventions, protocols and decisions in the field of diplomacy, cooperation, integration and migration; - dealing with international law including international humanitarian law - following ratification of the conventions, agreements and international treaties and guards custodian - defending the interests of the state and its Guinean nationals abroad.

 
vii   Ministry of transports


The missions of this Ministry are as follows: to conceive, develop and implement government policy in the fields of land, air, sea, river and the meteorology. In this capacity, it is particularly in charge of - conceiving, developing and implementing the laws and regulations concerning transport and meteorology and ensuring the monitoring and control - conceiving and implementing strategies and plans for the development of transport and meteorology; - ensuring the planning and programming of investments in the fields of transport and meteorology in connection with the departments involved - contributing to the promotion and development of businesses and socio-professional associations operating in the transport sector - ensuring the technical inspection of road vehicles, aircraft and sea vessels and ensuring the issuance of the permits required - promoting relations of bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the fields transport and meteorology.


viii. Ministry of Mines and Geology

 

This Ministry has the following missions: the conception, development, implementation, monitoring and control of government policy in the areas of Mines, Geology and Hydrocarbons.
As such, it is particularly in charge of:
- defining the national policy on development of mineral resources - developing legislation and regulations on mining to be monitored throughout the national territory - establishing geological, hydro-geological and geotechnical infrastructures of the country at different levels – inventorying and evaluating mineral resources, groundwater and the hydrocarbon potential of the country - carrying out geological, hydro-geological, geophysical, geotechnical and hydrocarbons work, and ensuring the processing and interpretation of the resulting data – carrying out work in remote and ensuring the processing and interpretation of the resulting data - monitoring and controlling the implementation of plans of action proposed by the companies and mining projects - ensuring the implementation of legislation and regulatory environment in the mining sector on the whole national territory - ensuring, technical, monitoring and control of the entire research program and / or exploration initiated by the state or private investors in the mining sector, hydrogeology, geotechnical and hydrocarbons - initiating and conducting in connection with partners any program of basic research in the field of earth sciences - ensuring the country's earthquake monitoring - running for the third of the work in the field of geological and mining research - negotiating and concluding all the agreements and conventions under the management of mining heritage -monitoring the management of the state shares in the mining companies in relation to the relevant departments - representing the Republic of Guinea in international organizations and forums in Mines and geology sector - monitoring the markets for raw materials and to conducting


ix   Ministry of Education and Scientific Research

 

This Ministry has the following missions: to conceive, develop and implement government policy in the areas of Elementary, General Secondary, Technical, Professional and Superior Education, Scientific Research, Documentation, Civic Education and Non-Formal Education.
As such, it is particularly in charge of:
- providing and coordinating education and training of young people at all levels and stages of education under its jurisdiction in order to make people capable of participating in the socio-economic and cultural development; - setting objectives for the development of education in the short, medium and long terms -promoting the training of highly qualified professionals that can contribute to raising the standard of science and technology of the Nation of Guinea - improving and Regularizing consistency and efficiency of the educational system through greater adaptation to changes in the world, the constraints and economic and cultural needs of the country - working towards the use of new information in technologies and communication (NTIC) in the fields of education, training, information, documentation and scientific research - setting educational goals and achieving development programs of Elementary, Secondary , Engineering, Higher and Professional Education, Scientific Research, Documentation, Literacy and Civic Education - developing and putting in place operational and efficient systems  of management of learning and educational and vocational guidance in educational institutions - defining the criteria and standards for the creation and opening of private institutions of education and training and ensuring their implementation; - organizing, monitoring and controlling and promoting private education, - proposing to the Government the allocation of resources needed to achieve the educational goals in short, medium and long terms - coordinating the organization of examinations and competitions for Educational Institutions within its purview - monitoring assessment, renovation and accreditation of educational training and research programs - monitoring and evaluating the implementation of curricula of general education, technical and vocational training, scientific and technological research, non-formal education, literacy and civic education - promoting and providing effective physical sporting and cultural education and coordinating the activities of sports and culture and training in schools and universities - organizing and invigorating school libraries and documentation centers, and scientific and technical information; - establishing a system of information and communication mechanisms and internal and External monitoring of programs and projects for the development of education - conceiving and monitoring the implementation of non-formal education programs; - conceiving, developing and ensuring the implementation of the schools and universities ID Cards and ensuring that they are correctly and regularly updated - promoting, coordinating scientific research, supporting and encouraging exchanges in the scientific, technical and technological at the national, African and international levels - conceiving, implementing, monitoring and evaluating programs for research and the fight against HIV / AIDS in the education and research sector - encouraging and strengthening Programs of Gender Fairness at all levels of education, research and training - developing, upgrading and maintaining infrastructure and school, academic and research facilities, - promoting and setting up a system of information and scientific documentation and mechanisms for internal and external communication with all actors and stakeholders in education - promoting, stimulating and coordinating scientific cooperation in technical and vocational education in matters of Education, Training and Scientific and Technological Research.

 

x. Ministry of Agriculture, Breeding, Environment and Water and Forests

 

This Ministry has the following missions: the conception, development, coordination and implementation of government policy in terms of rural development, safeguarding the environment, the rational management of natural resources and improving the quality of life in a perspective of sustainable development.
As such, it has particularly:
- To conceive and define the areas of applied research to be implemented -to sustain and accelerate the achievement of rural development - to conceive, develop and implement legislation and regulations relating to 'environment and to ensure the monitoring and control - to formulate and implement laws and regulations applicable to agricultural, veterinarians, forestry and hunting inputs and to monitor and control - to formulate, implement and monitor programs including Agricultural Engineering, in the field of hydro-agricultural, construction of rural roads and rural buildings - to conduct strategic studies and prospective studies in which the prevention and reduction of environmental hazards in terms of urbanization, supplies, transport, major infrastructures, rational use of energy resources and development of renewable energy - to conduct studies of fitness of National policy in terms of urbanization, equipment,  transportation and major infrastructure with the environmental policy of the Government - to promote the emergence of groups of producers capable of taking care of the economic functions related to rural development – to ensure food security through the development of food crops and give new impetus to export crops and agro industry - to monitor the technical side, the operation of all central departments, agencies and devolved within the department or under his tutelage in order to improve their technical performance and management - to promote livestock production and integration of animal husbandry in agricultural development policy - to maintain and improve animal health throughout national territory - to ensure the protection, development and reconstruction of forests; - to ensure the protection and rational exploitation of wildlife - to ensure the preservation, processing, marketing and use of wood and derivatives - to promote the creation of structures of credit and savings available to producers and operators of the rural areas - to ensure the integration of environmental concerns into the plans, programs and projects of socio-economic development in the country - to set up and manage mechanisms for monitoring and tracking trends of change in the condition of natural and human environment; - to provide information, awareness and educating citizens in the protection and management of the environment; - to ensure the correct application of international conventions, treaties regional and international environment which Guinea has endorsed - to promote and develop international cooperation in the field of environment - to observe, collect, process and disseminate weather data for user national and international needs - to participate and organize conferences and seminars on sector of the rural areas - to ensure compliance with the conventions and agreements relating to public programs and projects under development.

xi. Ministry of Employment, of the Public Service and Reform of the Administration

 

This Ministry has the following missions: the conception, development, testing and implementation of government policy in the areas of 'Employment, Civil Service and the Administrative Reform.
As such, it has particularly:
- To conceive, develop and implement laws and regulations in terms of employment, work, social protection, vocational training and development - to identify and monitor the implementation of the plan of Action for the promotion of employment - to monitor and control the implementation of laws and regulations on labour, social welfare and vocational training - to promote social dialogue and tripartite cooperation in the world of work - to conceive, develop and implement laws and regulations concerning the management of civilian personnel of the State and structures of Public Administration - to conceive and implement a system of monitoring and evaluation of personnel, structures and activities of public services - to conceive, develop and implement the national policy of improvement of skill of in-service civilians personnel of the state - to oversee the drafting of organic frameworks and utilities for the management of civil servants and contract staff of the state - to participate in the preparation of preliminary draft budgets in terms of annual expenditures of civilian personnel of the State in connection with the Ministry of Economy, Finance and Planning - to ensure the training and retraining of civilian personnel of the State in Administrative Sciences; - to promote applied research in Public Administration.


xii. Ministry of Communication and New Technologies of Information

 

Its missions are as follows: the Conception, development, implementation and monitoring of government policy in the areas of information, film, photography, video, advertising, postal, telecommunications and new technologies of information.

As such, it has:

- to develop and monitor the implementation of legislation and regulation in the field of information, film, video, photography, sound recording, advertising, postal and telecommunications - to promote and develop new technologies of information and of the communication - to plan, promote, coordinate and monitor the activities of public service media - to produce and broadcast programmes of information, education and entertainment for the public - to conceive and develop programs for training and development of personnel of public and private services in the field of communication and new technologies of information - to ensure the implementation of the general policy development of the public press and publishing, postal, telecommunications and new information technology - to develop and monitor the implementation of development programs and projects in the sectors of Information, Posts, telecommunications and new technologies; - permit the stationing of the broadcasting, television, Internet, coastal stations and network official - to develop the principles of management of the frequency spectrum on all the territory of the country - to plan, monitor and evaluate development programs and projects in the field of communication and new technologies of information - to ensure the implementation of agreements on bilateral and multilateral cooperation; - to approve and enforce tariff rules in the field of communication - to develop rules for managing national numbering plan - to grant concessions on a proposal from the Agency for Telecommunications and Post Regulatory ( ARPT) - to oversee the representation of the State in the operation of public networks of posts, telecommunications and new technologies of information - to ensure the technology watch - to organize and participate in all national, regional and international encounters dealing with issues of communication and new technologies of information - to promote the mobilization of the universal service fund and the digital solidarity fund.
 

xiii. Ministry of Fishing and Aquaculture

 

Its missions are the following: the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of government policy in the fields of Fisheries and Aquaculture.
As such, it has particularly:
- To conceive, develop and implement the elements of the Government's policy in the fields of fisheries and aquaculture and ensure the monitoring and control - to conceive legislations and regulations regarding fisheries and aquaculture - to conduct research to assess fishery resources to ensure the sustainability of their operations - to ensure exploitation and sustainable management of fisheries resources, the protection and preservation of biological diversity of habitats and ecosystems - to conceive coordination and implementation of development strategies for Fisheries and Aquaculture; - to develop and implement, in conjunction with the agencies concerned, the policy of monitoring, control and enforcement of fisheries - to adopt appropriate measures consistent with international standards, to uphold the right of consumers to fish with no risk - to guide and lead in collaboration with the authorities concerned, the training and development of human resources - to promote the private sector - to ensure, with the administrations concerned, the negotiation of agreements and conventions relating to fisheries and the aquaculture.

xiv  Ministry of Justice and Human Rights 


It has the following tasks: the conception, development and implementation of government policy in terms of organization and functioning of Judicial Institutions.
As such, it has particularly:
- To define the broad outlines of government policy in the field of justice and coherent training of Guinean legal system  - to conceive, develop and implement laws and regulations in civil, commercial, administrative, Criminal, and the relevant procedures and to monitor and control - to draw up rules for the organization, operation and jurisdiction of courts and correctional services - to arrange the conditions for equal access to justice and to ensure the rule of law - to make effective legal assistance - to ensure the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the assumption of the prison population - to participate in the creation of conditions guaranteeing the exercise of public and individual freedoms, as well as preventing their violation - to ensure the training and development of human resources of the Department of Justice, - to establish, implement the provision of international assistance in the field of justice - to contribute to the development of international law and to ensure its integration into the Internal Law - to ensure the implementation of International Conventions and the settlement of international disputes; - to organize and manage matters relating to the arms of the Republic and the Seal of the State - to contribute to the consolidation of the rule of law.

xv   Ministry of Industry, Commerce, Tourism and Handcrafts

 

It has the following tasks: to conceive, develop, implement and monitor government policy in the fields of Industry, Commerce, Tourism and Handicrafts.
As such, it has particularly:

- To conceive, develop and implement laws and regulations in respect of Industry, Trade, Tourism and Handicrafts and ensure their implementation; - to define the objectives to be achieved within the framework of the development program of Economic and Social Council – to define, in collaboration with stakeholders programs and projects to be implemented and the appropriate accompanying measures - to promote investments in the areas of trade, industry, small and medium enterprises , tourism and handicrafts; - to promote the export of products from Guinea and to ensure the supply of the domestic market with essential goods and strategic products by taking appropriate action - to develop and implement the Government's policy of standardization and quality of goods and services, industrial property, competition, pricing, weights and measures - to participate in the formulation and implementation of the Accords and bilateral and multilateral agreements in the fields of its competence.

xvi. Ministry of Energy and The Hydraulic

 

It has the following tasks: the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of government policy in terms of Hydraulics and Energy.

As such, it has particularly:

- To conceive, develop legislation and regulations in the areas of Water and Energy and monitoring and control – to make an inventory and evaluate Water resources and Energy, including hydrocarbons - to develop and implement the strategy for the development of water and energy resources and national monitoring and control - to promote research and the use of new technologies in the field of renewable energies - to promote oil - to conceive, evaluate and monitor the implementation of safety rules, standards of construction, transportation and distribution of hydrocarbons - to run research programs in the areas within its competence.

 

xvii  Ministry of Youth, Culture and Sports


The missions of this Ministry are: the conception, development and implementation of government policy in terms of Youth, Culture and Sports and to ensure monitoring and control.

As such, it has particularly:

- To establish an institutional and regulatory framework that promotes the development of youth, culture and sports, including the integration of young people, the promotion of youth employment and support to community life - to set up funds to support the promotion of youth employment, self-promotion and support for cultural and sports activities - to encourage the creation and promotion of associations, groups and cooperatives of youth, sports and culture - to ensure the training and development of staff, intervention and leadership in the areas of youth, culture and sports; - to expand and upgrade the cultural, sports and socio-educational infrastructure - to renovate and make it functional, former homes of the people, ex-dancing bars (seat of national orchestras), sports fields and other areas allocated to the Department in accordance with the recommendations of the national conference of Youth and Sports in 1990 - to ensure proper management of infrastructure, equipment and maintenance - to encourage the participation of cultural associations and organizations, sports and socio-educational meetings of Guinean national, Africans and internationals - to ensure the quality representation of cultural associations and organizations, socio-educational and sports of Guinea in the African and international meetings - to promote and develop cooperation of bilateral and multilateral partnership - to ensure promotion of Gender equity in youth, culture and sport activities.

xviii   Ministry of Public Works, Urban Development and Housing


The Ministry's mission is the development and implementation of government policy in the field of public works,  urban planning and housing.
In this connection it has:
In the field of public works:
- To conceive and implement strategies and plans for the development in road sector -to conceive, develop and implement and monitor programs for the construction, rehabilitation, maintenance and management of national highways and those of prefectures, city primary roads works and bridges- to organize and promote the participation of community and local associations to the construction and construction works, rehabilitation and maintenance of the road network throughout the national territory- to contribute to the promotion and development of enterprises and firms of research operating in the road sector - to promote the use of local materials and techniques adapted to local conditions in the construction and maintenance of roads.
In the field of spatial planning
  - To determine, at the national level, in collaboration with the departments and agencies concerned, the basic directions of the state with regard to the management and balance between the prospects for development, protection and enhancement of the territory - determine at the regional level in cooperation with relevant departments and organizations concerned, the basic orientation of the state's environmental and sustainable development of major infrastructures of transport, major equipment and services to regional interests- set at the communal level, in cooperation with relevant departments and organizations concerned, the general environment of spatial development as well as mapping developments with printing in a precise and imperative manner on the ground.

In the field of housing and urban development

- To develop and implement laws and regulations on urban planning, architecture and construction management of urban space and movable and Real estate on the national territory and ensure the monitoring and control- to develop and implement policies, strategies and development plans of urban, architecture and construction planning in order to develop urban and rural spaces.- ensure the delegated contractor and contracting authorities of construction operations, renovation and rehabilitation of public buildings- to build and oversee the study, work and monitoring of programs and projects of urban secondary and tertiary roads and   sanitation- to develop and implement programs and projects for more liveability of urban land, the land trust and ensure the security of land occupant - to develop and put policies in housing and real estate development to promote access to sanitation for all socio-economic categories- to conceive and promote mechanisms of housing, especially for the poorest people- to foster the emergence and promotion of private initiatives in the area of benefits, studies and monitoring, land management and property development- promoting the use of local materials and the use of construction techniques adapted to the socio-economic contexts in harmony with the environment- to assist local governments in preparing their tools for urban planning of building plots management and building permits on ensuring the implementation of the regulation of housing and urban development.

 

xix   General Secretariat of Presidency of The Republic

 

Under the authority of the President of the Republic, the General Secretariat of the Presidency of the Republic's missions are: the implementation of government policy in the areas of operation and coordination of activities of the Presidency of the Republic. It supports the Head of State in his mission of conception and orientation of the general policy of the nation, control government action and ensures the proper functioning of public authorities and the continuity of the State.

xx. General Secretariat of Government

 

Under the authority of the President of the Republic, the General Secretariat of the Government's mission is to support the Prime Minister and Head of Government in the coordination of government action.

As such, it has particularly:
- To organize, manage and monitor the governmental work and procedural laws and regulations - to control the legal form of draft laws and regulations - to ensure the physical formality of enactment and publishing legislative and regulatory texts - to ensure in his fields of competence, liaisons with the Ministerial Departments, the National Assembly, the Supreme Court and the Advisory Bodies - to centralize all acts of the Government and ensure their publication in the Official Gazette and / or report - to establish schedules for mission abroad for members of the Government and the State agents.
The Secretary General of the Government, appointed by Decree of the President of the Republic, provides leadership, coordination and monitoring of services;
The Secretary General of the Government attends the Cabinet meetings in an advisory capacity, draw up minutes and, issues an extract to Members of the Government. In conjunction with the Department of Communications, the Secretary General of the Government prepares press releases at the conclusion of Cabinet meetings.

The Secretary General of the Government is assisted by a Deputy Secretary General who acts as a replacement or substitute in the event of the absence or incapacity. The Deputy Secretary General of the Government who is appointed by Decree of the President of the Republic.

xxi. General Secretariat of Religious Affairs

 

The Secretariat General of Religious Affairs has the following missions: the conception, development and implementation of government policy with regard to religious activities.
As such, it has particularly:

- To promote religious culture - to promote the development of religious infrastructure - to invite the faithful believers to meet their obligations - to organize pilgrimages -  hold festivals and religious ceremonies - to oversee the implementation of religious rules and prevent all doctrines and religious practices with deviationist characteristics - to ensure the preservation of the purity of faith, peace and social tranquillity; - to participate in the fight against social plague and encourage the development of religious virtues - to participate in the strengthening of the moral and civic education of citizens - to organize and participate in religious meetings - to prevent and manage conflicts of a religious - to promote and streamline the activities of NGOs and religious associations.

 

As main reason of separation powers the Executive powers cannot make the law it applies. That could lead to dictatorship. Laws they deemed to apply are made by another institution. It will be the subject of the next discussion

  

II    Legislative Power

 

The legislative power is exercised in Guinea by the National Assembly, whose members are called ‘Députés.’ There are 114 members of the National Assembly of whom 76 are elected through proportional poll from parties national list. 38 are elected on majority poll system with single round in 33 Prefectures and five Communes of Conakry.

 

To be elected member of the National Assembly the Organic Law n#91/12/CTRN of December 23, 1991 relative to the Electoral Code set the following conditions: one has to be over 25 years of age, be a Guinean by birth or by naturalization for ten years and having resided in Guinea since the date of naturalization, and be presented by a regularly constituted political party.[3]

 

Are absolutely ineligible, the insane and State assisted persons. Are relatively ineligible, the Prefects, sub-prefects and their deputies, General Secretaries of Prefectures, treasurers, judges exercising in the constituency where they are in function for at least one year. The incompatibility concerns also members of the Economic and Social Councils and State functionaries while exercising their functions.

 

This institution has its own organization  by which it functions.

 

A    Organization of the National Assembly

 

The internal structuring of the National Assembly is provided by its Internal Regulation Act. It determines the structure of that Institution as follows:

 

1   Bureau of the National Assembly

This organ is composed of eleven members: the President of the Assembly (Speaker of the Assembly); four Vice-Presidents; four Secretaries and two Quaestors.

 

The President is elected for the tenure of the legislature through a uninominal poll. The other members are elected for one year through the list poll for every function. They can be re-elected. Among the prominent functions of the President of the Assembly are:

i   He leads the parliamentary debates;

ii  He is consulted by the President of the Republic before dissolving the National Assembly[4];   

iii He is consulted by the President of the Republic before submitting any bill to people for referendum[5]

iv He replaces the President of the Republic in case of absence.[6]

 

President of the National is substituted by one of the Vice-Presidents through the same procedure and with the same capacity in case of absence.

 

The Secretaries supervise the establishment of the Minutes

 

The Quaestors are in charge of the internal administration of the National Assembly, they exercise financial functions.

 

2   The conference of the Presidents

According to article 58 of the internal Regulation Act the conference of the Presidents is composed of the President and the Vice-Presidents of the National Assembly, the presidents of parliamentary groups, the Presidents of parliamentary commissions and the General Rapporteur of the Commission of Financial and Economic Affairs.[7]

 

The Conference of the presidents makes the agendas for the sessions, which is submitted to the approval of the Bureau of the National Assembly that can amend it if necessary.

 

The National Assembly is also composed of different commissions in charge of analyzing the bills according to their specialties before submitting them for plenary discussions.

 

3    Parliamentary Commissions

Article 4 of Fundamental Law provides for the creation of permanent parliamentary commission and special provisional commissions.

 

i   Permanent Commissions

Before every session (legislative or budgetary session) the National Assembly put in place general commissions to analyze matters submitted to it. They are permanent commission. They are 12 in number:

- Commission of economical and financial affairs;

- Commission of Foreign affairs, planning and cooperation;

- Commission of laws, internal regulations, general administration and justice;

- Commission of defence and security; 

- Commission of industry and commerce;

- Commission of mines, handcraft and tourism;

- Commission of local administration and transports;

- Commission of civil service and employment;

- Commission of education, health and social affairs;

- Commission of information and communication;

- Commission of accountability and control; and

- Commission of delegation.

 

Other commissions are created to examine a particular bill.[8]

 

ii   Special Commissions

These commissions are temporally competent up to the final decision related to the subject. The resolution creating special commission also determines the methods of selecting its members. An example of special commission is the commission of enquiry.

 

The last organ of the National Assembly is the Parliamentary Groups as discussed below. 

 

4   Parliamentary Groups

There are conditions for the creation of a parliamentary group:

- the group must provide a plan of action serving as program as well as indicating its name and composition;

- the parliamentary group cannot defend particular interests and one person cannot belong to more than one group.

 

The presidents of parliamentary groups are, by rights, members of the Conference of presidents and can be replaced by other members in case of absence.

 

The respect of this organization of National Assembly as discussed above gives ways for its proper functioning.

 

B      Procedures of electing Members of National Assembly

 

The question relating to the mechanism of electing Members of Parliaments has been answered by the Fundamental Law through both article 2 paragraph 2 and 47 paragraph 1 and article 1 of the Electoral Code. These provisions state that the suffrage is universal, secret and direct. Every citizen responding to the criteria set by the Electoral Code is an elector.[9]

As mentioned above one third of the MPs are elected through uninominal (single-seat) of single round polling system, the two third are elected on the party national list (proportional polling).[10]

 

1   Uninominal with single round poll

Here, electors vote for only one candidate of their choice because a ballot cannot carry more than one name. The candidate winning the majority (be it simple majority or absolute majority) of voters is elected.

 

2   Proportional representation of national list poll

The 2/3 (78) of MPs are elected through this mechanism. Every political party presents a list of candidates equalling the number of the seats to be filled. The voters vote for the list of their political parties. The parties will be represented according to the percentage of votes they won during the election.

 

To determine the number of MPs won by party, they calculate the electoral quotient, which is equal to the number of votes expressed, divided by the number of seats provided. If after the operation there are remainder of votes non-ascribed, there are two methods of allocating that rest to parties: the method of the ‘largest remainder and the method of ‘largest average.’ Guinea, considering the second method more complicated, opted for the first one, the method of the ‘largest remainder.’ Here, after the operation of division, the party, which obtained ‘the remainder’ closer to the electoral quotient (the number of vote equivalent to a seat), will receive the seat.

 

The present proportion of Members of Parliament by political parties is exposed in the table below:

 

Parties

Number

 of

seats

            %

       %

     %

 

 

Uninominal

Proportional.

Total

Uninominal

Proportional

Total

PUP

RPG

UNR

PRP

UPG

PDG/RDA

PDG/DST

DJAMA

UNP

30

4

2

2

0

0

0

0

0

41

15

7

7

2

1

1

1

1

71

19

  9

  9

  2

  1

  1

  1

  1

78.94

10.52

5.26

5.26

     0

     0

     0

     0

     0

53.94

19.73

  9.21

  9.21

  1.31

  1.31

  1.31

  1.31

  1.31

62.28

16.66

  7.89

  7.89

  1.75

  0.87

  0.87

  0.87

  0.87

 

Members of the National Assembly are protected by two sorts of immunity: while exercising their duties, they are protected by the immunity known as the parliamentary irresponsibility; and when they are exercising their functions, they are protected by the parliamentary inviolability. However, this immunity can be lifted by the National Assembly when necessary, after respecting certain conditions.[11] 

 

Like the Executive power, the Legislative power has its attributions.

 

C    Prerogative of the National Assembly 

 

The National Assembly passes ordinary laws as well as the annual budget of the government. It controls the Executive power in its management of public funds and other State affairs; 1/10 of its Members have the rights to refer to the Supreme Court for the control of constitutionality of government actions. It passes regulations, notably its internal rules such as the Internal Regulations Act n# C/91/15/CTRN of December 23, 1996 and the Organic Laws.

 

The missions of the National Assembly are fulfilled due to its organization and functioning that will be the subject of the next discussion.

 

D    Functioning of the National Assembly

 

For an in-depth analysis of this aspect, it is necessary to discuss successively the agenda of the session, the debates and the system of voting.

 

1    Agenda of session

The National Assembly establishes its own agenda as such it has authority over it barring the fact that the President of the Republic has the right to be heeded to whenever he requests for it.[12] Article 58 of the Internal Regulation Act stipulates that no amendment of the agenda can be made except by the National Assembly itself.

 

According to paragraph 2 of the article 71 of the Fundamental Law, the President of the Republic can request, by right, to list a bill or a declaration as priority at the beginning of the session. When he, thus, requests to list a bill as priority on the agenda, the government plays the leading role in the procedure of discussion of the said bill.

 

Even during the session, an urgent discussion on a matter can be requested either by a number of Members of Parliament equal at least to 1/10 of the members or by the President of the Republic.

 

2    Debates

For article 59 of Internal Regulation Act, the methods of general discussion of bills submitted to the National Assembly can be proposed by the Conference of the Presidents. The sessions are generally open even though the National Assembly can decide to hold sessions behind closed door.[13]It is the President of the Assembly that presides the debates. Cabinet Ministers sometimes assisted by members of the cabinet of their choice can take part in the debate.[14]

 

All these procedures are known as the legislative procedures that will be discussed below.

 

E    Legislative procedures

 

There are two types of legislative procedures: ordinary procedure and special procedure.

 

a    Ordinary legislative procedure

This procedure concerns the elaboration of laws the domain of which is determined by article 59 of the Fundamental Law.  It is composed of steps:

 

1   Initiative of law

The initiative of law belongs concurrently to the President of the Republic and the MPs. When an initiative is taken by the President of the Republic, it is referred to as ‘project of law’ (projet de loi); and when it is initiated by the MPs, it is referred to as ‘proposal of law’ (proposition de loi). Be it project or proposal of law, the bill is submitted to the National Assembly for discussion and eventual adoption through the methods discussed (see 3 below).

 

2   Amendment of law

According to article 69 of the Fundamental Law, it is possible for either the President of the Republic and MPs to solicited an amendment to a law in discussion. The amendment or the counter bill can be brought in before the National Assembly either:

- Before the discussion, in this case it is submitted to the relevant Commission for scrutiny, or

- During the plenary session. In this case it is deposited on the desk of the President of the Assembly who communicates to the other MPs. The Assembly may decide whether to pass immediately to the discussion of the text or refer it to the relevant Commissions. 

 

After settling all the preliminary issues, Members of the Assembly pass to the discussion of the bill, article by article for voting.

 

3   Voting methods

 The Internal Ruling Act provides for four voting modalities, which are as follows:

i   Showing hands: it is the simplest and the most used form of voting.

ii   Voting by sitting and standing: it is the technique used after the results of showing hands were declared doubtful.

iii  The public poll: when the doubt persists on the outcome of the previous methods, the Members of Parliament use ballot box. Three normative ballot papers of different colors (green, yellow and red) are given to each of them. They put the ballot paper of their choice bearing their names in the box brought to them: Green for ‘Yes’; Red for ‘No’ and Yellow for ‘abstention’.

iv   Secret poll: this time the ballot papers do not carry the name of the MPs. 

 

4   Promulgation of law

When the bill is passed by the National Assembly, is transmitted without delay to the President of the Republic for promulgation. The promulgation is the assertion by the Executive that it recognizes the said law and can consequently apply it, for it enters into force.

 

The President of the Republic has ten days to do that. The deadline starts running from the eighth day after the transmission of the law. If he does not, subject to article 63 and 64 of the Fundamental Law, the new law enters into force. 

 

To this ordinary procedure can be added a special procedure as discussed below.

 

b   Special procedure

It mainly concerns constitutional laws and organic laws.

 

1 Constitutional laws

 Referred to as constitutional laws those laws that amend, abrogate or complete the provision of the Constitution. According to article 91 of the Fundamental Law, the initiative of constitutional review can be taken concurrently by both the President of the Republic or the MPs.

 

The proposed review once adopted by the National Assembly cannot immediately enter into force unless approved by the people of Guinea through referendum. However, the proposed review initiated by the President of the Republic may not be submitted for referendum if the President of the Republic so requests and approved by 2/3 of the MPs. It is the same for the proposed review initiated by the MPs and that has acquired the approval of the President of the Republic.

 

There can be no procedure of review when the country is totally of partially under foreign occupation, during state of emergency or state of siege. Moreover, the secular nature, the republican form of the State as well as the separation of powers cannot be subject to any constitutional review.

 

Falling under the same category of procedure are the organic laws. 

 

2   Organic Law

The organic laws are provided for by the Fundamental Law for special matters. According to its article 67, organic laws cannot be amended but by the 2/3 majority of the MPs present. They can neither be promulgated before the Supreme Court to which they are necessarily submitted, has declared them to be conform to the Fundamental Law.

 

There is a third and last special procedure; it concerns the National Budget.

 

3   National Budget Act

The law allowing the realization of the National Budget is voted by the National Assembly. The conditions concerning the national budget are provided by the article 61 of the organic law of the Internal Regulation Act, article 68 of the Fundamental Law for the initiative of the budget and article 69 for its amendment. 

 

However, the government has several means at its disposal to withstand the amendment of its proposed budget. For instance article 69 of the Fundamental Law declares non-receivable any proposition of amendment that reduces public revenue or worsens public expenditure.

 

Article 65 of the Internal Regulation Act allows the government to set aside any untimely parliamentary initiative of amendment of the proposed budget. Which means that the government can oppose to any discussion of parliamentary amendment and initiative that was not submitted to the relevant Commission prior to the plenary discussion.

 

Every aspect of the elaboration of the Budget is performed within a time limit

.

i    Deadline

The discussion of the bill obeys strictly to determined timetable. In principle, the bill must be filed to the Bureau of the National Assembly and distributed to MPs on the day of the first Tuesday of October of the year that precedes the year of the realization of the budget. Those documents are in the blue color.[15] The National Assembly must vote the budget within sixty days after the reception of the bill.

 

The bill is first discussed in specialized commissions, as mentioned before, established at the beginning of the session. The Commission of Finance, which takes part in every meeting with Ministers, examines aspect related to expenditure and then the one related to resources before submitting it to the plenary session for voting.

If after sixty days the budget is not voted, it enters into force by Presidential decree taking into account the amendment suggested by the National Assembly and accepted by the President of the Republic.[16]     

 

ii   Voting the Budget

There are certain weaknesses in the law governing the procedure of voting the Budget: nothing indicates which part of the Budget should be discussed in the first place (resources or expenditure?); there is no possibility for the President of the Republic to order the National Assembly to vote the entire Budget at once (in bloc.)

  

The ceremony of voting starts by an introductive speech of the President of Commission of Finance immediately followed by the general report. The following authorities are required to be present through out the session: the Minister of Economy and Finance, the President of the Commission of Finance, ad hoc General Rapporteur. The other Ministers are not obliged to be president everyday, but they must be present whenever their particular departments are concerned.

 

The Debate starts by the general discussion about the exposé of the general report. Every speaker expresses his observation and critics. After the discussion the National Assembly passes to vote. Here, the modality of voting varies according as they are about the resource or the expenditure.

 

For the resource, the voting is by Chapter for the General Budget; by Annex Budget for Annex Budgets and by categories of special account of treasure for special accounts of treasure. For the expenditure the voting is a unique vote for voted expenditure of the previous year (Services votés), and by Chapter for the new authorization (new expenditure) likewise for the Annexes and special accounts of treasure.

 

c   Legislation voted by the Guinean National Assembly     

 

-Legislations voted or amended by the Guinean lawmakers are numerous. The most prominent are the following:

-Loi L 95/023/CTRN du 12 janvier 1995, Code de la Marine Marchande de Guinee (Law L 95/CTRN of January 12, 1995, creating the Merchant Marin Code of Guinea ) published in the Official Gazette of June 25 1995;

-Loi 98/034/CTRN du 31 Decembre 1998 portant Code Civil de Guinee (Law 98/034/CTRN of December 31 1998 creating the Civil Code of Guinea) published in the Official Gazette of January 10,1999

-Loi 98/035/CTRN du 31 Décembre 1998 portant Code de Procédure Civile de Guinee (Law 98/035/CTRN creating the Code of Civil Procedings of Guinea) published in the Official Gazette of January 10,1999

-Loi 98/036/CTRN du 31 Decembre 1998 portant Code Penal de Guinee (Law 98/036/CTRN of December 31, 1998 establishing the Penal Code of Guinea) published in the Official Gazette of January 10,1999;

-Loi 98/037/CTRN du 31 Decembre 1998 portant Code de Procedure Penale de Guinee (Law 98/037/CTRN creating the Code of Penal Proceedings of Guinea published in the Official Gazette of January 10, 1999)

-Ordonnance 003/PRG/SGG/88 du 28 janvier 1998 portant sur le Code de Travail (Ordinance 003/PRG/SGG/88 of January 28, 1998 creating the Code of Labor) published in the Official Gazette of February 10, 1988.

 

To control the correctness of application  made by the Executive Power of laws passed by the Legislative Power , another is institution is created by the people of Guinea at the image of other nations where rule of law is the principle.

 

III     Judicial Power

 

According to article 80 of the Fundamental Law, the Judicial Power is exclusively exercised by the courts. Because of their differences, they will be discussed separately.

 

A   Supreme Court of Guinea

 

The Supreme Court is placed at the top of the hierarchy of the Guinean courts. It has been known by various names: Superior Tribunal of Cassation from 1959 to 1983, Supreme Court in 1984 and 85, National Chamber of Annulment in 1986 to 1990, and Supreme Court since then.

 

The role of the Supreme Court is to ensure the uniformity in the interpretation of Guinean legislations. It sits on the judgments pronounced by other courts. It is, therefore, not concerned with the acts that constitute the source of the dispute before it, but the issue of interpretation given to the law raised by the parties to the suit.  Its mission is to ensure that the law is properly interpreted by the lower courts. It is not a third degree court. Its mission is to see whether the law was properly applied to the case or not.

 

The establishment, attributions, organization and functioning of the Supreme Court are provided by the Law n#008. It incarnates the third branch of Government, the judiciary in Guinea. All these can be illustrated through examining its organization and jurisdictions.

 

At the personnel level, the Supreme Court is composed of a First President appointed by the President of the Republic, after consultation with the President of the National Assembly; two Presidents of Chambers, at least two Councillors, one Solicitor General, the First Deputy Solicitor General and other Deputies, at least ten Auditors of Justice and Rreferendary Judges whose number is determined as per the prevailing circumstances.

 

Members of the Supreme Court are appointed by Presidential Decree. They retire after attaining 65 years. Like any other legal professional, members of the Supreme Court are not allowed to hold any other position which would be incompatible with his functions, such as being a member of the Executive, the National Assembly, be a Trial Lawyer or private professional.

 

Members of the Supreme Court enjoy the security of tenure in office meaning that they cannot be removed at will. They can only be prosecuted before the civil, criminal and commercial Chambers of the same court following an authorization and upon the instructions of the General Assembly.

 

At the structural level, the Supreme Court is composed of three Chambers, namely:

 

1      Constitutional and Administrative Chamber

 This Chamber is composed of one President who is in fact the First President of the Supreme Court, at least four Councillors, the Solicitor General and his Deputies. It gives rulings on, among others, the constitutionality of law and international accords, matters relating to Presidential and legislative elections including the question of their regularities, executive excesses, conflicts of jurisdiction between the Executive and the Legislative powers.

 

2     Civil, Penal, Commercial and Social Chamber

This Chamber is composed as the same manner as the Constitutional Chamber except that its President is not the First President of the Supreme Court. It gives rulings on appeals for annulment launched against the decisions of other courts pronounced in last resort in civil, penal, commercial and social matters, the transfers of matters from one court to another, the prosecution of a judge, (prise à partie), and conflicts of jurisdiction between different courts.

 

3    Chamber of Accounts

This Chamber is composed of a President of Chamber, two Councillors, Referendary Judges whose number is determined by the Ordinance of the First President of the Supreme Court on request of the President of the Chamber and Solicitor General with his Deputies. It gives rulings on reckonings of public accountants, the management of funds and the accounting of every institutions receiving stating funding.                   

 

Even though the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court is relatively poor on constitutional matters, some decisions worth mentioning: the decision 93/004/CS/CCA of October 28, 1993 concerning the challenge to the candidacy of General Lansana Conte (the actual President) to the Presidential election of October 5, 1993 launched by M. Bah Mamadou, Presidential candidate of Republican National Union (UNR). Published in the Official Gazette of Novenber 10, 1993.

Decision 002/CS/CCA of July 25, 1996 concerning the challenge to the Organic relating to the protection and benefits of the former Presidents launched by M. Bah Mamadou, leader of UNR, published in the Official Gazette of August 10, 1996.

However, it is relatively rich in civil and criminal matters which can read in the Bulletin de la Justice Guinéenne’ (Bulletin of Guinean Justice) ‘Recueil des Decisions des Courts et Tribunaux avec Commentaires’ (Compedium of Decisions of courts with Comments)

 

This judicial system is marked by the existence of various categories of courts: ordinary courts, the special courts and administrative organs of judicial characteristics.

 

B   Ordinary courts

 

These courts have a general jurisdiction, meaning that their jurisdiction covers all matters except those excluded by special laws and conferred to other courts. They comply with the double-degree principle.

 

1    Courts of first instance

 

They are courts of first instance; this means that they are courts before which cases are brought in the first place. Their jurisdictions are determined according to the monetary values of the interest of the case before them. They are:

 

i      Justice of the Peace

 

The reform of 1986[17] laid the ground for the legislator to create a Justice of the Peace in every prefecture of the country. And the law n#021,[18] like the precedent, stipulated that the jurisdiction of a Justice of the Peace covers the Prefecture in which it is established and retained 26 Justices of the Peace in the country.

 

Article 61 of law n# 021 provides that Justice of the Peace is headed by a President, who is a ‘unique judge.[19]That judge assumes at the same time the functions of Judge, the Prosecutor and Examining Magistrate. There can also be one or several surrogate judges or Examining Magistrates appointed in a Justice of the Peace.

 

The jurisdiction of the Justice of the Peace is the main difference between it and other courts. Subject to particular legislative provisions or rules, Justice of the Peace is competent in all matters except those involving the Administration.[20]Therefore, it has jurisdiction in both civil and penal cases.

 

- Jurisdiction in civil and commercial matters

According to Article 63 of law n# 021, Justice of the Peace deals with every civil matter and commercial matters in first resort (with possibility of appeal) the value of which does not exceed fifty thousand (50,000) Guinean francs. However, according to the same provision, this amount can be amended by Presidential Decree taken on proposal of the Minister of Justice.

 

Moreover, in addition to the procedures of injunction to pay and to do, provided by the code of civil proceedings, the jurisdiction of the Justice of the Peace extends, in first resort, to all action-at-law related to the capacity of individuals. Its jurisdiction also covers all requests of payment, review and suppression of alimony.

 

These jurisdictions of Justices of the Peace in civil and commercial matters go along with other jurisdictions, as it will be observed:

 

- Jurisdictions of Justice of the Peace in penal cases

Here the Justice of the Peace has double jurisdictions in minor offences called contraventions and misdemeanours.[21]

 

The Justice of the Peace deals with offences considered as contraventions.[22]These offences are punished by an imprisonment for one to fifteen days, and a fine from ten to fifty thousand Guinean francs with possibility of seizing objects related to the reprehensible act.[23]

 

However, Justice of the Peace is allowed to take cognizance of civil suit conjunctive to the prosecution engaged to punish offences, which fall within its jurisdiction whatever may be the values of the request.

 

There is another category of offence within the jurisdiction of Justice of the Peace, which is relatively more important. It is the offences referred to as misdemeanours. They are offences of breach of law punishable by maximal imprisonment of five years. These offences are normally conferred to the jurisdiction of the Tribunals of First Instance called in penal matters, Tribunals of Misdemeanour (tribunal correctionnel), court to be looked at ulteriorly.

 

However, acting as a court of exception, the legislature removed some misdemeanours from the jurisdiction of the Tribunal First Instance to be conferred to Justice of the Peace. Subject to the provisions of the Code of penal proceedings, Justice of the Peace deals with offences committed by minors within the limits of its territorial jurisdiction.[24]

   

As it will be analyzed later, the decisions of first resort of Justice of the Peace are brought in appeal before the Court of Appeal.[25]

 

The Justice of the Peace is not the only court of the first degree, its jurisdiction, as observed before, is limited, ground for the existence of other jurisdiction of first degree for matters out of its reach.

 

ii   Tribunals of First Instance

 

The law n#021 after all the abovementioned amendments retained ten Tribunals of First Instance on the national territory of Guinea.[26]These courts have their seats in Boke, Kindia, Mamou, Labe, Kankan, Faranah, N’Zerekore and three in the special zone of Conakry.[27]

The special zone of Conakry was introduced in the legal organization by article 40 Paragraph 1 of the Presidential Decree n#031. This specialty can be perceived in the organization of Tribunals of First Instance.

 

For its structure, according to article 39 of the Law n#021, the Tribunal of First Instance is divided into two sections:  Civil and Administrative Section, and the Penal Section.

By derogation to this article, according to the abovementioned Presidential Decree, the three Tribunals of the special zone of Conakry have three sections: Commercial Section, Civil and Administrative Section, and Penal Section.[28]

 

Each section deals with matters falling within its territorial jurisdiction. The President of the Tribunal is responsible for its proper functioning.[29] 

 

The derogation to article 39, as mentioned before, concerns only the jurisdiction of the Tribunals of the special zone of Conakry; it does not make any fundamental distinction regarding the composition of the tribunals.

 

With regard to their compositions, the Tribunal of First Instance is headed by a unique Judge.[30]However, the principle of collegiality applies in social cases (labor matters). This composition is as follows:[31]one President, one or several magistrates, one or several Examining Magistrates, and for the special zone of Conakry, one senior magistrate of Preliminary Examination.

 

The duty of the Examining Magistrate is to inform the accused of either the retention of charge against him or his acquittal.

 

The other members of the court are a Chief Clerk assisted by one or several Clerks, the Prosecutor Office is represented by a Public Prosecutor and one or several Deputy Public Prosecutors.

 

In view of the importance of the Public Prosecutor, his duties are herein below examined.

i   Public Prosecutor assigns magistrates of his office to different sections of the tribunal at the beginning of the year.[32]

ii   He may review this assignment during the year, and if necessary, exercise by himself their duties,

iii   He is in charge of financial and logistic management of the tribunal. In that regard he concerts with the President of the tribunal who is cosignatory of all acts of management.[33]

iv   He controls the execution of sentences within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal; supervises the work of the police officers of the Criminal Investigation Department, as well as the establishment of the police records.[34]

v   He pays periodic visit to police station in order to avoid unduly prolongation of preventive detention and custody.[35]

vi   The President and the Public Prosecutor of the tribunal carry out inspections in Justices of the Peaces in their jurisdiction. They (according to their respective responsibilities) ensure the proper administration of the judicial services and normal regulation of cases. They report on their observations, respectively, to the first President of the Court of Appeal, and the Solicitor General,  Procureur General.[36]

vii   In case of absence or prevention, the Public Prosecutor is replaced by the senior Deputy Public Prosecutor according to the Act of appointment.[37]

 

These elements entering in the composition of the Tribunal of First Instance are engaged complementarily or in interaction for its proper functioning.

 

In their functioning the Tribunals of First Instance have three kinds of sittings: the ordinary sitting, which is to make usual decisions within their jurisdictions[38], the itinerant sittings taking place outside the seat of the Tribunal. However, it cannot be held outside the jurisdiction of the Tribunal. And the last type of sitting is the solemnly sitting, which takes place at the beginning of every judicial reopening.  It gathers all the magistrates of the Tribunal.

It is worthy to notice that these sittings deal only with matters falling within the jurisdiction of the tribunals.

 

For its jurisdiction, being an ordinary court, the Tribunal of First Instance has a general jurisdiction with regard to every individual and every matter to the exception of those expressly attributed to the jurisdiction of another court.[39] As such, it is competent:

i    In first resort on administrative conflicts subject to the provisions of article 102 of the law L/91/008/CTRN of December 23, 1991(hereafter the law n#008) aiming at the jurisdiction, organization and functioning of the Supreme Court.[40]

ii    It has an exclusive jurisdiction in matters determined by the Code of Civil Proceedure.[41]

iii   It is also competent in other matters conferred to it by special Acts.

 

A Tribunal for children has been established near every Tribunal of First Instance, to the exception of the special zone of Conakry, which harbors only one for all the three Tribunals. It deals with conflicts related children within their territorial jurisdiction.[42] Paragraph 1 of the same article 102 creates a Tribunal of Labor for the special zone of Conakry.

 

The Civil and Administrative Section is equally competent in social and commercial matters.

The Penal Section is to determine misdemeanours and contraventions committed by persons having reached their age of majority. The President of the Tribunal, who is responsible for its proper functioning, settles the conflicts of jurisdictions between the Sections.[43]  

 

Both the Justices of the Peace and Tribunals of First Instance are courts of the first degree. According to the principle of double degree of courts, a decision pronounced by those courts can be taken in appeal to another court hierarchically superior. That is the court of the second degree.

 

2   Second instance court

 

In Guinea, the Court of Appeal is the only court of second degree. The law n#021, which organized it, created two Courts of Appeal in the country: one in Conakry, and the other in Kankan.[44]Each of them has an attributive jurisdiction and a territorial jurisdiction covering two natural regions:[45]the Court of Appeal of Conakry covers Lower Guinea and Middle Guinea. Thus, it has under its command seven Tribunals of First Instance: Kaloum, Mafanco, Dixinn, Kindia, Boke, Mamou and Labe, with fourteen Justices of the Peaces.[46]And the Court of Appeal of Kankan covers the Forest Region and Upper Guinea. It has three Tribunals of First Instance: Kankan, N’zerekore and Faranah, with twelve Justices of the Peaces.[47]      

 As it will be observed, their structure is different from that of Tribunals of First Instance.

 

For its Composition and structure, according to article 13 of the law n#014, each Court of Appeal is divided into three chambers: the Chamber of Accusation also called the First Chamber; the Civil, Commercial, Administrative and Social Chamber; and the Chamber for Misdemeanour.

 

By derogation to this article, article 14 of the same law n#021, provided for at least five Chambers for the special zone of Conakry with the existence of two separate Commercial Chambers.

 

Article 20 of the law n# 021 organized the Court of Appeal as follows: the President (the first President), the Presidents of Chambers, the Councillors to the Court, the Chief Clerk assisted by several Clerks, the Prosecutor Office is represented by Solicitor General the First Deputy Solicitor General, and other Deputy Solicitor Generals.

 

As provided by Article 29 paragraphs 1 to 5 of the Presidential Decree n#031, the functions of Solicitor General are the same as those of Public Prosecutor.

 

Likewise the composition, the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal is different from those of the courts of the first degree.

 

With regard to its Jurisdiction, according to article 8 of the law n#014, the Court of Appeal deals with:

i   Civil, economic and social matters as well as the decisions on misdemeanour pronounced in first resort by Justices of the Peace and Tribunals of First Instance brought before it in appeal. It can also take cognizance of decisions pronounced by professional disciplinary organs or arbitrator’s awards according to the law or the will of the parties.

ii  Matter transferred to it by Supreme Court, after annulment.[48]

 

The Court of Appeal is Judge of exequatur of legal decisions pronounced abroad. The First President is Judge of exequatur of arbitrator’s awards.[49] 

 

In order to carry out its different functions, the law n#021 provides that the Court of Appeal has three kinds of sittings: Ordinary Sitting, Solemn Sitting and General Assembly.

The Ordinary Sitting is the Sitting of judgement. It gives ruling on appeal lodged on decisions of courts under its territorial jurisdiction, and on transferred cases after annulment. Here the Court is composed of three persons: the President, the Clerk and the representative of the Prosecutor’s Office.

 

In case of prevention of the President of a Chamber, he is replaced on request of the First President, by another President of Chamber of the same court, or by the senior Councillor of the Chamber.[50]The law n#021 continues by stipulating that in case of prevention of a Councillor, he is replaced by another Councillor of the same Chamber, or on request of the First President, by another Councillor of another Chamber.

 

During the Solemn Sitting the Court is composed at least of five members including the First President or his representative, the Solicitor General or his representative. It takes place in the First Chamber, all the Judges wearing red robes. It gathers for the followings occasions: case of taking issue with a judge, the swearing in of Judges, and the installation of members of the Court.[51]The Court has no jurisdiction to rule in Ordinary Sitting over matters that should be dealt with in Solemn Sitting.

 

The Court of Appeal gathers for General Assembly for special purposes. It is called at the request of the First President of the Court.[52]It is responsible for various measures: establishing and amending the internal rules of the Court of Appeal and Chambers, ruling in appeal on decision pronounced by Council of the Bar Association and those of other auxiliaries of justice under its jurisdiction, as well as litigations on elections of different members of those Councils.

 

The responsibility of the First Presidents is quite preponderating in the Courts. Article 25 of the law n# 021 provides that the First Presidents are the organizers of the Courts, and as such they:

- Confer matters to Chambers and control the general role, appoint at the Sittings of the Presidents of Chamber or Councillors. They are the chiefs of the courts instead of the Solicitor General as it was the case during the first regime of popular courts. In this regard, they represent the court; invite the Presidents of Chambers and Councillors to public ceremonies. Like the Solicitor General, they have considerable administrative attributions in the evaluation and promotion of sitting judges of their Court, whereas, the standing judges are under the command of the Solicitor General.

- They settle conflicts of jurisdiction between the Chambers. They make, in agreement with the Minister of Justice, the judicial schedule of the Court. They hold hearings of summary procedures. They can preside over any Chamber if they feel necessary. [53]When the President of a Court presides over a Chamber, the President of that Chamber sits as the First Councillor.[54]In case of prevention, the First President is substituted by the senior President of Chamber, or Senior Councillor according to the Act of appointment.

 

All the ordinary courts have a common characteristic, their permanence. However, there is one that makes exception to this rule, the Court of Assizes. It is the Court of the ordinary law in cases of crime. Is defined as crime by the Guinean Penal Code an offence punished by infamatory or defamatory sanctions.[55]There are two Courts of Assizes in Guinea: one located in Conakry and the other in Kankan: that means that their jurisdiction regularly covers that of the Courts of Appeal of those Cities. They do not sit permanently, in principle they hold their sitting once a year. However, due to circumstances and necessity of public order, they can sit more once, and out of their usual seats by the decision of the Minster of Justice.

 

The non-permanent nature of the Court is sustained by its composition. This Court is a collegial institution (decisions are taken by all the judges) and is composed of professional judges and a jury constituted by ordinary citizens. It is headed by a President designated by the First President of the Court of Appeal for every session among the Presidents of Chambers or Councillors of the same Court. The President of the Court of Appeal can exercise this function himself if necessary. The President is assisted by two assessors who must either be Judges of the Court of Appeal or magistrate of Tribunals of First Instances.

 

The jury is composed of four members called jurés, the jurors:[56] They are appointed by Presidential Decree at the beginning of the year from a list of prominent personalities among the citizens.

 

The Solicitor General is from the Court of Appeal, and the secretariat is assumed either by the Chief Clerk or any other Clerk of the same Court.

 

Since the court does not sit regularly, its jurisdiction is specific. As mentioned before, the Court of Assizes, in substantive issues, is competent in crime related cases transferred to it by the Chamber of Accusation of the Court of Appeal. It concerns itself mainly with crimes of ordinary law committed by people having reached their age of majority.[57]Consequently, a person aged less than 13 years cannot be punished since such person is presumed by law to lack the capacity to commit criminal offences. The person only risks measures of protection, assistance and surveillance.

 

This jurisdiction is considerably extended under the principle of plenitude of jurisdictions according to which it cannot declare itself incompetent for any case referred to it by the Chamber of Accusation.[58] The Court of Assizes is thus competent to pronounce on cases qualified as misdemeanour or contravention when they are connected or indissociable with a crime or when it concerns an offence occurring during the hearing. This may sometimes arise from an error of qualification by the Chamber of Accusation.

 

Similarly the court can take cognizance of cases concerning minors over 13 years of age prosecuted for committing a crime. However, in such case, its composition changes to include the President of the Tribunal for Children or a magistrate for Children replacing one of the Councillors. The decisions of the Court of Assizes are liable of challenge before the Supreme Court.

 

The territorial jurisdiction of the Court of Assizes is triple: it can be where the crime has been committed, where the suspected criminal resides or where he as been arrested.

All of the abovementioned institutions are meant to determine all cases within their substantive jurisdiction and concerning every individual within their territorial sphere. However, the Guinean system has also other categories of courts that are in many regards different from each other.

 

C     The courts of exception

 

These courts have specialized jurisdictions either with regard to the subject matter or the quality of the individuals concerned. They are different from ordinary courts. Each of these courts is discussed in foregoing parts of this discourse.

 

1   Courts for minors

 

These are courts charged with the responsibility of determining matters relating to minors (people under 18 years of age at the moment when the offence was), especially in which they are offenders. These courts form a category of courts of exception. Therefore their jurisdiction is confined within the limit of legislations that need to be strictly interpreted. They are the Tribunals for Children, the Court of Assizes for Children and Magistrate for Children.

 

The Magistrate for Children can (that is, in fact, the case very often) first investigates the offence committed by the minor through what is known as preliminary examination. He can also perform the function of judge by constituting alone the whole court.

 

After this brief examination of court for minors, we will look at other more complex institutions of exception.

 

2   High Court of Justice

 

This court has been established by the Organic Law L/91/009 of December 1991, which provides for its attribution, organization as well as its functioning.

With regard to its organization, the High Court is composed of a President who is a judge of judicial category elected by the General Assembly of the Supreme Court; a Substitute of the President; six fulltime judges and three surrogate judges elected among members of the National Assembly and sworn in by it.

 

The functions of Public Prosecutor are carried out by the Solicitor General of the Supreme Court assisted by the Deputy Solicitor General. The Chief Clerk of the Supreme Court is the Clerk of the High Court of Justice.

 

Closely related to the High Court is established a Commission of Preliminary Examination composed of three fulltime members and three substitutes members. They are chosen among the sitting judges of the Court of Appeal by the General Assembly of the same, excluding the standing judges, at the end of the judicial year, which begins, with the ordinary year for a period of one year. The President of the Commission is chosen the same way from the fulltime judges.

 

With regard to its jurisdiction, the High Court deals with cases against the President of the Republic for high treason’; similarly, the court deals with cases against Cabinet Ministers for offences defined as crime and misdemeanour committed in exercise of their functions.

However, The co-authors and accomplices of the Cabinet Ministers are brought before ordinary courts. These courts stay the execution of their decision for the decision of the High Court of Justice.

 

The decisions of the High Court are not liable to appeal before the Court of Appeal or the Supreme Court.

 

If the High Court of the Justice is not a permanent court of exception and its jurisdiction being linked to the quality of the persons suspected of committing the offence, there is another court of exception with permanent characteristic.

 

3    Court of State Security

 

It is the nature of the offence that determines the jurisdiction of this court. It was created by the Ordinance n# 152/PRG/85 of August 10, 1985. It is a permanent court of exception.

 

Regarding its organization, the Court of State Security is composed of a President who is a judge of the Supreme Court, two professional judges and two high officers of the army. The Prosecutor is assisted by two Deputies chosen among army officers. The Clerk Office is occupied by a high officer of the army.

 

It has jurisdiction in both peacetime and wartime and covers the whole national territory. It takes cognizance of crimes and misdemeanours of political nature.

 

However, this jurisdiction is optional since, the Prosecutor can transfer those cases to ordinary courts. The appreciations of the offence as well as the application of the punishments are made according to the Guinean Penal Code. The decisions of the court cannot be appealed. Nevertheless, those pronounced in absence of the suspect can be subject to review.

 

Besides the Court of State Security, which deals with matters that are political in nature involving adults, there is another court, which deals with special category of people.

 

4    Military Tribunal

 

The structure and functioning of the Military Tribunal are governed by the Ordinance n#153/PRG/85 of August 10, 1985. Its jurisdiction covers the national territory. According to article 849 of the Code of Penal Proceedings, the Military Justice is dispensed under the control of the Supreme Court by the Military Tribunal. This court the seat of which is in Conakry can sit in both peacetime and wartime periods.

 

The Military Tribunal is composed of a President who is a professional judge, assisted by four Assessors one of whom is a professional judge, a Judge of Preliminary Examination from judicial category courts on detachment for temporary service at the Ministry of Defence; two militaries of higher or equal rank as the accused. The Prosecutor’s Office is occupied by another judge of judicial category of court on detachment for temporary service at the Ministry of Defence. There is a Chief Clerk assisted by two Clerks.

 

Its jurisdiction covers all the offences of military nature. These offences are listed by article 3 of the abovementioned Ordinance. They include: high treason, damage to the internal and external security of the State, destruction of property, desertion, defaulting, abuse of authority and embezzlement.

 

In the past, the ordinary offence committed by the military in time of peace were brought before the military tribunal. But due to the scope of misdemeanours committed by the military and the impunity that followed, the Ordinance n#021/PRG/88 gave jurisdiction to tribunals of judicial category of courts to deal with all offences of ordinary law committed by members of the army in time of peace.

 

Cases are referred to the Military Tribunal according to the procedures of seisin of the ordinary courts. The decisions of the Military Tribunal can only be challenged before the Judicial Chamber of the Supreme Court.

 

The High Court of Justice, the Court of State Security and the Military Tribunal are courts of exception either according to the nature of the offence or the quality of the accused person where the State is a party, but not conflicts among individuals. There is a court of exception of that sort of jurisdiction.

 

5     Tribunals of Labor

 

This tribunal like other tribunals having exceptional jurisdiction, has a specialized jurisdiction since it deals with labor matters only.

 

They are governed by labor law, social legislations and social security.

There are two Labor Tribunals in Guinea: in Conakry and Kankan, therefore their jurisdiction is not national.

  

For their structure, Labor Tribunals comprise a President and a Vice-President both of whom are magistrates, two Assessors and their Substitutes chosen from the employees, and two Assessors from the employers. The Assessors and Substitutes of employees are chosen from annual lists presented by the most representative trade unions or, in case of clear signs of weakness of those trade unions, the lists can be presented by the inspectorships of labor.

 

The two Assessors of employers are selected from annual lists of the Minister of Justice according to the proposal of the Department in charge of labor. The number of names on those lists must at least double the number of positions provided. The terms of office of the Assessors and their Substitutes are one year, which is renewable.

 

The Assessors and their Substitutes are sworn in by the Tribunal of First Instance under the territorial jurisdiction of which they are.

 

From the list prepared by the Ministry of Labor, the President of the Tribunal selects for each case, the Assessors of employers and employees from the profession in which the conflict rose. Even though the tribunal is composed of several sections of professional categories, only the Assessors concerned by those professional categories can be invited to sit. However, that rule is not imperative.[59]

 

The Clerk Office is held by a Chief Clerk assisted by one or several Clerks hereto referred as Secretaries.

 

For its jurisdiction, every Labor Tribunal is territorially competent within the limit of the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal where it sits. Substantively, it is competent for all conflicts related to labor: individual or collective litigation between employers and employees during the execution of labor contracts, which includes working conditions, salaries and sacking. It also deals with matters related to accidents at work place and social security.  Its jurisdiction does not only cover private sectors but also the State agents as well as those of territorial entities with the exception of fulltime civil servants and members of the disciplinary forces.

 

The role of this tribunal is first to conciliate the parties before going into the full process and second, to examine the conflict. Its decisions can be challenged before the Court of Appeal. The proceedings before the Tribunal of Labor are governed by the Guinean Labor Code.[60]

 

The Guinean legal system is thus animated by those courts, some of which are superimposed while others juxtaposed. It is unified at the top through the existence of a Supreme Court that will be looked at in the next part.

 

Besides those classical jurisdictions some of which are ordinary while others are exceptional, there exist administrative organs of judicial characteristics. They received from law the jurisdiction to exercise certain functions of courts. These are the Guinean Bar Association, the Association of the Guinean Medical Practitioners and the Chamber of Arbitration of Guinea.

 

Even though they are not on the official list of courts, thus not falling within the scope of this discourse, we shall examine the most prominent among them because of the intensity of its activities: the Chamber of Arbitration of Guinea.

 

D     Chamber of Arbitration of Guinea

 

Arbitration consists for the litigants, of requesting a private individual to regulate the conflict opposing them. It is therefore a private justice system on contract basis. According to an experienced businessman, there are two main reasons explaining while Arbitration is frequently used in matters of economic activities: the first is that litigations in business sector do not usually carry the public order characteristics, the Chamber functions according to the rules of private management. A simple arbitration being licit is highly preferable. The second is that the business sector is more attentive to the advantages of Arbitration with regard to classical judicial practices because it holds speedy justice cleared of many formalities of usual proceedings. Further, it is relatively less costly and it makes use of professionals in the field of business instead of judges who may have a less profound knowledge about economic activities. Finally, Arbitration is marked by the secrecy of the parties.   

 

This institution has been put in place by the Presidential Decree D/150/PRG/SGG of August 11, 1998 (hereinafter the Decree n#150). According to this Act, the Chamber of Arbitration is transitionally attached and placed under the supervision of the Ministry of Justice. Its mission consists of providing means to Guinean and foreign businessmen to regulate their conflicts through arbitrators they freely chose. It organizes and supervises the operations of arbitration. Its seat is Conakry.

 

For its proper functioning, the Chamber of Arbitration is divided into three organs: the Council of Administration, the Committee of Arbitration, and the Administrative Bureau.[61]They shall be analyzed successively.

 

1      The Council of Administration

 

According to article 6 of Decree n#150 the Council of Administration is composed of the seven following members:

i     An accountant expert chosen by the Minister in charge of promoting private sector on the proposal of the Association of the Accountant Experts in Guinea,

ii    A jurist expert chosen by the Minister of Justice,

iii   A banking expert chosen by the Minister of Finance on the proposal of the Association of the Banking Professionals,

iv   A representative of the Chamber of Mining,

v    A representative of the Chamber of Agriculture,

vi   Two representatives of the Chamber of Industries and Commerce and Handcraft one of whom is from the sector of Industry the other from Commerce and Handcraft.

 

To be a member of this Council one has to be businessman of high moral integrity, mastering the activities susceptible of being brought before the Chamber, be a qualified lawyer in the field of Business Law or be qualified in Assistance to private sector.

 

Members of the Council of Administration have a three-years mandate renewable once.

 

2    Committee of Arbitration

 

It is a technical team composed of three permanent members and three substitutes, all chosen by the Council of Administration.[62] This Committee is in charge of every task related to the proper unfolding of the proceedings of arbitration.[63]

 

3    Administrative Bureau

 

It has three services: the service of secretariat, the accounting service, and the service of documentation. It is headed by the General Secretary who is in charge of administrative and financial management of the Chamber under the control of the Administrative Council.

The Secretary General and the heads of the services as well as other agents of the Bureau are all selected by the Council of Administration.

 

 The following resources are available for the proper functioning of the chamber: Chamber’s own resources, Subsidy from Consular Chambers, Subsidy from the Government and international donors, Donations and legacy.

 

The courts are institutions set up by the State to settle conflicts between individuals as well as the governed and the governors. They do not look for cases for themselves, but cases are brought before them by the parties, thence the necessity of examining ways through which those matters are taken to them.

 

E       Guinean legal process

 

Like the categories of matters (civil and penal matters), there are two kinds of proceedings before Guinean courts: civil and penal proceedings. These proceedings are not opposed. They are in fact in many cases complementary. However, they are not substitutable nor are they conjunctible.

 

Distinction between penal and civil proceedings is easy to established: one of the main differences between penal and civil proceedings is that the former is destined to protect the society against those who threaten the basis on which it is built: the proceedings in penal matters tend to protect public order by means of applying punishments. It is mainly inquisitory meaning that it is exercised by the judges in the courts by gathering evidences of the offence and appreciating them. The intimate conviction of the judge is very determinant in this process.  It goes beyond the will of the parties. Meanwhile the proceedings in civil matters seek the balance between private interests. It is mainly accusatory for the fact that it is up to the parties to determine the subject of their litigation, and bring evidences in support of their contentions. They can also put an end to it by renunciation or transaction.

 

These two types of proceedings being different, they must be analyzed separately.

 

1   Penal proceedings in the Guinean legal system

It consists of all the rules destined to expose the offences and offenders and ensure the application of punishment the latter deserve. It consists in two essential judicial stages: the first stage is related to the determination of the identity of the offender by gathering evidence against him and the second is the application of law.

 

a   Identifying the offender

 

The first step is the preparatory examination intended to identify the suspect and gather peaces of information around him. It is conducted by a unique magistrate. The second is the definitive preliminary examination, which leads to judgement. It can be detailed in case of appeal.

 

For offences defined as contravention and misdemeanour, the first step is optional for the fact that there can be direct summons before the tribunal.

 

It will be reasonable to wonder who can set the penal proceedings in motion. According to article 1 of the Guinean Code of Penal Proceedings, seeking the application of punishment to offenders, the penal proceedings are set in motion by law-officers and state functionaries to whom law confers that responsibility. Therefore, the Prosecutor’s Office, which represents the society, is the first concerned with this responsibility.

 

Due to its importance, this institution shall be analyzed in detail among the constitutive elements of penal proceedings.

 

The phrase Prosecutor Office has double meanings: on the one hand it refers to all the judges responsible for setting the proceedings in motion, on the other it means a single judge who represents the society during the trial. If this institution exists in both civil and penal proceedings, its role is more pre-eminent in the latter. To carry out its missions it is marked by the following characteristics:

i    Indivisibility. The judges of the same Prosecutor Office can substitute one another without changing their position vis-à-vis the case. They are unified under the authority of the Executive Power, and they represent the society.

ii   Hierarchy. There is a hierarchy between the members of this office headed at the national level by the Minister of Justice. They obey this rule.

iii   Non-responsibility. If they fail in a case, these law-officers cannot be subject to payment of damages to the accused person.

iv   Independence. They are independent from the sitting judges. They do not receive any order from the courts to which they are assigned. According to article 606 of the Code of Penal Proceedings, they cannot be challenged in appeal. And according to ‘’the principle of opportunity of prosecution’’, the Prosecutor can stop or decide not to start at all a prosecution.[64]

 

However, the Prosecutor’s Office is not always free to start the proceedings. There are some circumstances that hinder its impetus. They are as follows:

- Cases in which the setting of proceedings in motion is subordinated to a complaint or a preliminary denunciation: when the proceeding is liable to cause further damages to the victim. For instance the offence of slander in the Press cannot be prosecuted without the consent of the victim.

-  Cases in which the setting in motion of proceedings is subordinated to a preliminary judgement. It may be that the solution of penal case supposes that a question linked to civil jurisdiction is first settled. For instance the offence of abandonment of family unless it is determined by a civil court that the couple is legally married.

 

Proceedings can also be initiated in penal matters by other means. Here, two hypothesises are foreseeable: some public administration like tax service and Bureau of Customs can set the proceedings in motion as well as the victim of the offence.

 

The next question raised is about the steps to bring the case before a penal court. Two institutions play that role: the Examining Magistrate at the Tribunal of First Instance, and the Chamber of Accusation at the Court of Appeal. They examine serious and complex cases. This process is compulsory in criminal matters, but optional in misdemeanours and only on request of the Public Prosecutor in contravention.

 

The Examining Magistrate is an independent entity of the first instance in the penal proceedings. It is independent vis-à-vis both the Prosecutor’s Office and the court of the decision. Its mission is to gather information and evidence around the suspect and decide whether the charges lodged against him are serious enough to be referred to a court.

 

The Chamber of Accusation, which is one of the Chambers of the Court of Appeal, pronounces on appeals launched against ordinances of the judges of Examining Magistrate. It intervenes also in criminal cases as the second-degree.

 

A matter can also be brought before the penal court by other means:

i   The process of summons ‘‘citation directe.’’ It is made by means of a writ delivered on request of Public Prosecutor without passing through the stage of preliminary examination. This process is not possible in a criminal case in which the preliminary examination is always necessary.

ii    The suspect can conduct himself to the court by ‘voluntary appearance in court’,

iii    The notice of judicial appointment or judicial rendezvous. It happens on the decision of the Public Prosecutor to release a suspect that should appear immediately by arranging an appointment with him for a later appearance. This schedule cannot be less than ten days and more than two months.

iv    The appearance ex officio. Exceptionally, the court can refer a case to itself ex officio on request of by the Public Prosecutor when the offence is committed during the trial. 

 

After the application to a court at the preliminary stage in due form, the hearing is the next step. It has some characteristics worth of mentioning:

i   The publicity: the trial is held publicly. There can be no exception to this rule unless for sake of public mores or public order.

ii   The hearing is contradictory: the parties are on equal footing before the court of decision. They discuss on equal basis under the control of the President of the court to whom the direction of the trial is granted.[65]

 

The use of any camera (video or photo) or sound recording device remains proscribed inside the court during the hearing unless otherwise authorized.[66]  

 

After all the necessary steps for the manifestation of the truth in due process, the judicial decision is the outcome.

 

b   Application of law 

 

Every decision pronounced by a court has to be subject of a deliberation, even if it is a unique judge. It can be pronounced outright after the judgement (that is the case with the Court of Assizes) or in later hearing. This decision, which must be justified, is pronounced orally.

 

There are various kinds of decisions:

i   Provisional order: it is not pronounced on the substantive issue of the case, but prepares for its solution. It either settles certain incidents related to the conflict or orders measures that help to enlighten the court.

ii  Decision of release or acquittal of the suspect,

iii  Decision of exemption from punishment: they are not to be confounded with decisions of release or acquittal for the simple reason that here the accused is found guilty; the court only decides not to apply the prescribed punishment. For instance, a minor under the age of 13, or the one between 13 and 18 years of age against whom a penalty cannot be pronounced. However, the civil responsibility of the offence cannot be excluded for the persons in charge of the offender.

 iv   Decision issued from sentence: in penal proceedings it pronounces a punishment; sometimes complementary or accessory punishments can be added. With regard to civil suit, the sentence of the accused in penal proceeding proves that he is guilty. Therefore the civil suit can be found well founded and a decision on the value of damages can be pronounced if there is a proof of relation between them.

v   Decision of inadmissibility: this decision is pronounced by the court when it feels that the normal procedure was not respected for the application. Therefore it does not examine the substantive aspects of the case.

 

A decision may not always be the end of the proceeding. There are possibilities of appeal when one feels that errors were committed in the proceeding amounting to an impairment of his rights.

 

c    Means of redress

 

The Guinean Code Penal Proceedings and Code of Civil Proceedings dispose provisions that make available for the amenable some means of redress intended to reform erroneous decisions. Some of these means of redress are ordinary; they give opportunity for the court to examine anew the case in all its aspects, while others are extraordinary. They are admitted in limited enumerated cases by law when ordinary means are exhausted.

 

In penal proceeding ordinary means are:

i   Opposition: in order to respect the principle according to which no one should be sentenced without having been given the opportunity to put forward his arguments, the Code of Penal Procedure  set up this means of redress on behalf of individuals against whom a sentence was pronounced in absentia. It is meant to retract the decision so that the case can be retried by the same court.[67] 

 

This appeal can be lodged before the Court of Appeal by the defendant or by the person legally responsible for his act.

 

If the notification was made to the defendant himself, the deadline to lodge this appeal is within 10 days if the defendant is in Guinea and one month if he is elsewhere.[68]

 

Another ordinary means of redress is also available.

ii     Appeal before the Court of Appeal

It consists of bringing before the Court of Appeal a case already decided in the first instance. The second judgement is to avoid judicial errors. This appeal is not possible in contravention unless the fine pronounced by the court is over 5,000 Guinean francs or if the sentence is an imprisonment. [69]

 

With regard to the time limit of appeal, it is 15 days from the pronouncement of the decision for the defendant against the decision of the Tribunals of First Instance and one month from the same moment for the Public Prosecutor concerning the decision of the Justice of Peace.[70]

 

For misdemeanours, article 489 of the same Code stipulates that this appeal is possible against both decisions on the substance and the procedures; decisions of punishment for the same person as the ‘Opposition.

 

It is lodged within 15 days from the verdict except the case where up to two months period can be allowed to Public Prosecutor.[71]  

 

The extraordinary means are all brought before the Supreme Court. They are the appeal for annulment and the appeal for revision.

 

i   Appeal for annulment or cassation

 

According to Law n#008 this court can deal with two kinds of appeal for annulment: the appeal in the interest of the parties (which is regular) and the appeal in the interest of Law (which is exceptional).

 

The appeal in the interest of parties is possible in the following circumstances:

-  Incompetence of the court of the decision,

-  Abuse of authority by the judge (for instance when he gives himself an authority in violation law.),

-  Violation of rules governing the procedural issues,

-  Violation of rules relating to the substantive issues (for instance qualification of the offence.)

 

For the appeal in the interest of law, it can be lodged for the violation of procedure by all the parties. For instance when all of them failed to respect a time limit set by law.

Besides this appeal for cassation, which is relatively regular in Guinea, there is another that is more seldom.

 

i     Appeal for Revision

 

This appeal intervenes to correct errors committed in the judgement that were relevant for the outcome of the decision. The following reasons are among the circumstances giving ground to such an appeal:

-   When evidence is found, after a sentence for murder, of the presence of the so-called victim,

-   When a witness in the hearing has been found guilty, after the decision, of false evidence in another case,

-   When another suspect is found guilty (not as an accomplice) and sentenced for the offence for which someone else had been sentenced,

-   Any other evidence that reveals the innocence of a first sentenced person.

 

Coexisting with the penal proceedings is the civil proceedings, which will be examined in the next step.

 

 2    Civil proceedings

 

Giving some similarities between the two proceedings, only two aspects of the civil proceedings will be discussed in order to avoid unnecessary repetition: the jurisdiction in civil proceedings and the means of redress.

 

a    Jurisdiction in civil proceedings

 

The main principles governing the territorial jurisdiction in civil proceedings are as follow:

i    In personal or estate case, it is the tribunal of residence of the defendant that is competent. In presence of many defendants from different territorial jurisdictions, the plaintiff has the opportunity to choose the court of one of them.

ii    In cases related to real estate, it is the tribunal of the location of the estate that is competent.

iii   For birth or death, it is the tribunal of the place of birth or death that is competent.

iv   For matter of divorce, it is the tribunal of the last residence of the couple that is competent.

v    For cases related to succession, it is the tribunal of the last residence of the deceased person that is competent.

vi   For cases involving a company, it is the tribunal of the head office, sometimes that of a branch that is competent.

vii   In contract matters, it is either the tribunal of the delivery or that of the place where the contract is executed.

viii   In cases related to food or responsibility in marriage, it is the tribunal of the residence of the creditor that is competent.

ix   In the maritime conflicts, a matter related to the contestation of delivery, works or hiring, it is either the tribunal of the place where the contract was passed or that of the place where it would have been carried out.

x   When a law professional is party to a conflict that is in the jurisdiction of the court to which he is assigned, the plaintiff can bring the case before another tribunal of the same rank.

 

b    Means of redress in civil proceedings

 

With regard to means of redress some of which are ordinary and others exceptional, in civil proceedings the ordinary means are as the same as in the penal proceedings, therefore, only the exceptional means will be discussed here. They are:

 

i  Opposition by a third party ‘Tierce opposition’. This appeal is lodged by someone that was not originally party to the conflict but suffers or is likely to suffer the consequences resulting in the decision thereof. Certain conditions are to be met before exercising this process:

- The person must have a real interest or suffered a prejudice (even a simple threat of prejudice),

- He should not have been party or represented to/in the conflict,

- The decision should be susceptible to be attacked by such appeal, which means that it must impair the right of that individual.

 

The second exceptional means of redress is as important as the first one for the guarantee of right of the individuals. 

 

ii   Appeal against the judgement. It is the opportunity offered to a litigant to request the court, which pronounced a decision that has already acquired the authority of res judicata to retract that decision in order to be re-examined in its substantive aspect.

 

The following reasons are among those that give ground for the admissibility of such appeal:

- When it has been revealed after the decision that the party in favour of whom the decision was pronounced used fraud to convince the court, or

- If evidence concealed by a party has been found after the pronouncement of the decision.

 

However, some decisions are exempted from such process. They are the provisional orders and the adjudications of the Supreme Court.

 

Anyway according to articles 658 and 659 of the Code of Civil, Economic and Administrative Proceedings (hereafter Code of Civil Proceedings), this appeal is not possible unless it is proved that the author failed without any premeditation on his side to expose the reason evoked before the decision could have acquired the authority of res judicata. The following extraordinary appeals are possible in Guinea once certain conditions are met:

 

i Taking issue with a judge ‘prise à partie

 

This appeal is made against a judge for abuse of authorities. The reasons serving ground for this appeal can be as follows:

 -  Wilful misrepresentation: it appears when the judge deludes a party in order to get his bona fide, 

-  Fraud: it occurs when the judge accomplishes male fide an act that causes prejudice to a party;

-  Peculation: it appears when the judge receives, requires or orders the payment of an amount of money by the parties that was not legally due to him,

-   Professional fault: this fault occurs during the preliminary examination or hearing,

-   Denial of justice: it appears when a judge voluntarily omits or refuses to take action on a request to him addressed even though he was competent to deal with it.

 

A last ground of appeal is available not against the judge himself nor the decision on substance:

 

 i   Rejoinder

 

According to article 201 of the Guinean Code of Civil Proceedings, this appeal is made against a decision pronounced on the question of jurisdiction of the court, not on the substance of the matter.

 

For the appeals that are common to the two proceedings (penal and civil), they are examined once. That is the case of second instance appeal and the appeal to the Supreme Court. However, there are some close links between the two kinds of proceedings despite their fundamental differences. We need to examine those relationships, which are the following:

-  The fact that they can, all, be brought before the same judge. The penal case judge can be competent to take cognizance on civil suit related to the offence,

Res judicata in penal case has authority on civil proceeding: it is the evidence gathered in the process of penal proceedings that is used to determine civil responsibility of the offender.

 

The proceedings, be it civil or penal, are not meant to last forever. They come to an end one way or the other. There are some causes that end both civil and penal proceedings. The following are among those reasons:

i   A decision that has acquired the authority of res judicata after the exhaustion all the means of redress ends all proceedings.

ii   The prescription, the time limit after which no proceeding is available. According to article 8 of Code of Penal Proceedings, no civil suit can be launched after the prescription of the penal proceeding to which it is subordinated. The prescription of all civil suits is after 30 years, for penal proceedings, the prescription is 10 years for offence qualified as crime, 3 years for misdemeanour and 1 year for contravention. When the crime is committed by a minor, the time limit of prescription starts after the period in which he reaches his age of majority.[72]

iii   The death of the offender. If the death of the offender ends the penal proceedings, it does not end the civil proceeding unless it occurs before the ends of the final penal decision to which it is linked. Otherwise, it can proceed against the successor of the offender. 

iv   The abrogation of the penal law. Once the law is abrogated, the act it defined as offence ceases to be so, consequently it will not be incriminated in the future and, exceptionally if the new law is weaker than the old one, the abrogation will benefit retroactively an offender whose case has not yet acquired the authority of res judicata contrarily to article 5 of the Penal Code.[73]  

v   Transaction. Usually the transaction is not possible in penal cases, however, in limited cases like fiscal matters or matters before the Bureau of Customs. There can be transaction in those cases to end the proceedings.

vi   Retraction of complaint. Usually, the penal proceeding, which is entailed to protect the society, cannot be interrupted by simply retracting the complaint. That is possible only when the complaint is a necessary condition of it. Example: violation of privacy and abandonment of family.

Although, all the various decisions pronounced by the abovementioned courts are not yet compiled in a single document or on websites, those of the higher courts are accessible. 

 

F    Publication of Decision

 

The decisions of Guinean courts are now published in either the ‘Bulletin de la Justice Guinéenne’ (Bulletin of Guinean Justice) by the ‘Fondation pour l’Etude et la Promotion du Droit en Guinée (Foundation for the Studies and Promotion of Law in Guinea) under the auspices of the Ministry of Justice since 1997 and the ‘Recueil des Decisions des Courts et Tribunaux avec Commentaires’ (Compedium of Decisions of courts with Comments). They are also published in the Official Gazette (Journal Officiel de la République or JORG), which appears every 10th and 25th of each month

 

G    Guinean law publishers, Law schools and Websites

 

1     Publishers

The law libraries are yet to be full of the workers Guinean authors and editors. The few very often cited are:

Dr. Makanera Alhassane, Deen of the Faculty of Law

M. Diaby Alia, in charge of LLM program

M. Drame Alioun, Justice at the Court of Appeal of Conakry

 

2  Law schools

There are many universities in Guinea (mainly private universities) that have included the teaching of law in the curriculum, however, only two have acquired some popularities. They are:

i   Faculty of Law of University of General Lansana Conte of Conakry-Sonfonia.

 Once part of the other public university based in Conakry, it has been relocated other part of the City as a separate university. Its websites is under elaboration. 

 

ii  University Koffi Annan of Conakry, a private university

iii   Other law schools are: Universite La Source, Universite HECA, Universite Nelson Mandela and University Titi CAMARA.

 

3   Websites of Guinea.

The most visited websites are the following:

i  Official Government Website

ii   Aminata  

iii Kababachir

iv  Droit Francophone - This is a francophone website on which some Guinean legal documents can be found.

 

Conclusion

 

The Guinean legal system, as anywhere, is not static, however, it is particularly unstable because the unpredictable nature of the relationship between the main role players on the political scene. The actual Prime Minister whose nomination has been the outcome of popular unrest is not constitutional. Therefore, this position may be a source of tension in the Executive power between the President and his henchmen on one side and the trade unions leaders, who were at the base of this agreement, supported by the population, on the other. There are many voices now supporting the revision of the Constitutional in order to introduce the position of the Prime Minister.

Another reform may target the National Assembly, which is a mono-cameral institution into a bicameral: a Senate and the Parliament.

Moreover, the manifest ambition of some lawyers to see the judiciary reformed with the split of the present Supreme Court into three equal-rank institutions: Cour de Cassation( Supreme Court of Appeal), Cour Constitutionnelle (Constitutional Court) and Conseil d’Etat (Council of State). These are the possible reforms awaiting the Guinean system.

 

References

 

Books

Bah Alseny (2003), Cours d’Institutions Judiciaires, Editions Universitaire

Diaby Alia (2005), Droit Constitutionnel et Sciences Politiques, Editions Universitaire, Conakry, Guinée

Mamadou Alioun Dramé (1999), Droit, Question-Réponse,  Editions Universitaires, Conakry, Guinée

Makanera Alhassan Kake, Régime Politique Guinéen, Etudes et Doctrine (2000), Edition Universitaire, Conakry, Guinee

 

Legal Instruments

Civil Code of Guinea

Penal Code of Guinea

Code of Civil Procedure

Code of Penal Procedure

Guinean Labor Code

Decree n#002/PRG/80 of January 7, 1980

Decree n# 022/MJ/86 of July 12, 1986

Decree n#023/Mj/86 of July 12, 1986

Decree D/150/PRG/SGG of August 11, 1998

Decree D/2001/031/PRG/SGG of May 17, 2001

Law n#004/AN/58 of November 16, 1958

Law n#018/AN/73 of June 16, 1973

Law n#044/APN/CP/80 of November 7, 1980

Law n#045/APN/CP/80 of November 7, 1980

Law n#053 /APN/CP/80 of November 9,1980

Law L/95/021/CTRN/ of June 6, 1995

Law L/98/014/AN/ of June 16, 1998

Law L/91/008/CTRN of December 23, 1991

Law L/91/011/CTRN of December 23, 1991

Law L/93/CTRN of February 6, 1986

Ordinance n#001/PRG/58 of October 13, 1958

Ordinance n#115/PRG/84 of July 14, 1984

Ordinance n#109/PRG/86 of July 15, 1986

Ordinance n#110/PRG/86 of July 5, 1986

Ordinance n#/112/PRG/86 of August 7, 1986

Ordinance n#021/PRG/88 of October 18, 1988

Ordinance n#111/PRG/86 of July 5, 19986

 

Abbreviations

 

PRG       Président de la République de Guinée (President of the Republic of Guinea)

SGG        Secretariat General du Gouvernement (General Secretariat of the Government)

CMRN  Comité Militaire de Redressement National (Military Committee for National Redress)

MJ         Ministère de la Justice (Ministry of Justice)

AN          Assemblée Nationale (National Assembly)

CTRN    Comité Transitoire de Redressement National (Transitional Committee for National Redress)

CAPA    Concours d’Aptitude pour la Profession d’Avocat (Exam of the Aptitude for the Profession of Lawyer)

CP            Commission Parlementaire (Parliamentary Commission)

CA           Chambre administrative (Adminstrative Chamber)

CS            Cour Suprême (Supreme Court)

 

Annex

 

I: Fundamental Law (Constitution)

 

French version

 

Préambule

Par son vote du 28 septembre 1958, le Peuple de Guinée a opté pour la liberté et constitué, le 2 Octobre 1958, un Etat souverain: LA REPUBLIQUE DE GUINEE.

Tirant les leçons de son passé et du changement politique intervenu le 3 Avril 1984,

Le Peuple De Guinee,

 

Proclame :

L'égalité et la solidarité de tous les nationaux sans distinction de race, d'ethnie, de sexe, d'origine, de religion et d'opinion.

Son adhésion aux idéaux et principes, droits et devoirs établis dans la Charte de l'Organisation des Nations Unies, la déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme, la Charte de l'Organisation de l'Unité Africaine et la Charte Africaine des droits de l'homme et des peuples.

Affirme solennellement son opposition fondamentale à tout régime fondé sur la dictature, l'injustice, la corruption, le népotisme et le régionalisme.

 

Réaffirme:

Sa volonté de réaliser dans l'unité et la réconciliation nationale, un Etat fondé sur la primauté du droit et le respect de la loi démocraliquement établie ;

Sa volonté d'établir des relations d'amitié et de coopération avec tous les peuples du monde sur la base des principes de l'égalité, du respect de la souveraineté nationale, de l'intégrité territoriale et de l'intérêt réciproque;

- Son attachement à la cause de l'Unité Africaine, de l'intégration sous-régionale du continent.

- Libre de déterminer ses institutions, le peuple de Guinée adopte la présente Loi Fondamentale.

 

Titre Premier : De La Souveraineté Et De L'Etat

 

Article 1 : La Guinée est une République unitaire, indivisible, laïque, démocratique et sociale. Elle assure l'égalité devant la loi de tous les citoyens sans distinction d'origine, de race, d ethnie, de sexe, de religion et d'opinion. Elle respecte toutes les croyances.

La langue officielle est le français. L'Etat assure la promotion des cultures et des langues du peuple de Guinée.

Le drapeau est composé de trois bandes verticales et égales de couleur Rouge, Jaune Et Verte.

L'hymne national est « Liberte ». La devise de la Republique est « Travail - Justice - Solidarite ».

Son principe est : Gouvernement du Peuple par le Peuple et pour le Peuple.

 

Article 2 : La souveraineté nationale appartient au Peuple qui l'exerce par ses représentants élus et par voie de référendum.

Aucune fraction du peuple, aucun individu ne peut s'en attribuer l'exercice.

Le suffrage est universel, direct, égal et secret.

Dans les conditions déterminées par la loi, sont électeurs tous les citoyens guinéens majeurs de l'un et de l'autre sexe, jouissant de leurs droits civils et politiques.

 

Article 3 : Les partis politiques concourent à l'éducation politique des citoyens et à l'expression du suffrage. Ils présentent seuls les candidats aux élections nationales.

Ils doivent être implantés sur l'ensemble du territoire national.

Ils ne doivent pas s'identifier à une race, une ethnie, une religion ou un territoire.

Ils doivent également respecter les principes de la souveraineté nationale et de la démocratie, l'intégrité du territoire et l'ordre public.

Une loi organique détermine les conditions dans lesquelles les partis politiques se constituent et exercent leurs activités. Elle peut également fixer, pour un temps donné, le nombre maximal de partis susceptibles de se constituer. Elle précise les conditions dans lesquelles un parti qui méconnaît les dispositions des alinéas précédents n'est plus considéré comme légalement constitué.

 

Article 4 : La loi punit quiconque, par un acte de discrimination raciale, ethnique ou religieuse ou par un acte de propagande régionaliste, porte une atteinte grave à l'unité nationale, à la sécurité de l'Etat, à l'intégrité du territoire de la République ou au fonctionnement démocratique des institutions.

 

Titre II : Des Libertés, Devoirs Et Droits Fondamentaux

 

Article 5 : La personne et la dignité de l'homme sont sacrées. L'Etat a le devoir de les respecter et de les protéger.

Les droits et les libertés énumérés ci-après sont inviolables, inaliénables et imprescriptibles. Ils fondent toute société humaine, et garantissent la paix et la justice dans le monde.

 

Article 6 : L'homme a droit au libre développement de sa personnalité.

Il a droit à  la vie et à l'intégrité physique. Nul ne peut être l'objet de tortures, de peines ou de traitements cruels, inhumains ou dégradants.

 

Article 7 : Il est libre de croire, de penser et de professer sa foi religieuse, ses opinions politiques ou philosophiques.

Il est libre d'exprimer, de manifester, de diffuser ses idées et ses opinions par la parole, l'écrit et l'image.

Il est libre de s'instruire et de s'informer aux sources accessibles à tous.

 

Article 8 : Tous les êtres humains sont égaux devant la loi. Les hommes et les femmes ont les mêmes droits. Nul ne doit être privilégié ou désavantagé en raison de sa naissance, de sa race, de son ethnie, de sa langue, de ses croyances et de ses opinions politiques, philosophiques ou religieuses.

 

Article 9 : Nul ne peut être arrêté, détenu ou condamné que pour les motifs et dans les formes prévues par la loi. Tous ont le droit imprescriptible de s'adresser au juge pour faire valoir leurs droits face à l'Etat et ses préposés.

Tous ont droit à un procès juste et équitable, dans lequel le droit de se défendre est garanti.

La loi établit les peines nécessaires et proportionnées aux fautes qui peuvent les justifier.

 

Article 10 : Tous les citoyens ont le droit de manifestation et de cortège.

Tous les citoyens ont le droit de former des associations et des sociétés pour exercer collectivement leurs droits et leurs activités politiques, économiques, sociales ou culturelles.

Tous les citoyens ont le droit de s'établir et de circuler sur le territoire de la République, entrer et d'en sortir librement.

 

Article 11 : Quiconque est persécuté en raison de ses opinions politiques, philosophiques ou religieuses, de sa race, de son ethnie, de ses activités intellectuelles, scientifiques ou culturelles, pour la défense de la liberté a droit d'asile sur le territoire de la République.

 

Article 12 : Le domicile est inviolable. Il ne peut y être porté atteinte qu'en cas de péril grave et imminent, pour parer à un danger commun ou pour protéger la vie des personnes. Toute autre atteinte, toute perquisition ne peut être ordonnée que par le juge ou par l'autorité que la loi désigne dans les formes prescrites par celle-ci.

Le secret de la correspondance et de la communication est inviolable. Chacun a droit à la protection de sa vie privée.

 

Article 13 :  Le droit de propriété est garanti. Nul ne peut être exproprié si ce n'est dans l'intérêt légalement constaté de tous, et sous réserve d'une juste et préalable indemnité.

 

Article 14 : Le libre exercice des cultes est garanti. Les institutions et les communautés religieuses se créent et s'administrent librement.

Elles ne sont pas soumises à la tutelle de l'Etat.

 

Article 15 : L'homme a droit à la santé et au bien-être physique. L'Etat a le devoir de les promouvoir, et de lutter contre les épidémies et les fléaux sociaux.

 

Article 16 : Le mariage et la famille, qui constituent le fondement naturel de la vie en société, sont protégés et promus par l'Etat.

Les parents ont le droit et le devoir d'assurer l'éducation et la santé physique et morale de leurs enfants. Les enfants doivent soin et assistance à leurs parents.

 

Article 17 : La jeunesse doit être particulièrement protégée contre l'exploitation et l'abandon moral.

Les personnes âgées et handicapées bénéficient de l'assistance et de la protection de la société.

 

Article 18 : Le droit au travail est reconnu à tous. L'Etat cree les conditions nécessaires à l'exercice de ce droit.

Nul ne put être lésé dans son travail en raison de son sexe, de sa race, de son ethnie ou ses ses opinions.

Chacun a le droit d'adhérer au syndicat de son choix, et de défendre ses droits par l'action syndicale. Chaque travailleur a le droit de participer par l'intermédiaire de ses délégués à la détermination des conditions de travail.

Le droit de grève est reconnu. Il s'exerce dans le cadre des lois qui le régissent. Il ne peut en aucun cas porter atteinte à la liberté du travail.

La loi fixe les conditions d'assistance et de protection auxquelles ont droit les travailleurs.

 

Article 19 : Le peuple de Guinée détermine librement et souverainement ses institutions et l'organisation économique et sociale de la Nation.

Il a un droit imprescriptible sur ses richesses. Celles-ci doivent profiter de manière équitable à tous les Guinéens.

Il a droit à la préservation de son patrimoine, de sa culture et de son environnement.

Il a le droit de résister à l'oppression.

 

Article 20 : Chaque citoyen a le devoir de se conformer à la Loi Fondamentale, aux lois et aux règlements.

Chaque citoyen a le devoir de participer aux élections, de promouvoir la tolérance, les valeurs de la démocratie, d'être loyal envers la nation.

Chaque citoyen a le devoir de respecter l'honneur et les opinions des autres.

Chaque citoyen doit contribuer, dans la mesure de ses moyens à l'impôt et doit remplir ses obligations sociales dans les conditions que la loi détermine.

Chaque citoyen a le devoir sacré de défendre la patrie.

 

Article 21 : L'Etat doit promouvoir le bien- être des citoyens.

Il veille au pluralisme des opinions et des sources d'information.

Il assure la sécurité de chacun, et veille au maintien de l'ordre public.

Il assure la continuité des institutions et des services publics, dans le respect de la Loi Fondamentale.

Il garantit l'égal accès aux emplois publics.

Il favorise l'unité de la nation et de l'Afrique. Il coopère avec les autres Etats pour consolider leur indépendance, la paix, le respect mutuel et l'amitié entre les peuples.

Il assure l'enseignement de la jeunesse, qui est obligatoire. Il crée les conditions et les institutions permettant à chacun de se former. Il garantit la liberté de l'enseignement, et contrôle les écoles privées.

 

Article 22 : La loi garantit à tous l'exercice des libertés et des droits fondamentaux. Elle détermine la conditions dans lesquelles ils s'exercent.

Elle ne peut fixer de limites à ces libertés et à ces droits que celles qui sont indispensables au maintien de l'ordre public et de la démocratie.

Les groupements dont le but ou l'activité est contraire aux lois ou qui trouble manifestement l'ordre public peuvent être dissouts.

 

Article 23 : Quiconque occupe un emploi public ou exerce une fonction publique est comptable de son activité, et doit respecter le principe de neutralité du service public. Il ne doit user de ses fonctions à des fins autres que l'intérêt de tous.

 

Titre III : Du President De La Republique

 

Article 24 : Le Président de la République est élu au suffrage universel direct.

La durée de son mandat est de sept ans, renouvelable.

 

Article 25 : Le scrutin pour l'élection du Président de la République a lieu quarante-cinq jours au plus et trente jours au moins avant la date de l'expiration du mandat du President de la République en fonction.

S'il y a lieu de procéder à un deuxième tour de scrutin, celui-ci est fixé au quatorzième jour après le premier tour.

Le Président de la République fixe le jour du scrutin au moins soixante jours avant celui-ci.

 

Article 26 : Tout candidat à la présidence de la République doit être de nationalité guinéenne, jouir de ses droits civils et politiques et être âgé de quarante (40) au moins et soixante dix (70) ans au plus.

Les candidatures sont déposées au greffe de la Cour Suprême quarante jours au moins et soixante jours au plus avant la date du scrutin. Aucune candidature n'est recevable si elle n'est présentée par un parti politique légalement constitué. Chaque parti ne peut présenter qu'une seule candidature.

Trente neuf jours avant le scrutin, la Cour Suprême arrête et publie la liste des candidats. Les électeurs sont alors convoqués par décret.

 

Article 27 : En cas de décès ou d'empêchement définitif constaté par la Cour Suprême d'un candidat figurant sur la liste prévue à l'article 26, la Cour Suprême décide s'il y a lieu de rouvrir les délais pendant lesquels des candidatures nouvelles peuvent être déposées. Dans ce cas une nouvelle date du scrutin est fixée dans les conditions prévues à l'article 20.

 

Article 28 : La campagne électorale est ouverte trente jours avant le scrutin et close la veille de celui-ci à 0 h. En cas de deuxième tour, la campagne électorale est ouverte le lendemain de la proclamation des résultats du premier tour et close la veille du deuxième tour à 0 h.

La Cour Suprême veille à la régularité de la campagne électorale à l'égalité des candidats pour l'utilisation des moyens de propagande, dans les conditions déterminées par une loi organique.

 

Article 29 : Est élu le candidat qui a obtenu la majorité absolue des suffrages exprimés.

Dans le cas où, à l'issue du premier tour, aucun candidat n'aurait atteint cette majorité, il est procédé à un deuxième tour de scrutin dans les conditions prévues à l'article 25. Seuls peuvent s'y présenter les deux candidats qui, le cas échéant, après retrait des candidats plus défavorisés, se trouvent avoir recueilli le plus grand nombre de suffrages au premier tour.

La Cour Suprême veille à la régularité du scrutin.

 

Article 30 : Si aucune contestation relative à la régularité des opérations électorales n'a été déposée par l'un des candidats au Greffe de la Cour Suprême dans les huit jours qui suivent le jour où la première totalisation globale des résultats a été rendue publique, la Cour Suprème proclame élu le Président de la République.

En cas de contestation, la Cour statue dans les trois jours qui suivent sa saisie. Son arrêt emporte proclamation ou annulation de l'élection.

En cas d'annulation de l'élection, de nouvelles élections sont organisées dans les soixante jours.

 

Article 31 : Le Président de la République élu entre en fonction le jour de l'expiration du mandat de son prédécesseur.

Dans le cas où, à la suite de l'annulation d'une élection, aucun des candidats n'a été proclamé élu à cette date, le Président en exercice reste en fonction jusqu'à la. proclamation des résultats.

En cas de décès ou d'empêchement définitif du Président de la République élu avant son entrée en fonction, il est procédé à de nouvelles élections dans le délai de soixante jours. Le Président en exercice reste en fonction jusqu'à la proclamation des résultats.

Par dérogation à l'article 34, en cas de décès ou d'empêchement définitif du Président de la République en exercice avant l'entrée en fonction du Président élu, celui-ci entre immédiatement en fonction.

Le Président de la République est installé dans ses fonctions après avoir prêté serment devant la Cour Suprême. Par ce serment, il s'engage à respecter faire respecter scrupuleusement les dispositions de la Loi Fondamentale et des lois, à défendre les institutions constitutionnelles, l'intégrité du territoire et l'indépendance nationale.

 

Article 32 : Le Président de la République est protégé contre les offenses, les injures et les calomnies dans les conditions que la loi détermine.

 

Article 33 : La charge de Président de la République est incompatible avec l'exercice de toute autre fonction publique ou privée, même élective. Il doit, notamment, cesser d'exercer toutes responsabilités au sein d'un parti politique.

 

Article 34 : En cas de vacance de la fonction de Président de la République consécutive au décès ou à la démission du Président de la République, ou de toute autre cause d'empêchement définitif, la suppléance est assurée par le Président de l'Assemblée Nationale ou, en cas d'empêchement de celui ci, par l'un des vice-présidents de l'Assemblée Nationale par ordre de préséance.

La vacance est constatée par la Cour Suprême, saisie par le Président de l'Assemblée nationale ou, en cas d'empêchement de celui-ci, par l'un de ses vice-présidents.

La durée maximum de la suppléance est de soixante jours. Le scrutin pour l'élection du Président de la République a lieu sauf cas de force majeure constatée par la Cour Suprême, trente-cinq jours au moins, cinquante jours au plus, après l'ouverture de la vacance.

 

Article 35 : La suppléance du Président de la République s'étend à toutes les fonctions de celui-ci, sauf le droit de recourir au référendum, de prononcer la dissolution de l'Assemblée Nationale, de prendre l'initiative d'une révision de la Loi Fondamentale, d'exercer le droit de grâce.

 

Article 36 : Les anciens Présidents de la République prennent rang protocolaire immédiatement après le Président de la République, dans l'ordre de l'ancienneté de leur mandat, avant le Président de l'Assemblée Nationale.

Ils siègent de plein droit au Conseil Economique et Social.

Ils bénéficient d'avantages matériels et d'une protection dans les conditions qu'une loi organique détermine.

 

Article 37 : Le Président de la République veille au respect de la Loi Fondamentale. Il assure le fonctionnement régulier des pouvoirs publics et la continuité de l'Etat. Il détermine et conduit la politique de la nation.

 

Article 38 : Le Président de la République assure l'exécution des lois et dispose du pouvoir réglementaire, qu'il exerce par décret.

 

Article 39 : Le Président de la République nomme les ministres, qui l'assistent et qui ne sont responsables que devant lui. Il peut les révoquer.

Il fixe par décret les attributions de chaque ministre. Il peut lui déléguer une partie de ses pouvoirs.

 

Article 40 : Le Président de la République nomme à tous les emplois civils. Il dirige l'Administration.

 

Article 41 : Le Président de la République est garant de l'indépendance nationale et de l'intégrité du territoire.

Il est responsable de la défense nationale. Il préside le Conseil Supérieur de la Défense Nationale.

Il est le chef des Armées. Il nomme à tous les emplois militaires.

 

Article 42 : Le Président de la République accrédite les ambassadeurs et les envoyés extraordinaires auprès des puissances étrangères.

Les ambassadeurs et les envoyés extraordinaires sont accrédités auprès de lui.

 

Article 43 : Le Président de la République exerce le droit de grâce.

 

Article 44 : Le Président de la République peut adresser des messages à la nation.

Il ne participe pas aux débats de l'Assemblée Nationale.

Lorsqu'il adresse un message à celle-ci, le message est lu par un ministre.

 

Article 45 : Le Président de la République peut, après avoir consulté le Président de l'Assemblée Nationale, soumettre au referendum tout projet de loi portant sur l'organisation des pouvoirs publics, concernant les libertés et les droits fondamentaux ou l'action économique et sociale de l'Etat, ou tendant à autoriser la ratification d'un traité.

Il doit, si l'Assemblée nationale le demande par une résolution adoptée à la majorité des deux tiers des membres qui la composent, soumettre au référendum toute proposition de loi portant sur l'organisation des pouvoirs publics ou concernant les libertés et les droits fondamentaux.

Avant de convoquer les électeurs par décret, le Président de la République recueille l'avis de la Cour Suprême sur la conformité du projet ou de la proposition à la Loi Fondamentale. En cas de non conformité, il ne peut être procédé au référendum.

La Cour suprême veille à la régularité des opérations de référendum. Lorsque le référendum a conclu à l'adoption du projet ou de la proposition, il ou elle est promulguée de les conditions prévues à l'article 62.

 

Titre IV : De L'Assemblée Nationale

 

Article 46 : L'Assemblée représentative du peuple de Guinée porte le nom d'Assemblée Nationale. Ses membres portent le titre de Députés à l'Assemblée Nationale.

 

Article 47 : Les Députés à l'Assemblée Nationale sont élus au suffrage universel direct.

La durée de leur mandat est de cinq ans, sauf cas de dissolution. Il peut être renouvelé.

 

Article 48 : Nul ne peut être candidat s'il n'est présenté par un parti politique légalement constitué.

Les conditions d'éligibilité, le régime des inéligibilités et des incompatibilités sont fixés par une loi organique.

 

Article 49 : La Cour Suprême veille à la régularité du scrutin et de la campagne électorale qui le précède. Elle reçoit et juge les éventuelles contestations.

 

Article 50 : Le tiers des Députés est élu au scrutin majoritaire uninominal à un tour. Une loi organique fixe les circonscriptions électorales.

Les deux tiers des Députés sont élus au scrutin de liste nationale, à la représentation proportionnelle. Les sièges non attribués au quotient national sont répartis au plus fort reste.

 

Article 51 : Une loi organique fixe le nombre de députés et le montant de leur indemnité.

Elle détermine également les conditions dans lesquelles sont élues les personnes appelées à assurer, en cas de vacance, le remplacement des députés jusqu'au renouvellement général de l'Assemblée.

 

Article 52 : Aucun membre de l'Assemblée Nationale ne peut être poursuivi, recherché, arrêté, détenu ou jugé à l'occasion des opinions ou des votes émis par lui dans l'exercice de ses fonctions de Député.

Aucun Députe ne peut, pendant la durée des sessions, être poursuivi ou arrêté, en matière pénale, qu'avec l'autorisation de I'Assemblée Nationale, sauf en cas de flagrant délit.

Aucun Deputé ne peut, hors session, être arrêté ou détenu qu'avec l'autorisation du Bureau de l'Assemblée Nationale, sauf en cas de flagrant délit, de poursuites autorisées par l'Assemblée ou de condamnation définitive.

La détention préventive ou la poursuite d'un Député est suspendue si l'Assemblée le requiert.

 

Article 53 : Le Président de l'Assemblée Nationale est élu pour la durée de la législature.

 

Article 54 : Le règlement de l'Assemblée Nationale est fixé par une loi organique qui détermine :

la composition et les règles de fonctionnement du bureau de l'Assemblée ;

le nombre, le mode de désignation, la composition et la compétence des commissions permanentes ;

les modalités de création de commissions spéciales temporaires;

l'organisation des services administratifs placés sous l'autorité du Président de l'Assemblée ;

les règles de déroulement des débats, de prises de paroles, de vote et le régime disciplinaire des Députés ;

d'une façon générale toutes règles ayant pour objet le fonctionnement de l'Assemblée Nationale dans le cadre des compétences que lui attribue la Loi Fondamentale.

 

Article 55 : L'Assemblée Nationale se réunit de plein droit en session ordinaire deux fois par an.

La première session s'ouvre le 5 Avril, sa durée ne peut excéder trente jours.

La deuxième session s'ouvre le 5 Octobre, sa durée ne peut excéder soixante jours.

Si le 5 avril ou le 5 octobre est un jour férié l'ouverture de la session aura lieu le premier jour ouvrable qui suit.

La loi de finances de l'année est examinée au cours de la seconde session ordinaire de l'année qui précède.

 

Article 56 : L'Assemblée Nationale est réunie en session extraordinaire soit à l'initiative du Président de la République soit à la demande de la majorité des membres qui la composent, sur un ordre du jour déterminé.

La session extraordinaire est close dès que l'Assemblée Nationale a épuisé l'ordre du jour pour lequel elle a été convoquée. La durée de la session ne peut dépasser quinze jours.

Les Députés ne peuvent demander une nouvelle session extraordinaire avant l'expiration du mois qui suit la clôture d'une session.

Hormis les cas dans lesquels l'Assemblée Nationale se réunit de plein droit, les sessions extraordinaires sont ouvertes et closes par décret.

 

Article 57 : Tout mandat impératif est nul.

Le droit de vote des Députés est personnel. La loi organique peut autoriser, exceptionnellement, la délégation de vote. Dans ce cas, nul ne peut recevoir délégation de plus d'un mandant.

 

Article 58 : Les séances de l'Assemblée Nationale sont publiques. Toutefois, elle peut par un vote à la majorité des membres qui la composent, décider de tenir des séances à huis clos.

Le compte-rendu intégral des débats est publié au Journal Officiel.

 

Titre V : Des Rapports Entre Le President De La Republique Et L'assemblee Nationale

 

Article 59 : Sous réserve des dispositions de l'article 45, l'Assemblée Nationale vote seule la loi.

La loi ne peut disposer que pour l'avenir.

La loi fixe les règles concernant :

les garanties des libertés et des droits fondamentaux, les conditions dans lesquelles ils s'exercent et les limitations qui peuvent y être portées ;

les droits civiques, la nationalité, l'état, la capacité des personnes, les régimes matrimoniaux, les successions et les libéralités;

les sujétions imposées pour la défense nationale aux citoyens en leur personne et leurs biens ;

la détermination des infractions, les peines qui leur sont applicables, la procédure pénale, l'amnistie, la création et la composition des ordres de juridiction et les statuts des magistrats;

l'assiette, le taux et les modalités de recouvrement et de contrôle des impôts de toutes natures, et des contributions obligatoires;

le régime électoral de l'Assemblée Nationale en tout ce qui n'est pas indiqué par la Loi Fondamentale, le régime électoral des conseils élus des collectivités territoriales ;

les garanties fondamentales accordées aux fonctionnaires civils et militaires de l'Etat ;

le régime d'émission de la monnaie ;

la création des catégories d’établissements publics;

l'expropriation, la nationalisation ou la privatisation d'entreprises

La loi détermine les principes fondamentaux :

de l'organisation générale de la défense nationale et du maintien de l'ordre public ;

de la libre administration des collectivités territoriales, de leurs compétences et de leurs ressources ;

de l'enseignement ;

du régime de la propriété, des droits réels et des obligations civiles et commerciales ;

du droit du travail, du droit syndical et de la protection sociale ;

du développement culturel et de la protection du patrimoine et de l'environnement.

Des lois de finances déterminent chaque année l'ensemble des ressources et de charges de l'Etat, dans les conditions et sous les réserves prévues par une loi organique.

Des lois de plan fixent les orientations pluriannuelles du développement de la nation et les engagements de l'Etat.

Des lois de programme déterminent par secteur les objectifs de l'action économique et sociale de l'Etat.

 

Article 60 : Les matières autres que celles qui sont du domaine de la loi ont un caractère règlementaire.

Lorsque des dispositions d'une loi sont intervenues dans ces autres matières, elles peuvent être modifiées par décret après que la Cour Suprême en ait constaté le caractère règlementaire.

 

Article 61 : L'Assemblée Nationale vote les projets de lois de finances dans les conditions prévues par une loi organique.

Le projet de loi de finances est déposé sur le bureau de l'Assemblée Nationale au plus tard le jour de l'ouverture de la deuxième session ordinaire

L'Assemblée Nationale dispose de soixante jours au plus pour voter le projet. Si pour des raisons de forces majeures, le Président de la République n'a pu le déposer en temps utile, la session ordinaire est suivie immédiatement et de plein droit d'une session extraordinaire dont la durée est au plus égale au temps nécessaire pour couvrir le délai allant du jour dépôt du projet de loi au soixantième jour suivant.

Si, à l'expiration de ces délais, le projet de loi de finances n'a pas été adopté, il peut être mis en vigueur par décret, compte tenu des amendements votés par l'Assemblée Nationale et acceptés par le président de la République.

Si, compte tenu de la procédure prévue ci-dessus, la loi de finances de l'année n'a pu être mise en vigueur avant le début de l'exercice, le Président de la République demande d'urgence à l'Assemblée Nationale l'autorisation de percevoir les impôts. Celle-ci se prononce dans les deux jours. Le Président de la République est autorisé à reconduire par décret le budget de fonctionnement de l'année précédente.

Le Cour Suprême assure le contrôle a posteriori de l'exécution des lois de finances. Elle en fait rapport à l'Assemblée Nationale.

 

Article 62 : Après son adoption par l'Assemblée Nationale, la loi est transmise sans délai au Président de la République.

Le Président de la République promulgue la loi dans les dix jours. Le délai court huit jours francs après la transmission de la loi adoptée.

 

Article 63 : Dans le délai de dix jours fixé pour la promulgation, le Président de la République peut, par message, demander à l'Assemblée Nationale une nouvelle délibération qui ne peut être refusée.

Le délai de promulgation est alors suspendu.

La loi ne peut être votée en seconde lecture que si les deux tiers des membres composant l'Assemblée Nationale se prononcent pour son adoption. Son inscription à l'ordre du jour est prioritaire si la majorité des membres composant l'Assemblée Nationale le demande.

 

Article 64 : Dans les huit jours francs qui suivent l'adoption d'une loi, le Président de la République ou un dixième au moins des Députés peuvent saisir la Cour Suprême d'un recours visant à faire contrôler la conformité de la loi à la Loi Fondamentale.

Le délai de promulgation est alors suspendu.

La Cour Suprême statue dans les trente jours qui suivent sa saisie ou, si le Président de la République en fait la demande, dans les huit jours. L’arrêt de la Cour Suprême est publié au Journal Officiel.

Une disposition d'une loi déclarée non conforme à la Loi Fondamentale ne peut être promulguée ni appliquée. L'arrêt de la Cour Suprême s'impose à tous.

Le délai de promulgation court à compter de la publication de l'arrêt de la Cour Supréme qui déclare la loi conforme à la Loi Fondamentale.

 

Article 65 : En cas de non promulgation d'une loi par le Président de la République dans les délais fixés, la loi entre en vigueur.

 

Article 66 : L'Assemblée Nationale peut habiliter par une loi le Président de la République à prendre des mesures qui relèvent normalement du domaine de la loi, pour un délai donné et des objets qu'elle précise.

Dans les limites de temps et de compétences fixées par la loi d'habilitation, le Président de la République prend des ordonnances qui entrent en vigueur dès leur publication, mais deviennent caduques si un projet de loi de ratification n'est pas déposé devant l'Assemblée Nationale avant la date fixée par la loi d'habilitation.

Après cette dernière date, elles ne peuvent être modifiées que par la loi. Elles conservent toutefois valeur règlementaire jusqu'à leur ratification.

Elles peuvent être amendées lors du vote de la loi de ratification.

 

Article 67 : Les lois qualifiées d'organiques par la présente Loi Fondamentale sont votées et modifiées par la majorité des deux tiers des membres composant l'Assemblée Nationale.

Elles ne peuvent être promulguées si la Cour Suprême, obligatoirement saisie par le Président de la République, ne les a déclarées conformes à la Loi Fondamentale.

L'Assemblée Nationale ne peut habiliter le Président de la République à prendre par voie d'ordonnance des mesures qui relèvent de la loi organique.

 

Article 68 : L'initiative des lois appartient concurremment au Président de la République et aux Députés à l'Assemblée Nationale.

 

Article 69 : Le Président de la République et les Députés à l'Assemblée Nationale ont le droit d'amendement. Les amendements du Président de la République sont présentés par un ministre.

Les propositions d’amendement formulées par les Députés ne sont pas recevables s'ils ne relèvent pas du domaine de la loi, ou s'ils entrent dans des compétences déléguées au Président de la République en application de l'article 66 pendant la durée de cette délégation.

Ils ne sont pas recevables lorsque leur adoption aurait pour conséquence soit une diminution des ressources publiques, soit la création ou l'aggravation d'une charge publique à moins que ne soient prévues des recettes compensatrices.

 

Article 70 : En cas de désaccord entre l'Assemblée Nationale et le Président de la République, représenté par un ministre, sur la recevabilité d'un amendement, la Cour Suprême se prononce dans le délai de huit jours, à la demande de l'un ou de l'autre.

 

Article 71 : L'Assemblée Nationale établit son ordre du jour.

Toutefois, le Président de la République peut demander l'inscription, par priorité, à l'ordre du jour, d'un projet ou d'une proposition de loi ou d'une déclaration de politique générale. Cette inscription est de droit.

La durée d'examen des textes inscrits à l'ordre du jour par priorité ne peut excéder la moitié de la durée de la session ordinaire.

 

Article 72 : Les ministres peuvent être entendus à tout moment par l'Assemblée Nationale et par ses commissions.

Ils peuvent se faire assister par des collaborateurs de leur choix.

 

Article 73 : Les Députés peuvent poser aux ministres, qui sont tenus d'y répondre, des questions écrites et des questions orales avec ou sans débat. Les réponses données ne sont pas suivies de vote. Elles sont publiées au Journal Officiel.

Une séance par semaine est réservée au cours de chaque session extraordinaire, aux questions orales sans débat.

L'Assemblée Nationale peut désigner en son sein des commissions d'enquête. Le règlement de l'Assemblée détermine les pouvoirs de ces commissions.

Elles sont créées par la loi, qui en définit la composition, le fonctionnement et l'objet, et qui en précise les pouvoirs.

 

Article 74 : L'état de siège, comme l'état d'urgence, est décrété par le Président de la République, après avis du Président de l'Assemblée Nationale et du Président de la Cour Suprême. Ces avis sont publiés au Journal Officiel. Le Président de la République peut prendre, par ordonnance, toute mesure nécessaire à la défense de l'intégrité du territoire et au rétablissement ou au maintien de l'ordre public. L'Assemblée Nationale se réunit alors de plein droit, si elle n'est pas en session. Elle ne peut être dissoute.

Le décret proclamant l'état de siège ou l'état d'urgence cesse d'être en vigueur après douze jours, à moins que l'Assemblée Nationale, saisie par le Président de la République n'en autorise la prorogation pour un délai qu'elle fixe.

Les ordonnances prises en application de l'état de siège et de l'état d'urgence cessent d'être en vigeur à la fin de ceux-ci.

 

Article 75 : L'état de guerre est déclaré par le Président de la République après avoir été autorisé par l'Assemblée Nationale à la majorité des deux tiers de ses membres.

 

Article 76 : En cas de désaccord persistant entre le Président de la République et l'Assemblée Nationale sur des questions fondamentales, le Président de la République peut, après avoir consulté le Président de l'Assemblée Nationale, prononcer la dissolution de celle-ci.

La dissolution ne peut être prononcée avant la troisième année de la législature et, au cours d'un même mandat présidentiel, plus d'une fois.

De nouvelles élections ont lieu dans les soixante jours qui suivent la dissolution.

Si celles-ci renvoient à l'Assemblée Nationale une majorité de Députés favorables à la position adoptée par l'ancienne majorité sur la question qui a provoqué la dissolution, le Président de la République doit démissionner.

L'Assemblée Nationale se réunit de plein droit dans les dix jours qui suivent son élection.

 

Titre VI : Des Traites Et Accords Internationaux

 

Article 77 : Le Président de la République négocie les engagements internationaux.

Les traités de paix, les traités de commerce, les traités ou accords relatifs à l'organisation internationale, ceux qui engagent les finances de l'Etat, ceux qui modifient les dispositions de nature législative, ceux qui sont relatifs à l'état des personnes, ceux qui comporte cession, échange ou adjonction de territoire, ne peuvent être ratifiés ou approuvés que par une loi.

Nulle cession, nul échange, null adjonction de territoire ne peut avoir lieu sans le consentement des populations concernées.

 

Article 78 : Si la Cour Suprême, saisie par le Président de la République ou un Député a déclaré qu'un engagement international comporte une clause contraire à la Loi Fondamentale, l'autorisation de la ratifier ou de l'approuver ne peut intervenir qu'après la révision de la Loi Fondamentale.

Une loi autorisant la ratification ou l'approbation d'un engagement international ne peut être déclarée non conforme à la Loi Fondamentale.

 

Article 79 : Les traités ou accords régulièrement approuvés ou ratifiés ont dès leur publication une autorité supérieure à celle des lois sous réserve de réciprocité.

 

Titre VII : Du Pouvoir Judiciaire

 

Article 80 : Le pouvoir judiciaire est indépendent du pouvoir exécutif et du pouvoir législatif.

Il est exercé exclusivement par les Cours et les Tribunaux.

 

Article 81 : Les magistrats ne sont soumis dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions qu'à l'autorité de la loi. Les magistrats du siège sont inamovibles dans les conditions déterminées par la loi.

Les magistrats sont nommés par le Président de la République, ceux du siège après avis du Conseil Supérieur de la Magistrature.

Le statut, la carrière, les garanties d'indépendance des magistrats sont fixés par une loi organique.

 

Article 82 : La composition, le fonctionnement et l'organisation du Conseil Supérieur de la Magistrature sont fixés par une loi organique.

Lorsqu'il siège en formation disciplinaire, le Conseil Supérieur de la Magistrature est présidé par le Président de la Cour Suprême.

 

Article 83 : La Cour Suprême connaît de la constitutionalité des lois et des engagements internationaux, dans les conditions prévues aux articles 64, 67 et 78.

Elle connaît en premier et dernier ressort des recours formés contre les actes du Président de la République pris en application des articles 38, 60 et 74, ainsi que des recours formés contre les ordonnances prises en application de l'article 66, sous réserve de leur ratification.

Elle connaît en premier et en dernier ressort des recours formés contre les élections à l'Assemblée Nationale et aux assemblées locales.

Elle connaît des pourvois en cassation. Les autres compétences de la Cour Suprême, non prévues par la Loi Fondamentale et la procédure suivie devant elle sont déterminées par une loi organique.

 

Article 84 : La qualité de membre de la Cour Suprême est incompatible avec toute autre fonction publique ou privée, notamment élective.

Sauf le cas de flagrant délit, les magistrats de la Cour Suprême ne peuvent être poursuivis, arrêtés, détenus ou jugés en matière pénale qu'avec l'autorisation préalable de l'assemblée générale de la Cour Suprême. Celle-ci attribue compétence à la juridiction qu'elle détermine.

La composition de la Cour Suprême, le statut, les incompatibilités et les garanties d'indépendance de ses membres sont fixé par une loi organique.

 

Titre VIII : De La Haute Cour De Justice

 

Article 85 : La Haute Cour de Justice est composée de membres élus par l'Assemblée Nationale, en son sein, au début de chaque législature.

Elle est présidée par un magistrat élu par l'assemblée générale de la Cour Suprême.

Une loi organique fixe le nombre de membres et l'organisation de la Haute Cour de Justice, ainsi que les règles de son fonctionnement et la procédure suivie devant elle.

 

Article 86 : Le Président de la République n'est responsable des actes accomplis dans l'exercice de ses fonctions qu'en cas de haute trahison.

Il ne peut être mis en accusation que par l'Assemblée Nationale statuant par un vote au scrutin secret à la majorité des trois cinquièmes des membres la composant. Il est jugé par la Haute Cour de Justice. Celle-ci peut décider lorsque le Président de la République est mis en accusation, que le Président de l'Assemblée exerce sa suppléance jusqu'à ce qu'elle ait rendu son arrêt.

Les ministres sont pénalement responsables des actes accomplis dans l'exercice de leurs fonctions et qualifiés de crimes ou de délits au moment où ils ont été commis. La procédure définie ci-dessus leur est applicable.

La Haute Cour de Justice est liée par la définition des crimes et des délits ainsi que par la détermination des peines telles qu'elles résultent des lois en vigueur au moment où les faits ont été commis.

 

Titre IX : Du Conseil Economique Et Social

 

Article 87 : Le Conseil Economique et Social donne son avis sur les questions qui lui sont renvoyées par le Président de la République ou par l'Assemblée Nationale.

Il est compétent pour examiner les projets ou propositions de loi ainsi que les projets de décret à caractère économique et social qui lui sont soumis à l'exclusion des lois de finances.

Il est obligatoirement consulté sur les projets de lois de plan et de programme à caractère économique. Il peut, de sa propre initiative et sous forme de recommandation, attirer l'attention du Président de la République et de l'Assemblée Nationale sur les réformes d'ordre économique et social qui lui paraissent conformes ou contraires à l'intérêt général.

Sur la demande du Président de la République ou de l'Assemblée Nationale, il désigne un de ses membres pour exposer devant les commissions de l'Assemblée Nationale, l'avis du Conseil sur les projets ou les propositions de loi qui lui ont été soumis.

Une loi organique fixe la composition et le fonctionnement du Conseil Economique et Social.

 

Titre X : De La Revision De La Loi Fondamentale

 

Article 88 : Les collectivités territoriales de la République sont les Préfectures, les Communes urbaines et les Communautés rurales de développement. La création de collectivités territoriales, la réorganisation des collectivités territoriales existantes relèvent de la loi.

 

Article 89 : Les collectivités territoriales s'administrent librement par des conseils élus, sous le contrôle de l'Etat qui a la charge des intérêts nationaux et du respect des lois.

 

Article 90 : La loi organise la décentralisation par le transfert de compétences, de ressources et de moyens aux collectivités territoriales.

 

Titre XI : De La Revision De La Loi Fondamentale

 

Article 91 : L'initiative de la révision de la Loi Fondamentale appartient concurremment au Président de la République et aux Députés.

Le projet ou la proposition de révision adoptée par l'Assemblée Nationale ne devient définitif qu'après avoir été approuvé par référendum.

Toutefois le projet n'est pas présenté au référendum lorsque le Président de la République décide de le soumettre à la seule Assemblée Nationale. Dans ce cas le projet de révision est approuvé à la majorité des deux tiers des membres composant l'Assemblée Nationale. Il est de même de la proposition de révision qui aura recueilli l'approbation du Président de la République.

Aucune procédure de révision ne peut être entreprise ou poursuivie en cas de d'occupation d'une partie ou de la totalité du territoire national, en cas d'état d'urgence ou d'état de siège.

La forme républicaine de l'Etat, le principe de la laïcité et le principe de la séparation des pouvoirs ne peuvent faire l'objet d'une révision.

 

Titre XII : Des Dispositions Transitoires

 

Article 92 : Il sera procédé aux élections prévues aux articles 24 et 47 à l'issue d'une période transitoire qui n'excède pas cinq ans à compter de l'adoption de la présente Loi Fondamentale par le peuple de Guinée par voie de référendum.

 

Article 93 : En attendant l'entrée en vigueur de la présente Loi Fondamentale, le Conseil Transitoire de Redressement National remplace le Comité Militaire de Redressement National (CMRN) dans ses attributions.

A ce titre il est, notamment, investi du pouvoir législatif.

Une ordonnace détermine la composition, l'organisation, les règles de fonctionnement et les compétences du CTRN (Conseil Transitoire de Redressement National).

 

Article 94 : Les lois nécessaires à la mise en place des institutions et, jusqu'à cette mise en place, au fonctionnement des pouvoirs publics, sont adoptées par le Conseil Transitoire de Redressement National et promulguées par le Président de la République dans le délai fixé à l'article 92.

Pendant ce délai, le Conseil Transitoire de Redressement National peut également prendre en toute matière les mesures qu'il juge nécessaires à la vie de la Nation, la protection des citoyens ou à la sauvegarde des libertés.

 

Article 95 : Les dispositions de l'article 3 entreront en vigueur un an avant la date fixée, en application de l'article 92  pour les élections. Le nombre de partis politiques susceptibles d'être constitués est limité à deux jusqu'à l'intervention d'une loi organique modifiant ce nombre.

Les dispositions des articles 64, 67 alinéa 2, 78 et 83 entreront en vigueur à l'installation de la Cour Suprême. Celles relatives au Conseil Suprême de la Magistrature et au Conseil Economique et Social entreront en vigueur à l'installation de ces institutions. Ces installations interviendront aux dates fixées par le Conseil Transitoire de Redressement National et, en tout état de cause, avant la fin de la période transitoire.

 

Article 96 : Les autres dispositions de la présente Loi Fondamentale entreront en vigueur un an à compter de son adoption.

 

 

English version

 

By its vote on Sept. 28, 1958, the People of Guinea opted for freedom and established on October 2, 1958, a sovereign State: The Republic Of Guinea.
Drawing lessons from its past policy and the change intervened on April 3, 1984,
The People Of Guinea,

Proclaims:
     * Equality and solidarity of all citizens regardless of race, ethnicity, sex, origin, religion and opinion.
     * Its commitment to the ideals and principles, rights and duties established in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Charter of the Organization of African Unity and the African Charter for Human and Peoples' Rights.
Affirms solemnly its fundamental opposition to any regime based on dictatorship, injustice, corruption, nepotism and regionalism.

Reaffirms:
     * Its willingness to perform in unity and national reconciliation, a State based on the rule of law and respect for the law democratically established;
     * Its willingness to establish relations of friendship and cooperation with all peoples of the world on the basis of principles of equality, respect for national sovereignty, territorial integrity and the mutual interest;
     * Its dedication to the cause of African Unity, sub-regional integration of the continent.
     * - Free to determine its institutions, the people of Guinea adopted this Fundamental Law.

Part One: The Sovereignty and the State

Article 1: Guinea is a unitary Republic, indivisible, secular, democratic and social. It guarantees equality before the law for all citizens irrespective of their origin, race, ethnicity, sex, religion and opinion. It respects all beliefs.
The official language is French. The state promotes the cultures and languages of the people of Guinea.
The flag consists of three equal vertical stripes of colors: RED, YELLOW And GREEN.
The national anthem is "freedom". The motto of the Republic is "Labor - Justice - Solidarity."
Its principle is: Government Of The People By The People And For The People.

Article 2: National sovereignty belongs to the people who exercise it through their elected representatives and through a referendum. No fraction of the people, no individual can attribute to himself its exercise.
Suffrage is universal, direct, equal and secret.
Under the conditions laid down by law, voters are, all citizens of Guinea major of one or the other sex, enjoying their civil and political rights.

Article 3: Political parties contribute to the political education of citizens and to the exercise of suffrage. Only they can present candidates in national elections.
They must be located on the entire national territory.
They should not identify with one race, ethnicity, religion or territory.
They must also abide by the principles of national sovereignty and democracy, territorial integrity and public order.
An organic law specifies the conditions under which political parties are being formed and exercise their activities. It may also specify, for a given time, the maximum number of parties that may be formed. It specifies the conditions under which a party that ignore the provisions of the preceding paragraphs are no longer considered legally constituted.

Article 4: The law punishes anyone who, by an act of racial, ethnic or religious hatred or by an act of regionalist propaganda, poses a serious threat to national unity, state security, and the integrity of the territory of the Republic or the functioning of democratic institutions.

 
Part II: Freedoms, Duties and Human Rights

Article 5: The person and human dignity are sacred. The State has the duty to respect and protect them.
The rights and freedoms listed below shall be inviolable and inalienable and imprescriptible. They are basis for every human society, and guarantee peace and justice throughout the world.

Article 6: The man has the right to free development of his personality.
He has the right to life and physical integrity. No one shall be subjected to torture, cruel punishment, and inhumane or degrading treatment.

Article 7: He is free to think, to believe and profess his religious beliefs, political or philosophical opinions.
He is free to express, to demonstrate, to disseminate his ideas and opinions through speech, writing and image.
He is free to learn and get information from sources available to all.

Article 8: All human beings are equal before the law. Men and women have equal rights. Nobody should be privileged or disadvantaged because of his birth, race, ethnicity, language, beliefs and political opinions, religious or philosophical.

Article 9: No one may be arrested, detained or convicted only on the grounds and in the manner prescribed by law. All have the imprescriptible right to apply to the court to assert their rights against the state and its servants.
Everybody is entitled to a fair and impartial trial, in which the right of defence is guaranteed.
The law establishes the penalties necessary and proportionate to the misconduct that that can justify them.

Article 10: All citizens have the right to demonstrate and parade.
All citizens have the right to form associations and societies to exercise their collective rights and their political, economic, social or cultural rights.
All citizens have the right to establish and operate on the territory of the Republic, to enter and leave freely.

Article 11: Anyone who is persecuted because of his political views, philosophical or religious beliefs, race, ethnicity, its intellectual, scientific and cultural activities for the defence of freedom has asylum on the territory of the Republic.

Article 12: The home is inviolable. It can be violated only in the event of grave and imminent peril, to avert a common danger or to protect people's lives. Any other attack, any search can be ordered by the judge or by the authority that the law designate in the manner prescribed by it.
The secrecy of correspondence and communications is inviolable. Everyone has the right to protect his privacy.

Article 13: The right of ownership is guaranteed. Nobody can be expropriated if it is not in the general interest legally recognized, and subject to a fair and prior compensation.

Article 14: The freedom of worship is guaranteed. The religious institutions and communities are formed and are freely administered.
They are not subject to supervision by the State.

Article 15: Individual has the right to health and physical well-being. The State has a duty to promote, and to combat epidemics and social evils.

Article 16: Marriage and the family, which are the natural foundation of life in society are protected and promoted by the state.
Parents have the right and duty to ensure education and the physical and moral health of their children. Children need care and assistance to their parents.

Article 17: Youth must be especially protected against exploitation and neglect.
The elderly and disabled receive assistance and the protection of society.

Article 18: The right to work is recognized to all. The state created the necessary conditions for the exercise of this right.
Nobody could be discriminated against in his work because of his sex, race, ethnicity or his opinions.
Everyone has the right to join the trade union of his choice, and defend its rights through trade union action. Every worker has the right to participate through its delegates to the determination of working conditions.
The right to strike is recognized. It is exercised within the framework of the laws that govern it. It can in no way detract from the freedom of work.
The law sets out the conditions for assistance and protection to which workers are entitled.

Article 19: People of Guinea freely and sovereignty determines its institutions and the economic and social organization of the nation.
It has an inalienable right over its wealth. Every Guinean should fairly benefit form it.
It has the right to the preservation of its heritage, its culture and its environment.
It has the right to resist oppression.


Article 20: Every citizen has a duty to abide by the Fundamental Law, laws and regulations.
Every citizen has a duty to participate in elections, to promote tolerance, the values of democracy, to be loyal to the nation.
Every citizen has the duty to respect and honour the views of others.
Every citizen must contribute, to the best of its ability to tax and must fulfil its social obligations under the conditions determined by the law.
Every citizen has the sacred duty of defending the motherland.

Article 21: The State shall promote the welfare of citizens.
It ensures pluralism of opinions and sources of information.
It ensures the security of everyone, and the maintenance of public order.
It ensures the continuity of institutions and public services, in accordance with the Fundamental Law.
It guarantees equal access to public sector jobs.
It promotes the unity of the nation and Africa. It cooperates with other states to consolidate their independence, peace, mutual respect and friendship between peoples.
It provides education for youth, which is mandatory. It creates the conditions and institutions allowing everyone to be trained. It guarantees freedom of education, and control private schools.

Article 22: The law guarantees all the enjoyment of fundamental rights and freedoms. It determines the conditions under which they operate.
It can set limits to these freedoms and rights as those that are essential to the maintenance of public order and democracy.
The groups whose purpose or activity is contrary to the law or disrupting public order obviously can be dissolved.

Article 23: Whoever occupies a public office or performing a public function is accountable for its activities, and must respect the principle of neutrality of the public service. He must not use his office for any purpose other than the benefit of all.


Part III: The President of the Republic

Article 24: The President of the Republic is elected by direct universal suffrage.
The term of office is seven years, renewable.

Article 25: The ballot for the election of the President of the Republic has held forty-five days at most and at least thirty days before the date of expiry of the mandate of the President of the Republic in office.
If there is reason to proceed to a second ballot, it is programmed the fourteenth day after the first round.
The President indicates the polling day at least sixty days in advance of that day.

Article 26: Every candidate for the Presidency of the Republic must be of Guinean nationality, enjoy his civil and political rights and have the ages of forty years at least and seventy years at most.
Applications are filed at the Registry of the Supreme Court at least forty days and not more than sixty days prior to Election Day. No application is admissible if it is not made by a legally constituted political party. Each party may submit only one application.
Thirty-nine days before the election, the Supreme Court shall adopt and publish the list of candidates. Voters are then summoned by Decree.

Article 27: In the event of death or permanent incapacity established by the Supreme Court a candidate on the list provided for in Article 26, the Supreme Court decides whether to reopen the periods during which new applications can be filed. In this case a new polling date is fixed under the conditions provided for in Article 20.

Article 28: The election campaign opened thirty days before the polling day and close on the eve at 0 hour. In the event of a second round, the election campaign opened on the day after the announcement of the results of the first round and closed on the eve of the second round at 0 hour.
The Supreme Court shall ensure the regularity of the election campaign, the equality between candidates for the use of means of propaganda, as determined by an organic law.

Article 29: Is elected, the candidate who obtains an absolute majority of votes cast.
In the event, following the first round, no candidate would obtain that majority; there shall be a second ballot in accordance with the provisions of article 25. Only the two candidates (or else, after the withdrawal of most disadvantaged candidates) who obtained the highest number of votes in the first round. 
The Supreme Court shall ensure the regularity of the poll.

Article 30: If no dispute regarding the regularity of elections has been filed by one of the candidates in the Registry of the Supreme Court within eight days following the day on which the first comprehensive aggregation of results was published, Supreme Court proclaims elected the President of the Republic.
In case of dispute, the court rules within three days from the day of submission of complain. Its decision carries proclamation or cancellation of the election.
In case of cancellation of the election, new election is held within sixty days.

Article 31: The elected President of the Republic takes office on the day the term of office of his predecessor ends. 
In the event that, following the annulment of an election, none of the candidates had been declared elected on that date, the ruling President shall remain in office until the announcement of the results.
In the event of death or permanent inability of the President elected before he took office, there shall be new elections within sixty days. The ruling President shall remain in office until the results are announced.
Notwithstanding Article 34, in the event of death or permanent inability of the President in office before the inauguration of the President-elected, he will enter immediately in Office.
The President of the Republic is installed in office after being sworn in before the Supreme Court. By this oath, he undertakes to comply strictly, enforce the provisions of the Fundamental Law and laws, to defend the constitutional institutions, territorial integrity and national independence.

Article 32: The President of the Republic is being protected from offences, insults and slander in accordance with the conditions determined by the law.

Article 33: The duty of President of the Republic is incompatible with the exercise of any other public or private, even elective functions. He must, among other things, cease to exercise any responsibility within a political party.

Article 34: In the event of a vacancy of the office of President of the Republic following the death or resignation of the President, or any other cause of an impediment, the interim presidency is exercised by the President of the National Assembly (Speaker of the National Assembly) or, If prevented from above, by one of the vice-presidents of the National Assembly in order of precedence.
The vacancy is pronounced by the Supreme Court on the request of the Speaker of the National Assembly or, in his absence thereof, by one of its vice-chairmen.
The maximum duration of substitution is sixty days. The ballot for the election of the President of the Republic shall take place except in cases of force majeure recognized by the Supreme Court, at least thirty-five days   and at most fifty days after the opening of the vacancy.

Article 35: Substitution to the President extends to all functions of the latter, except the right to resort to a referendum to decide the dissolution of the National Assembly, to initiate a revision of the Fundamental Law, to exercise the prerogative of mercy.

Article 36: Former Presidents of the Republic shall take precedence protocol immediately after the President of the Republic, in the order of seniority of their mandates, before the President of the National Assembly.
They sit by right in Economic and Social Council.
They enjoy of material benefits and protection under the conditions that determine an organic law.

Article 37: The President of the Republic ensures compliance with the Fundamenral Law. It ensures the proper functioning of public authorities and the continuity of the State. It determines and conducts the policy of the nation.

Article 38: The President of the Republic shall execute the laws and has the regulatory power that he exercises by decree.

Article 39: The President appoints ministers, who assist him and who are answerable only to him. It can sack them.

He determines by decree the responsibilities of each minister. He can delegate part of his prerogative to him.

Article 40: The President appoints to all civilian jobs. He directs the Administration.

Article 41: The President of the Republic is the guarantor of national independence and territorial integrity.
He is responsible for national defence. He presides over the High Council of National Defence.
He is the head of the army. He appoints to all military posts.

Article 42: The President of the Republic accredits ambassadors and extraordinary envoys to foreign powers. 
The ambassadors and extraordinary envoys are accredited to him.

Article 43: The President of the Republic exercises the right of pardon.

Article 44: The President of Republic can address messages to the nation.
It does not participate in the debates of the National Assembly.
When it addresses to the National Assembly, the message is read by a minister.

Article 45:  The President may, after consultation with the Speaker of the National Assembly, submit to referendum any bill on the organization of government, concerning fundamental rights and freedoms and economic and social activities of State, or to authorize the ratification of a treaty.
It must, if the National Assembly called for a resolution adopted by a two-thirds majority of members, submit to a referendum any bill on the organization of government or about fundamental rights and freedoms.
Before convening the electorate by decree, the President shall obtain the opinion of the Supreme Court on the conformity of the bill to the Fundamental Law. In the event of non-conformity, he cannot proceed to the referendum.
The Supreme Court shall ensure the regularity of operations of the referendum. When the referendum concluded that the adoption of the draft, it is promulgated by in the conditions laid down in article 62.


Part IV: The National Assembly

Article 46 : The Representative Assembly of the People of Guinea bears the name of National Assembly. Its members carry the title of ‘Députés’ to the National Assembly.

Article 47: The Members of the National Assembly are elected by direct universal suffrage.
Their term of office is five years, except in the case of dissolution. It may be renewed.

Article 48: Nobody can be a candidate if it is not submitted by a legally constituted political party.
The eligibility requirements, the regime of ineligibilities and incompatibilities are determined by an organic law.

Article 49: The Supreme Court shall ensure the regularity of elections and the campaign leading up to it. It receives and judges for any disagreement.

Article 50: One third of MPs is elected in single-seat majority in a single round. An organic law sets the electoral districts.
The two-thirds of the MPs are elected through a national list, with proportional representation. Non-ascribed Seats in national quotient are distributed at the highest rest.

Article 51: An organic law sets the number of MPs and the amount of their compensation.
It also determines the conditions under which people that are elected to replace, in the event of a vacancy, the MPs until the renewal of the General Assembly.

Article 52: No member of the National Assembly can be prosecuted, searched, arrested, detained or tried on the because of opinions or votes cast by him in the exercise of his duties as Deputy.
No MP can, during the sessions, be prosecuted or arrested, in criminal matters, unless authorized by the Assembly National, except in case of flagrant offence.
No MP can, after session, be arrested or detained without the permission of the Bureau of the National Assembly, except in cases of flagrant offence, authorized by the Assembly or final judgement.
Preventive detention or prosecution of an MP will be suspended if the Assembly requests.

Article 53: The President of the National Assembly shall be elected for the duration of the legislature.

Article 54:  The resolution of the National Assembly is established by an organic law which determines:
     * The composition and functioning of the office of the Assembly;
     * The number, method of appointment, the composition and jurisdiction of standing committees;
     * Modalities for the establishment of temporary special commissions;
     * The organization of administrative services under the authority of the President of the Assembly;
     * The rules of conduct of proceedings, taking of floor, vote and disciplinary regime of MPs;
     * In general all rules relating to the operation of the National Assembly are under the powers attributed to it by the Fundamental Law.

Article 55 : The National Assembly meets in regular session twice a year.
The first session begins on April 5, the duration may not exceed thirty days.
The second session begins on October 5, the duration shall not exceed sixty days.

If April 5 or Oct. 5 is a public holiday the opening of the session will be held on the first working day following.
The annual budget is considered during the second regular session of the previous year.

Article 56: The National Assembly is meeting in special session at the initiative of President of the Republic or at the request of a majority of members, on an determined agenda.
Extraordinary The session is closed as soon as the National Assembly exhausts the agenda for which it was convened. The duration of the session may not exceed fifteen days. 
The MPs can apply for a new special session before the end of the month following the close of the session.
Except in cases where the National Assembly meets ipso facto, the sessions are opened and closed by decree.

Article 57: All imperative mandate is null and void.
The right to vote of MPs is personal. The organic law may allow, in exceptional cases, the delegation to vote. In this case, no one can be delegated to more than one principal.

Article 58: Sessions of the National Assembly are public. However, a majority vote of members, may decide that the Assembly meets in private.
The full account of the discussion is published in the Official Gazette.

 
Part V: The Relationship Between The President Of The Republic And The National Assembly

Article 59:  Subject to the provisions of Article 45, the National Assembly adopts the law alone.
The law cannot provide but for the future.
The law establishes rules concerning:
     * Guarantees of fundamental freedoms and rights, the conditions under which they are enjoyed and limitations that may be brought to them;
     * Civil rights, nationality, status, the ability of persons, matrimonial property, inheritance and gifts;
     * The constraints imposed for national defence in the citizens themselves and their property;
     * Determination of offences, the penalties applicable to them, criminal procedure, amnesty, the creation and composition of the court orders and the Statute of judges;
     * The base, the rate and modalities of collection and control of taxes of all kinds, and mandatory contributions;
     * Electoral regulations of the National Assembly in everything that is not specified by the Fundamental Law, the electoral system of elected councils of local governments;
     * The fundamental guarantees granted to civilian and military officials of the State;
     * The regime to issue national currency;
     * The creation of the categories of public institutions;
     * Expropriation, nationalization or privatization of enterprises
The law determines the fundamental principles:
     * General organization of national defence and the maintenance of public order;
     * The free administration of local governments, their jurisdictions and resources;
     * Of education;
     * Regime of property, real property rights and civil and commercial obligations;
     * Labour law, the right to organize and Social Welfare;
     * Cultural development and the protection of heritage and the environment.
The laws of Finance determine annually the total resources and expense of the state, in the manner and with the reservations provided by an organic law.
Laws of planning set the multiannual guidelines for development of the nation and the commitment of the State.
Laws of programme determine by sectors the objectives of economic and social activities of the State.

Article 60:  Matters other than those in the field of law have a regulatory nature.
When provisions of a statute intervene in these other subjects, they can be changed by decree after the Supreme Court had found regulatory nature.

Article 61:  The National Assembly vote the annual budget under the conditions laid down by an organic law.
The draft budget is deposited on the desk of the National Assembly no later than the day before the opening of the second regular session
The National Assembly has sixty days in which to vote the draft. If for reasons of fortuitous events, the President of the Republic has been able to file in the draft in a timely manner, the regular session is immediately followed by right of a special session whose length is not greater than the time needed to cover the period between the date of filing the bill in sixtieth day following.
If at the expiry of the deadline, the bill was not passed, it may be implemented by decree, taking into account the amendments passed by the National Assembly and accepted by the President of the Republic.
If, in view of the process required above, the Finance Act of the year could not be put into effect before the beginning of the year, the President of the Republic urges the National Assembly to give authorization to collect taxes. It is pronounced within two days. The President of the Republic is authorized to extend by decree the operating budget of the previous year.
The Supreme Court ensures the monitoring of the implementation of the finance laws. It reported to the National Assembly.
 
Article 62:  After its adoption by the National Assembly, the law is passed without delay to the President of the Republic.
The President of the Republic enacts the law within ten days. The period runs eight days after the transmission of the law adopted.

Article 63:  Within a period of ten days set for the promulgation, the President may, by message, request to the National Assembly a new debate that cannot be denied.
The deadline for enactment is then suspended.
The law can be passed on second reading only if two-thirds of the members of the National Assembly are in favour of its adoption. Its inclusion on the agenda is a priority if the majority of the members of the National Assembly so requests.

Article 64 : Within eight days after the enactment of a law, the President of the Republic or at least one-tenth of MPs may refer that law to the Supreme Court seeking a monitor of compliance of the law with the Fundamental Law.
The deadline for enactment is then suspended.
The Supreme Court sits within thirty days from the day of that referral or, if the President of the Republic so requests, within eight days. The judgement of the Supreme Court is published in the Official Gazette.
A provision of a law found not conformed to the Fundamental Law cannot be enacted or enforced. The Supreme Court's judgement binds everyone.
The deadline for enactment run from the issuance of the Supreme Court's judgement, which declare that the law is conformed to the Fundamental Law.

Article 65:  Failure to promulgate the law by the President of the Republic by the deadline; the law comes into force.

Article 66:  The National Assembly may by law empower the President of the Republic to take measures which are normally the domain of the law, for a given period and objects it determines.
Within the limits of time and competence set in the enabling law, the President of the Republic gives orders that come into effect upon publication, but will lapse if a bill for ratification is not filed before the National Assembly before the date set by the enabling law.

After that date, they can only be changed by law. They, however, retain their regulatory value until ratification.  
They may be amended during voting of the ratification of the bill.

Article 67:  The laws described as organic law by this Fundamental Law is passed and amended by a two-thirds majority of the members of the National Assembly.
They may not be enacted if the Supreme Court to which it must be necessarily submitted by the President of the Republic, has not declared it conformed with the Fundamental Law.
The National Assembly cannot empower the President of the Republic to take by order measures that fall under the organic law.

Article 68:  The initiative of the laws belongs currently to the President of the Republic and MPs.

Article 69: The President and Members of the National Assembly have the right of amendment. The amendments of the President of the Republic shall be submitted by a minister.
The proposed amendment made by Members of Parliament are not receivable if they do not fall within the scope of the law, or if they fall within the powers delegated to the President of the Republic pursuant to article 66 during the period of this delegation.
They are not admissible if adoption would result in a reduction of public resources, or the creation or aggravation of public expenditure unless revenues are provided in compensation.
 

Article 70:  In case of disagreement between the National Assembly and the President of the Republic, represented by a minister, on the admissibility of an amendment, the Supreme Court decides in eight days, at the request of one or another.


Article 71: The National Assembly sets its agenda.
However, the President may request registration as a priority in the agenda, a bill or a policy statement. This listing is by right.
The period of review texts inscribed on the agenda as a priority may not exceed half the duration of the regular session.

Article 72: The ministers can be heard at any time by the National Assembly and its commissions. They may be assisted by employees of their choice.

 
Article 73: The deputies may pose to the ministers, who are required to answer, questions written and oral questions with or without debate. The answers given are not followed by a vote. They are published in the Official Gazette.
One meeting per week is set-aside during each session, to oral questions without debate.
The National Assembly may appoint from among its members of commissions of inquiry. The resolution of the Assembly determines the powers of these commissions.
They are created by law, which defines the composition, function and purpose, and which specifies the powers.

Article 74: The state of siege, as the state of emergency is declared by the President after consulting the President of the National Assembly and the President of the Supreme Court. These opinions are published in the Official Gazette. The President may take, by order, any measures necessary to defend the territorial integrity and the restoration or maintenance of public order. The National Assembly meets then ipso facto, if it is not in session. It may not be dissolved.
The decree declaring a state of siege or state of emergency ceases to be in force after twelve days, unless the National Assembly, requested by the President authorizes the extension for a period that it determines.
Orders taken in the implementation of a state of siege and of the state of emergency cease to be in force at the end thereof.

Article 75:  A state of war is declared by the President of the Republic after being cleared by the National Assembly by a majority of two thirds of its members.

Article 76:  In case of disagreement between the President and the National Assembly on key issues, the President may, after consultation with the Chairman of the National Assembly, pronounce the dissolution thereof.
The dissolution cannot be imposed until the third year of the legislature and, during the same presidential mandate, more than once.
New elections are held within sixty days of the dissolution.
If they refer to the National Assembly a majority of MPs supported the position taken by the former majority on the issue, which led to the dissolution, the President should resign.
The National Assembly shall meet as of right within ten days after his election.


Part VI: Drafts and International Agreements

Article 77 : The President negotiates international commitments.
Peace treaties, commercial treaties, treaties or agreements relating to the international organization, those who commit the finances of the State, to amend the provisions of a legislative nature, those relating to status of person, includes those who transfer, exchange or addition of territory, can not be ratified or approved but by statute.
No surrender, no exchange, no addition of territory cannot take place without the consent of the people concerned.

Article 78:  If the Supreme Court, requested by the President of the Republic or an MP, says that international commitment includes a clause contrary to the Fundamental Law, permission to ratify it or to approve it can only be given after the review of the Fundamental Law.
A law authorizing the ratification or approval of an international commitment can be found not to conform to the Fundamental Law.

Article 79: The treaties or agreements regularly approved or ratified as they are issued have a higher authority than that of the laws subject to reciprocity.

 
Part VII: The Judiciary

Article 80: The judiciary is independent from the executive and legislative power.
It is exercised exclusively by the Courts.

Article 81: Judges are not subject, during the exercise of their functions, but to the authority of the law. Judges have security of tenure under the conditions set by law.
Judges are appointed by the President of the Republic, for the sitting judges, after consultation with the Superior Council of Judges.
The status, career, the guarantees of independence of the judiciary shall be determined by an organic law.

Article 82: The composition, functioning and organization of the Superior Council of Judges are set by an organic law.
When sitting in disciplinary session, the Superior Council of Judges is chaired by the President of the Supreme Court.

Article 83: The Supreme Court hears the constitutionality of laws and international commitments under the conditions provided for in Articles 64, 67 and 78.
It sits for first and last resort over appeals against acts of the President of the Republic filed under sections 38, 60 and 74, as well as appeals against orders made under article 66, subject to their ratification.
It sits for first and last appeals against the elections to the National Assembly and local assemblies.
It hears appeals in cassation. Other powers of the Supreme Court not provided for by the Fundamental Law and the procedure before it is determined by an organic law.

Article 84: Membership of the Supreme Court is incompatible with any other public or private office, including elective one.
Except in the case of flagrant offence, judges of the Supreme Court cannot be prosecuted, arrested, detained or tried in criminal matters only with the prior permission of the General Assembly of the Supreme Court. It determines the jurisdiction of court designates.
The composition of the Supreme Court, the status, inconsistencies and guarantees of independence of its members are determined by an organic law.

 

Part VIII: The High Court of Justice

Article 85: The High Court of Justice is composed of members elected by the National Assembly from among its members at the beginning of each parliamentary term.
It is presided over by a judge elected by the general assembly of the Supreme Court.
An organic law specifies the number of members and the organization of the High Court of Justice, and the rules governing its operations and the proceedings before it.

Article 86: The President of the Republic shall not be liable for acts performed in the exercise of his duties but in cases of high treason.
He cannot be indicted but by the National Assembly ruling by a secret ballot by a majority of three-fifths of the members composing it. He is judged by the High Court of Justice. It can decide when the President is being accused, that the President of Speaker of the National Assembly exercises his temporary replacement until it had delivered its judgement.
The ministers are criminally liable for acts performed in the exercise of their functions and characterized as crimes or misdemeanor during the time they were committed. The procedure defined above is applicable to them.
The High Court of Justice is bound by the definition of crimes and offences as well as the punishment provided for such as a result of the laws in force at the time the acts were committed.


Part IX: The Economic and Social Council

Article 87: The Economic and Social Council gives its opinion on matters referred to it by the President of the Republic or by the National Assembly.
It is competent to deal with bills and the draft decree of economic and social nature, which are submitted to it to the exclusion of the finance laws.
It has to be necessarily consulted on proposed legislation of plan and program of economic nature. It may, on its own initiative and in the form of a recommendation, draw the attention of the President of the Republic and the National Assembly on the reform of economic and social order, as it deems consistent with or contrary to the public interest.
At the request of the President or the National Assembly, it shall designate one of its members to explain to the committees of the National Assembly, the Council's opinion on the projects or legislative proposals that have been submitted.
An organic law sets the composition and functioning of the Economic and Social Council.


Part X: The Review Of The Fundamental Law

Article 88: The local authorities of the Republic are the prefectures, urban municipalities and Community of Rural Development. The creation and the reorganisation of local authorities are under the existing law.

Article 89: The local governments are freely elected by councils under the control of the State, which has the burden of national interests and law enforcement.

Article 90: The law organizes the decentralization through the transfer of capacity, resources and local authorities.


Part XI: The Review of the Fundamental Law

Article 91: The initiative of revision of the Fundamental Law belongs currently to the President of the Republic and Members of Parliament.
The project or the proposed revision adopted by the National Assembly shall not become final until they have been approved by referendum.
However, the draft is not submitted to a referendum when the President of the Republic decides to submit it to the National Assembly only. In this case the proposed revision is approved by a two-thirds majority of the members of the National Assembly. It is also of the proposed revision from the National Assembly, which has gathered the approval of the President of the Republic.
No procedure of amendment can be undertaken or can continue in the case of occupation of part or all of the national territory, a State of emergency or a State of siege.
The republican form of government, the principle of secularism and the principle of separation of powers cannot be subject to revision.

 
Part XII: Transitional Provisions

Article 92: There will be the elections scheduled at articles 24 and 47 at the end of a transitional period not exceeding five years from the adoption of this Fundamental Law by the people of Guinea through a referendum.

Article 93: Pending the entry into force of the Fundamental Law, the Transitional National Recovery replaces the Military Committee for National Recovery (CMRN) within its remit.
As such it is, in particular, invested in the legislative power.
An ordinance determines the composition, organization, operating rules and competence of CTRN.

Article 94: The legislation necessary for the establishment of the institutions and, until that establishment, operation of government, are adopted by the Transitional National Recovery and promulgated by the President of the Republic within the time specified in article 92.
During this period, the Transitional National Recovery Council can also take on any subject whatever action it deemed necessary in the life of the nation, the protection of citizens or for the protection of freedoms.

Article 95: The provisions of article 3 shall enter into force one year before its due date, in accordance with article 92 for the elections. The number of political parties likely to be formed is limited to two until the intervention of an organic law amending that number.
The provisions of articles 64, 67, paragraph 2, 78 and 83 will enter into force for the installation of the Supreme Court. Those relating to the Superior Council of Judges and the Economic and Social Council will come into force with the installation of these institutions. These facilities will occur on dates set by the National Transitional Recovery Council and, in any case, before the end of the transitional period.

Article 96: Other provisions of this Fundamental Law will come into force one year after its adoption.

 

 

II:  Electoral Code

 

French Version

 

Le Conseil Transitoire de Redressement National, après en avoir délibéré, a adopté ;

Le Président de la République promulgue la Loi dont la teneur suit

 

Titre 1 : Des Dispositions Communes A Toutes Les Consultations Electorales

 

Chapitre 1 : Des Dispositions Generales

 

Article L 1 Le suffrage est universel, direct, égal et secret.

 

Article L 2 Le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur est l'autorité administrative qui organise les élections.

Les Cours et tribunaux veillent à la régularité des élections et règlent le contentieux électoral dans les conditions définies par la présente loi.

Conformément à la Loi Fondamentale, la Cour Suprême veille à la régularité des élections présidentielles et législatives.

Le Ministre chargé de l'intérieur est tenu d'informer la Cour Suprême des différents actes et opérations se rapportant auxdites élections.

La Cour Suprême peut, à tout moment, prescrire toutes mesures qu'elle juge utiles à la régularité et au bon déroulement des élections.

 

Chapitre 2 : des conditions requises pour etre electeur

 

Article L 3 Sont électeurs, tous les guinéens âgés de 18 ans révolus le jour du scrutin, jouissant de leurs droits civils et politiques, nonobstant les dispositions de l'article 443 du Code Civil, et n'étant dans aucun cas d'incapacité prévu par la législation en vigueur.

 

Article L 4 Les conditions d'électorat des étrangers naturalisés sont fixées par l'article 89, alinéa 2 du code civil.

Les femmes ayant acquis la nationalité guinéenne par le mariage dans les conditions fixées par l'article 49 du code Civil sont électrices, conformément aux dispositions visées à l'article 53 du Code Civil.

Sont également électeurs, les étrangers bénéficiant du droit de vote en application des accords de réciprocité.

 

Article L 5 Nul ne peut voter :

- s'il n'est inscrit sur la liste électorale de la circonscription électorale où se trouve son domicile au sens de l'article 244 du code civil ;

- s'il n'a habité depuis au moins six mois audit domicile sous réserve des dispositions de l'article 10 ci-dessous ;

- s'il ne s'est acquitté de ses devoirs civiques ;

- s'il ne possède une carte d'identité nationale et un certificat de résidence ou l'une des pièces citées à l'article 21 de la présente loi.

 

Chapitre 3 : Les Listes Electorales

 

Section 1 : Des Conditions D'inscription Sur Les Listes Electorales

 

Article L 6 L'inscription sur une liste électorale est obligatoire pour tout citoyen remplissant les conditions légalement requises.

 

Article L 7 Nul ne peut être inscrit sur plus d'une liste électorale ni être inscrit plus d'une fois sur la même liste.

 

Article L 8 Ne doivent pas être inscrits sur la liste électorale sauf cas de réhabilitation :

1o) Les individus condamnés pour crime ;

2o) Ceux condamnés à une peine d'emprisonnement sans sursis ou à une peine d'emprisonnement avec sursis d'une durée supérieure à un mois, assortie ou non d'une amende, pour l'une des infractions suivantes :

* vol ;

* escroquerie ;

* abus de confiance ;

* détournement et soustraction commis par agent public ;

* corruption et trafic d'influence

3o) Ceux condamnés pour un délit de contrefaçons et en général, pour l'un des délits passibles d'une peine supérieure à cinq ans d'emprisonnement ;

4o) Ceux condamnés à plus de trois mois d'emprisonnement sans sursis, ou une peine d'emprisonnement d'une durée supérieure à six mois avec sursis, pour un délit autre que ceux énumérés au deuxième point ci-dessus ;

5o) Ceux qui sont en état de contumace ;

6o) Les faillis non réhabilités dont la faillite a été déclarée soit par les tribunaux guinéens, soit par un jugement rendu à l'étranger et exécutoire en République de Guinée ;

7o) Les internés et les incapables majeurs ;

8o) Les individus auxquels les tribunaux ont interdit le droit de vote.

 

Article L 9 Il est établi une liste électorale pour chaque Commune et pour chaque Communauté Rurale de Développement (C.R.D.). Copie de cette liste est déposée à la Sous-Préfecture pour le fichier sous-préfectoral, à la préfecture pour le fichier préfectoral, au gouvernorat, pour la ville de Conakry et au Ministère chargé de l'Intérieur pour le fichier général.

Il est également établi une liste électorale pour chaque représentation diplomatique de la République de Guinée.

Ces listes constituent le fichier consulaire tenu par le Ministère des affaires étrangères. Copies de ces listes sont déposées par le Ministère des affaires étrangères au Ministère chargé de l'Intérieur pour le fichier.

 

Article L 10 Les listes électorales des Communes comprennent :

1o) Tous les électeurs qui ont leur domicile dans la Commune ou y résident depuis six mois au moins au moment de l'inscription ;

2o) Ceux qui sont assujettis à une résidence obligatoire en qualité de fonctionnaire ou agent de l'Etat, des collectivités locales et des établissements publics ou en qualité d'agent de sociétés ou d'entreprises privées.

 

Article L 11 Dans les Communautés Rurales de Développement, la liste électorale comprend tous les électeurs qui y ont leur résidence à titre principal.

 

Article L 12 Sont également inscrits sur les listes électorales dans les Communes et les Communautés Rurales de Développement, les personnes qui, ne remplissant pas les conditions d'âges et de résidence lors de la formation de la liste électorale, les rempliront avant la clôture définitive des listes.

 

Article L 13 Nonobstant les dispositions de l'article 5, alinéa 1 les citoyens guinéens établis ou en service à l'Etranger et immatriculés à la chancellerie des Ambassades ou aux Consulats guinéens, sont inscrits sur la liste électorale de l'Ambassade ou du Consulat.

 

Article L 14 La liste électorale doit comporter les nom et prénoms, la filiation, la profession, la date et le lieu de naissance de chaque électeur ainsi que le quartier ou district de résidence.

 

Article L 15 La production d'un certificat de résidence et d'une des pièces citées à l'article 21 est exigée de tout individu qui réclame son inscription sur une liste électorale.

 

Article L 16 Tout citoyen visé aux articles 5 et 13 peut réclamer l'inscription d'un électeur non inscrit ou la radiation d'un électeur indûment inscrit.

Cette même possibilité est donnée au Maire, au Président de la Communauté Rurale de Développement.

Les demandes émanant des tiers ne peuvent avoir pour objet que des inscriptions ou des radiations individuelles. Elles doivent préciser l'identité de chacune des personnes dont l'inscription ou la radiation est réclamée.

Tout électeur dont l'inscription est contestée doit en être informé dans les trois jours ouvrables suivants afin qu'il puisse présenter ses observations devant la commission administrative. La notification qui doit lui en être faite sans frais, contiendra l'indication sommaire des motifs de la demande de radiation.

En cas de radiation, il peut contester la décision de la Commission Administrative, à charge pour lui de fournir les justifications de sa contestation au Président du Tribunal ou au Juge de Paix dans la période allant du 1er au 15 Décembre. Ce délai est ramené à huit jours en cas de révision exceptionnelle des listes électorales. Tout électeur omis peut également présenter ses observations à la Commission Administrative et saisir, en cas de besoin, le Président du tribunal ou le Juge de paix.

 

Article L 17 Le Tribunal de Première Instance ou la Justice de Paix de chaque Préfecture statue par ordonnance sur le cas de contestation. L'ordonnance n'est pas succeptible de recours.

 

Section 2 : De L'Etablissement Et De La Révision Des Listes Electorales

 

Article L 18 Les listes électorales des Communes sont dressées par une ou plusieurs commissions administratives composées :

- d'un délégué de l'administration désigné par le Préfet ou par le Gouverneur de la ville de Conakry et faisant fonction de président ;

- du Maire ou de son représentant ;

- d'un représentant de chaque candidat ou liste de candidats ;

Les listes électorales des Communautés Rurales de Développement sont dressées par une ou plusieurs commissions administratives composées :

- d'un délégué de l'administration désigné par le sous-préfet et faisant fonction de président ;

- du Président de la Communauté Rurale de Développement ou de son représentant ;

- d'un représentant de chaque candidat ou liste de candidats.

Les commissions administratives de révision des listes électorales doivent associer à leurs travaux, les chefs de quartier et de district ou les représentants de ceux-ci.

 

Article L 19 La période de révision des listes électorales est fixée du 1er octobre au 31 décembre de chaque année.

Le Maire ou le président de la Communauté Rurale de Développement fait procéder à l'affichage de l'avis d'ouverture de la période de révision des listes électorales avant le 1er octobre.

Les demandes en inscription ou en radiation sont exprimées auprès des services compétents des Communes et des Communautés Rurales de Développement durant la période prévue à l'alinéa premier du présent article.

Quinze (15) jours avant la fin de l'année le Maire et le Président de la Communauté Rurale de Développement font procéder à l'affichage d'un avis de clôture des opérations de révision.

 

Article L 20 En cas de révision à titre exceptionnel des listes électorales, les dates d'ouverture et de clôture de la période de révision sont fixées par arrêté du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur avant la convocation du corps électoral.

 

Article L 21 Les listes électorales sont permanentes.

Elles font l'objet de révision annuelle.

Elles sont établies à partir des registres de recensement et complétées conformément aux dispositions des articles L 18, L 19 et L 20. L'établissement et la révision des listes électorales se font sur présentation de l'un des documents ci-après.

- carte d'identité ;

- passeport ;

- livret militaire ;

- livret de pension civile ou militaire ;

- carte d'étudiant ou d'élève de l'année scolaire en cours ;

- carte consulaire ;

- une attestation délivrée par le chef de district et contre-signée par deux notables du district,

pour les ruraux.

La commission administrative délivre à chaque électeur un récépissé portant son numéro d'inscription sur la liste électorale.

Les élections sont faites sur la base de la liste révisée au cours du dernier trimestre de l'année qui précède celle des élections.

 

Article L 22

Dans le cadre de la révision annuelle des listes électorales, il est dressé à partir du 1er décembre de chaque année un tableau rectificatif comportant :

- les électeurs nouvellement inscrits soit d'office par la Commission Administrative, soit à la demande des électeurs ;

- les électeurs radiés soit d'office par la commission administrative, soit à la demande des électeurs.

 

Article L 23 Ce tableau rectificatif doit porter toutes les mentions d'identité qui doivent figurer sur la liste électorale ainsi que les motifs de l'inscription ou de la radiation.

Le tableau rectificatif, une fois arrêté, doit être signé du président et de tous les membres de la Commission Administrative et déposé à la Mairie ou au siège de la Communauté rurale de Développement accompagné d'un procès verbal de dépôt.

 

Article L 24 Le Maire de la Commune ou le Président de la Communauté Rurale de Développement doit :

1o) donner avis à la population de ce dépôt par affiche apposée aux lieux habituels et faisant connaître que les réclamations sont reçues pendant un délai de 15 jours ;

2o) adresser dans les deux jours à l'autorité de tutelle, une copie du tableau rectificatif et un exemplaire du procès verbal de dépôt.

 

Article L 25 Le tableau des inscriptions et des radiations établi par la Commision Administrative est affiché aux lieux habituels des publications officielles le 30 novembre. Procès verbal de cet affichage est dressé par le Maire ou le Président de la Communauté Rurale de Développement.

 

Article L 26 La minute des travaux déposée à la Mairie ou à la Communauté Rurale de Développement peut être communiquée à tout requérant désireux d'en prendre connaissance ou copie à ses frais, mais sans déplacement desdits documents.

 

Article L 27 Les réclamations sont consignées dans un registre ouvert à cet effet à la Mairie ou au siège de la Communauté Rurale de Développement.

Elles y sont portées dans l'ordre chronologique de leur dépôt et doivent indiquer les nom, prénoms, filiation, date et lieu de naissance et le domicile de chaque réclamant et l'énoncé des motifs sur lesquels elles sont fondées. Les réclamations sont faites par écrit. Il doit en être donné récépissé.

 

Article L 28 Les réclamations sont examinées par le tribunal ou la justice de paix qui dispose de dix jours pour trancher. La décision doit être portée à la connaissance des personnes intéressées dans les trois jours qui suivent le prononcé du jugement.

 

Article L 29 Les décisions du tribunal peuvent être communiquées à tous les requérants désireux d'en prendre connaissance, au secrétariat de la Mairie ou au siège de la Communauté Rurale de Développement, mais sans déplacement des documents.

 

Article L 30 La commission administrative portera aux tableaux qui ont été publiés le 30 novembre toutes les modifications résultant des décisions du tribunal ou de la justice de paix. De plus, elle retranchera les noms des électeurs dont les décès sont survenus depuis la publication du tableau rectificatif ainsi que les noms de ceux qui auraient été privés du droit de vote par un jugement devenu définitif.

Elle dressera le tableau de ces modifications qui devra être signé par le président et tous les membres et transmis immédiatement au Maire ou au siège de la Communauté Rurale de Développement et à l'autorité de tutelle.

 

Article L 31 Au plus tard le 8 janvier, les modifications constituant le tableau rectificatif sont

reportées sur la liste électorale qui devient la liste électorale pour l'année en cours.

Les listes sont définitivement arrêtées le 8 janvier de chaque année.

La nouvelle liste électorale sera déposée au secrétariat de la Mairie ou au siège de la Communauté Rurale de Développement. Elle peut être communiquée à tout requérant qui pourra la consulter ou en prendre copie à ses frais.

Une copie est adressée :

- au Sous-Préfet pour le fichier de la Sous-préfecture ;

- au Préfet pour le fichier de la Préfecture ;

- au Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur pour le fichier général.

 

Section 3 : De L'inscription Ou De La Radiation En Dehors Des Periodes De Revision

 

Article L 32 Les personnes suivantes peuvent être inscrites ou radiées après clôture de la liste électorale au plus tard 24 heures avant le scrutin :

- les fonctionnaires ou agents des administrations, services ou établissements publics, sociétés ou entreprises publiques, les agents des sociétés ou entreprises privées qui auront fait l'objet de mutation ou qui auront fait valoir leur droit à la retraite ainsi que les membres de leurs familles domiciliés avec eux à la date de la mutation ou à la mise à la retraite, sur présentation de leurs décisions de mutation ou de mise à la retraite et du certificat de radiation délivré par l'autorité de l'ancienne résidence ;

- les Guinéens ayant atteint l'âge de la majorité électorale, sur présentation des pièces justificatives ;

- les Guinéens immatriculés à l'Etranger lorsqu'ils reviennent à titre provisoire dans l'une des circonscriptions électorales, sur présentation de leur carte consulaire ;

- les électeurs déjà inscrits sur une liste électorale lorsqu'ils changent de domicile, sur présentation du certificat de radiation délivré par l'autorité de l'ancienne résidence ;

- les personnes dont l'inscription ou la radiation aura été ordonnée par les tribunaux conformément à la loi.

 

Chapitre 4 : Du Contrôle Des Inscriptions Sur Les Listes Electorales

 

Article L 33 Le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur fait tenir le fichier général des électeurs en vue du contrôle des inscriptions sur les listes électorales. Un décret détermine les conditions d'organisation et de fonctionnement de ce fichier ainsi que des fichiers Sous-préfectoraux et préfectoraux.

 

Article L 34 Lorsqu'il est constaté au fichier général qu'un électeur est inscrit par erreur sur plus d'une liste, son inscription est maintenue sur la liste de sa dernière demande d'inscription. Sa radiation des autres listes a lieu d'office. Lorsqu'un même électeur est inscrit par erreur plus d'une fois sur la même liste, il ne doit subsister qu'une seule inscription.

Toute radiation est communiquée par le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur au Préfet et au Sous-Préfet pour la mise à jour de leurs fichiers.

La radiation se fait sur présentation des pièces justificatives.

 

Chapitre 5 : Des Cartes Electorales

 

Article L 35 L'administration est chargée de l'impression et de l'établissement des cartes électorales aux frais de l'Etat.

 

Article L 36 Le modèle des cartes et les modalités d'établissement ainsi que les délais de validité, sont déterminés par arrêté du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur.

 

Article L 37 Le Gouverneur pour la ville de Conakry et les Préfets pour leur Préfecture, nomment par décision les membres de la Commission de distribution des cartes d'électeur quarante cinq jours avant le scrutin.

 

Article L 38 Il doit être remis à chaque électeur une carte électorale reproduisant les mentions de la liste électorale et indiquant le lieu où siègera le bureau dans lequel l'électeur devra voter. Cette distribution commencera 30 jours avant le scrutin et s'achèvera la veille du scrutin. La remise des cartes électorales doit avoir lieu contre récépissé comme mentionné à l'article L 21 par les commissions prévues à l'article L 35 dans les lieux de distribution qui seront déterminés par acte du Maire ou du Président de la Communauté Rurale de Développement.

La carte électorale est strictement individuelle et ne peut faire l'objet de transfert, de cession ou de négociation.

 

Article L 39 Les cartes électorales qui n'auront pas pu être retirées par les électeurs jusqu'à la veille du scrutin, sont remises contre décharge à des commissions regroupées de distribution désignées par le Gouverneur pour la ville de Conakry et par les Préfets pour les préfectures.

Elles y resteront à la disposition des électeurs intéressés pendant toute la durée du scrutin. Toutefois, elles ne pourront être remises à leur titulaire que sur justification de leur identité et présentation du récépissé.

Pour tout récépissé dont la carte correspondante n'aura pas été retrouvée, le président de la Commission regroupée autorise immédiatement l'établissement d'une nouvelle carte après vérification sur la liste électorale. A la clôture du scrutin, la Commission regroupée établit un procès-verbal signé par tous les membres.

Les cartes non retirées à la clôture du scrutin, sont retournées sous pli scellé cacheté et paraphé, par la Commission regroupée au Gouverneur pour la ville de Conakry et au Préfet pour les Préfectures. Ce pli sera remis à la prochaine Commission de révision des listes électorales qui statuera sur la validité de l'inscription de leurs titulaires.

 

Article L 40 La couleur des cartes électorales doit varier d'une élection à l'autre. Le renouvellement des cartes électorales peut être décidé à tout moment par le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur.

 

Chapitre 6 : De La Campagne Electorale

 

Article L 41 Les campagnes électorales sont déclarées ouvertes :

1o) pour les élections communales et rurales quinze jours francs avant la date du scrutin ;

2o) pour les élections législatives ving et un jours francs avant la date du scrutin ;

3o) pour les élections présidentielles trente jours francs avant la date du scrutin.

Elles s'achèvent toutes, la veille du scrutin à zéro heure. Les dates d'ouverture et de fermeture des campagnes sont fixées par décret du Président de la République.

 

Article L 42 Nul ne peut par quelque moyen et sous quelque forme que ce soit, faire campagne en dehors de la période prévue à l'article précédent.

 

Article L 43 Sont seuls autorisés à organiser des réunions électorales :

- Les candidats ou les représentants des listes de candidats aux élections communales ou aux élections des Communautés Rurales de Développement ;

- Les partis politiques légalement constitués.

 

Article L 44 Les manifestations, réunions et rassemblements électoraux se déroulent conformément aux dispositions de la loi sur les réunions et manifestations publiques.

 

Article L 45 La réunion électorale, qui a pour but le choix ou l'audition des candidats aux élections, n'est ouverte qu'aux candidats, à leurs mandataires et aux membres de leur parti.

 

Article L 46 Les manifestations, réunions et rassemblements électoraux ne peuvent être tenus sur la place ou la voie publique sans déclaration préalable faite au Maire ou au Président de la Communauté Rurale de Développement au moins 24 heures à l'avance.

Ils sont interdits entre 23 heures et 7 heures.

La déclaration doit être faite par écrit et au cours des heures légales d'ouverture des services administratifs.

La déclaration fait mention des noms et qualités des membres du bureau de réunion. Récépissé en sera donné.

A défaut de désignation par les signataires de la déclaration, les membres du bureau sont élus par les participants à la réunion au début de celle-ci.

 

Article L 47 Chaque réunion doit avoir un bureau composé de trois membres au moins.

Les membres du bureau et jusqu'à la formation de celui-ci, les signataires de la déclaration sont responsables des infractions aux prescriptions du présent article et de l'article L. 46 et sont passibles des peines prévues par la loi pour ces infractions.

Le bureau est chargé de maintenir l'ordre, de conserver à la réunion le caractère qui lui a été donné par la déclaration, d'interdire tout discours contraire à l'ordre public et aux bonnes moeurs ou contenant provocation à un acte qualifié crime ou délit et d'une manière générale d'empêcher toutes infractions aux lois.

 

Article L 48 Un fonctionnaire de l'ordre administratif ou judiciaire peut être délégué par les autorités administratives pour assister à la réunion.

Il choisit sa place. Il rend compte du déroulement de la réunion à l'autorité compétente.

S'il se produit des troubles ou voies de fait, le président du bureau, sous peine de tomber sous le coup de l'article L 196 de la présente loi, met fin à la réunion.

 

Article L 49 Pendant la période électorale, dans chaque Commune ou chaque Communauté Rurale de Développement, le Maire ou le Président de la Communauté Rurale de Développement désigne par un acte administratif :

- les lieux exclusivement destinés à recevoir les affiches, lois, actes de l'autorité publique relatifs au scrutin ;

- les emplacements spéciaux réservés aux professions de foi, circulaires et affiches électorales.

Dans chacun de ces emplacements, une surface égale est attribuée à chaque candidat ou chaque liste de candidats. Tout affichage relatif à l'élection, même par affiche timbrée, est interdit en dehors de ces emplacements, ou sur les emplacements réservés aux autres candidats. Les emplacements sont attribués dans l'ordre d'arrivée des demandes.

 

Article L 50 Les demandes doivent être adressées par les candidats ou les représentants des partis politiques au Ministre chargé de l'intérieur, au Préfet ou au Sous-Préfet, selon le cas, au plus tard huit (8) jours avant le scrutin. Elles sont enregistrées et transmises au Maire ou au Président de la Communauté Rurale de Développement.

 

Article L 51 Chaque candidat ou chaque parti politique présentant un candidat ou une liste de candidats, peut faire imprimer et adresser aux électeurs durant la campagne électorale, une circulaire de propagande comprenant une feuille en recto-verso de format 21 X 27 ; Cette circulaire est soumise à la formalité du dépôt légal.

 

Article L 52 La campagne par voie d'affiche est régie par les dispositions des articles L 49 et 50.

 

Article L 53 Un candidat ou un parti politique ne peut utiliser un titre, une couleur, un emblème, un symbole ou signe déjà choisis par un autre candidat ou un autre parti politique.

Si plusieurs candidats ou listes concurrents adoptent la même couleur ou le même emblème ou le même symbole ou signe, le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur statue dans un délai de huit (8) jours en attribuant à chaque candidat ou chaque liste sa couleur, son emblème, symbole ou signe par ordre d'ancienneté.

Il en informe les partis intéressés.

Est interdit le choix d'emblème comportant une combinaison des trois couleurs nationales : rouge, jaune, vert.

 

Article L 54 Il est interdit sous les peines prévues à l'article L 196 [194] de la présente loi, de distribuer le jour du scrutin, des bulletins, circulaires ou autres documents de propagande.

 

Article L 55 Il est interdit à tout agent public de distribuer au cours de ses heures de service, des bulletins, circulaires ou autres documents de propagande sous les peines prévues à l'article L 196 [194].

 

Article L 56 Sont interdits et peuvent être punis, sur action du ministère public, des peines applicables au trafic d'influence :

- les dons et libéralités en argent ou en nature ainsi que les promesses de dons, de libéralités ou de faveurs administratives faites à un individu, à une Commune ou à une collectivité quelconque de citoyens à des fins de propagande dans le but d'influer ou de tenter d'influer sur le vote.

- l'utilisation aux mêmes fins et dans le même but, des biens et moyens d'une institution ou d'un organisme public et de l'Etat en général ;

- l'usage aux mêmes fins et dans le même but, de tout procédé de publicité commerciale.

 

Article L 57 Les Associations et Organisations non gouvernementales apolitiques, et a fortiori celles qui bénéficient des concours et privilèges octroyés par l'Etat, ne peuvent soutenir des candidats et des partis politiques.

 

Article L 58 Tout candidat doit s'interdire toute attitude ou action, tout geste ou autre comportement injurieux, déshonorant, illégal ou immoral et doit veiller au bon déroulement de la campagne électorale.

 

Article L 59 Tout candidat ou liste de candidats dispose d'un accès équitable aux organes d'information de l'Etat pendant la campagne électorale.

 

Article L 60 La Radio Télévision Guinéenne et les stations de la Radio Rurale annoncent les réunions électorales auxquelles participent les candidats.

 

Article L 61 Pendant la campagne électorale, le temps et les horaires des émissions de la Radio et de la Télévision, les conditions de leur production et de leur réalisation, les modalités de leur programmation et de leur diffusion sont fixés par arrêté du Ministre chargé de l'Information, sur proposition du Conseil National de la Communication.

 

Article L 62 La Cour Suprême veille à la régularité de la campagne électorale.

Elle veille, à travers le Conseil National de la Communication, à ce que le principe de l'égalité de traitement entre les candidats soit respecté dans la presse écrite d'Etat et dans les programmes d'information de la Radio Télévision Guinéenne et des stations de la Radio rurale en ce qui concerne la reproduction et les commentaires des déclarations, écrits, activités des candidats et des partis politiques ainsi que de la présentation de ces candidats et de ces partis politiques.

Le Conseil National de la Communication adresse des recommandations aux autorités compétentes et peut saisir la Cour Suprême en cas de non-respect des dispositions de la présente loi en matière de communication.

La Cour Suprême, en cas de besoin, intervient pour que l'égalité soit respectée.

 

Article L 63 Le Ministre chargé de l'Information, en sus du temps d'émissions dont dispose chaque candidat ou chaque parti politique engagé dans une élection fait organiser sous contrôle du Conseil National de la Communication, des débats radiodiffusés ou télévisés contradictoires.

 

Article L 64 Soit d'office, soit à la requête du Conseil National de la Communication, la Cour Suprême peut suspendre la diffusion d'une émission de la campagne officielle, dans les vingt quatre heures à compter de la réalisation de cette émission, si les propos tenus relèvent d'un manquement grave aux obligations qui résultent pour les partis politiques de l'article 1er de la Loi Fondamentale, notamment en ce qui concerne le respect :

- du caractère républicain, laïc et démocratique de l'Etat ;

- de l'égalité des citoyens sans distinction d'origine, de race, d'ethnie, de religion et d'opinion ;

- des institutions de la République ;

- de l'indépendance nationale, de l'intégrité du territoire et de l'unité de l'état ;

- de l'ordre public et des libertés.

La saisine de la Cour Suprême est suspensive de la diffusion de l'émission incriminée. La Cour Suprême statue dans un délai de quarante huit heures à compter de la saisine.

Elle peut interdire la diffusion de l'émission, en totalité ou en partie. Si le Conseil National de la Communication ne saisit pas la Cour Suprême dans les vingt quatre heures ou, si la Cour Suprême ne statue pas dans le délai prévu ci-dessus, l'émission doit être diffusée au plus tôt.

 

Chapitre 7 : Des Opérations De Vote

 

Section 1 : Des Opérations Préparatoires Au Scrutin

 

Article L 65 Les électeurs sont convoqués par décret publié au Journal Officiel :

- trente huit (38) jours avant le scrutin pour les élections présidentielles ;

- soixante dix (70) jours avant le scrutin pour les élections législatives ;

- soixante (60) jours avant le scrutin pour les élections communales et les élections des Communautés Rurales de Développement.

En cas d'annulation, les électeurs sont convoqués pour de nouvelles élections qui ont lieu soixante (60) jours après l'annulation.

 

Article L 66 Les circonscriptions électorales sont, selon le cas :

- le quartier ou le district, pour les élections des conseils de quartier ou de district ;

- la Communauté Rurale de Développement, pour les conseils communautaires ;

- la Commune, pour les élections communales ;

- la Préfecture et les Commues de Conakry, pour les élections législatives au scrutin uninominal ;

- le territoire national pour les élections législatives au scrutin de liste à la proportionnelle et pour les élections présidentielles.

Les circonscriptions électorales ne peuvent être modifiées que par la Loi.

 

Article L 67 Dans les circonscriptions électorales, les électeurs sont répartis par acte du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur ou du Préfet, en autant de bureaux de vote que l'exigent le nombre des électeurs et les contraintes locales.

 

Section 2 : Du Vote

 

Article L 68 Le jour du scrutin est fixé par décret. Le scrutin ne dure qu'un seul jour sur toute l'étendue du territoire national. Il est ouvert à sept heures et clos à dix huit heures.

Il a lieu un dimanche.

Toutefois, pour faciliter l'exercice de droit de vote, l'autorité compétente peut, dans des cas exceptionnels, prendre des actes à l'effet de retarder l'heure de clôture du scrutin dans tout ou partie d'une circonscription électorale, à charge pour elle d'en rendre compte à l'autorité supérieure. Mention sera faite de ces actes au procès-verbal. Ces actes sont affichés aussitôt à l'entrée des bureaux de vote concernés.

 

Article L 69 Dans chaque salle de scrutin, la Commission Administrative dépose des bulletins de vote sur des tables préparées à cet effet.

Le libellé et les caractéristiques techniques de ces bulletins de vote sont définis par voie réglementaire. Communication en est faite à la Cour Suprême par le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur.

 

Article L 70 Le vote a lieu sous enveloppes fournies par l'administration. Les enveloppes sont d'un

type uniforme, opaques et non gommées. Le jour du vote, elles sont mises à la disposition des électeurs dans la salle de vote.

Avant l'ouverture du scrutin, le Bureau doit constater que le nombre des enveloppes correspond exactement à celui des électeurs inscrits.

Si par suite d'un cas de force majeure, ces enveloppes venaient à manquer, le Président du bureau de vote est tenu de s'en procurer auprès de la Commission administrative.

Mention doit être faite au procès-verbal du nombre d'enveloppes fournies.

 

Article L 71 Il est créé un bureau de vote pour mille électeurs au maximum. La liste des bureaux de vote fait l'objet d'un arrêté du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur, trente jours avant le scrutin. Cet arrêté est transmis par l'intermédiaire des autorités administratives, aux Maires et aux Présidents des Communautés Rurales de Développement qui en assurent la publication dans la circonscription de leur ressort.

Le bureau est composé :

- d'un Président ;

- d'un Vice-président ;

- d'un Secrétaire ;

- de deux Assesseurs.

 

Article L 72 Les membres du bureau de vote sont désignés par arrêté du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur sur proposition des Préfets. Ils sont requis par les Préfets parmi les électeurs de la circonscription, à l'exclusion des candidats et de leurs parents en ligne directe ou par alliance jusqu'au quatrième degré.

L'arrêté du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur et la réquisition du Préfet sont notifiés aux intéressés par le Préfet et le Sous-Préfet.

Le chef des forces de sécurité publique compétente en reçoit ampliation.

En cas de défaillance du Président du bureau, il est remplacé d'office par le Vice-Président.

En cas de défaillance d'un membre du bureau constatée à l'ouverture ou au cours scrutin, il est pourvu à son remplacement par le Président qui choisit au sort parmi les électeurs présents sachant lire et écrire le français. Mention en est portée au procès-verbal.

Le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur désigne les Présidents de bureau de vote et veille à leur répartition judicieuse de manière telle que nul ne soit amené à présider un bureau de vote dans la localité d'où il provient ou réside.

Dans le même esprit, il devra veiller à opérer une bonne répartition des bureaux de vote à l'intérieur d'une même circonscription électorale.

Les Présidents de bureaux de vote seront choisis parmi les cadres de l'Etat connus pour leur probité, leur intégrité et leur bonne moralité.

 

Article L 73 Le président du bureau de vote dispose de pouvoir de police à l'intérieur du bureau de vote et peut en expulser toute personne qui perturbe le déroulement des opérations de vote.

Nulle force armée ne peut, sans son autorisation, être placée dans la salle de vote ni à ses abords immédiats, ni y intervenir de quelque manière que ce soit.

Nul ne peut pénétrer dans la salle du scrutin, porteur d'une arme apparente ou cachée, à l'exception des membres des forces publiques légalement requis.

 

Article L 74 Les membres du bureau de vote sont responsables de toutes les opérations qui leur sont assignées par la présente loi et la réglementation en vigueur.

Les candidats peuvent à leur initiative se faire représenter à ces opérations.

 

Article L 75 Tout électeur inscrit sur la liste électorale de la circonscription, a droit de prendre part au vote dans le bureau auquel il a été rattaché, sauf s'il est déchu du droit de vote après son inscription.

Toutefois, sous réserve du contrôle de leur carte d'identité, de leur carte d'électeur et de leur titre de mission, sont autorisés à voter en dehors de leur circonscription, les membres des bureaux de vote, les agents des forces de l'ordre, les militaires, les journalistes, les équipages des aéronefs, les marins et toutes autres personnes en déplacement pour raison de service, de même que les candidats inscrits sur la liste d'un parti politique pour ce qui concerne les élections législatives.

Dans chaque bureau de vote, il est tenu un registre des nom, prénoms, filiation et profession de tous les électeurs devant voter en vertu des dérogations prévues par le présent article.

 

Article L 76 Dans chaque bureau de vote, il y a un isoloir pour deux cent cinquante (250) électeurs inscrits au maximum.

Les isoloirs ne doivent pas être placés de façon à dissimuler au public les opérations électorales.

 

Article L 77 A aucun moment, au cours du scrutin, le nombre des membres du bureau présents dans le bureau de vote ne peut être inférieur à trois.

 

Article L 78 A son entrée dans la salle de vote, l'électeur doit présenter sa carte d'électeur.

L'électeur doit en outre faire constater en même temps son identité par la présentation de l'une des pièces énumérées à l'article 21.

L'électeur appose l'empreinte de son pouce gauche à la place réservée à cet effet sur la liste électorale d'émargement.

Ces formalités ayant été satisfaites, l'électeur prend lui-même une enveloppe et un bulletin de chaque candidat ou liste de candidat et se rend seul dans l'isoloir où il place le bulletin de son choix dans l'enveloppe. Il fait ensuite constater qu'il n'est porteur que d'une seule enveloppe. Le Président le constate sans toucher l'enveloppe que l'électeur introduit lui-même dans l'urne.

 

Article L 79 Tout électeur atteint d'infirmité, le plaçant dans l'impossibilité de mettre son bulletin dans l'enveloppe et d'introduire celle-ci dans l'urne est autorisé à se faire assister d'un électeur de son choix.

 

Article L 80 L'urne électorale ne doit avoir qu'une seule ouverture destinée à laisser passer l'enveloppe contenant le bulletin. Avant le début du scrutin, elle doit avoir été fermée avec deux cadenas dissemblables, et devant les électeurs et les délégués des candidats qui constatent qu'elle est bien vide. Les clés restent, l'une entre les mains du Président du bureau de vote, et l'autre entre les mains de l'assesseur le plus âgé.

 

Article L 81 Dès la clôture du scrutin, la liste électorale d'émargement est signée par tous les membres du bureau de vote.

 

Section 3 : Du Dépouillement

 

Article L 82 Immédiatement après la clôture du scrutin, il est procédé au dépouillement de la manière suivante :

L'urne est ouverte et le nombre des enveloppes est vérifié.

Si ce nombre est plus grand ou moindre que celui des émargements, il en est fait mention au procès-verbal.

Le Bureau de vote désigne parmi les électeurs présents, un certain nombre de scrutateurs sachant lire et écrire le français, qui seront d'office retenus pour former avec le bureau de vote, la commission de dépouillement. Ils sont répartis par groupe de quatre au moins.

Le dépouillement dans chaque bureau de vote se fera devant les délégués des partis politiques et des candidats.

 

Article L 83 Dans chaque groupe, l'un des scrutateurs extrait le bulletin de chaque enveloppe et le passe déplié à un autre scrutateur ; celui-ci le lit à haute voix ; les indications portées sur le bulletin sont relevées par deux scrutateurs au moins sur des listes préparées à cet effet.

 

Article L 84 Les bulletins nuls ne sont pas considérés comme suffrages exprimés lors du dépouillement.

Sont considérés comme bulletins nuls :

1o) l'enveloppe sans bulletin ou le bulletin sans enveloppe ;

2o) plusieurs bulletins différents dans une même enveloppe ;

3o) les enveloppes ou bulletins déchirés ou comportant des mentions écrites ou sur lesquelles les votants se sont fait connaître ;

4o) les bulletins entièrement ou partiellement barrés ;

5o) les bulletins ou enveloppes non réglementaires.

Les bulletins et enveloppes sont annexés au procès-verbal et contre-signés par les membres du bureau. Ils doivent porter la mention des causes de nullité.

Le nombre de bulletins nuls est retranché du nombre des électeurs inscrits sur la liste électorale, pour déterminer le nombre réel des électeurs ayant voté.

 

Article L 85 Les suffrages obtenus par candidat ou liste de candidats sont totalisés et enregistrés par le secrétaire du bureau.

Dans chaque bureau de vote, les résultats du dépouillement font l'objet d'un procès-verbal rédigé à l'encre indélébile. Il comporte, s'il y a lieu, les observations ou réserves des candidats ou de leurs représentants. Le procès-verbal de dépouillement est établi en trois exemplaires signés par les membres du bureau de vote. Immédiatement après le dépouillement, et dès l'établissement du procès-verbal, le résultat du scrutin est rendu public par le Président du bureau de vote et affiché par ses soins dans la salle de vote ; ce résultat n'a qu'une valeur provisoire.

A ses frais, tout représentant légal d'un parti politique peut avoir copie du procès-verbal des résultats provisoires.

 

Article L 86 Chaque Président de bureau de vote, transmet par la voie la plus rapide au Secrétariat de la circonscription électorale l'un des exemplaires du procès-verbal accompagné des pièces qui doivent y être annexées, le tout pour être remis à la commission de recensement des votes prévue pour chaque type d'élection.

 

Article L 87 Le second exemplaire du procès-verbal des bureaux de vote est adressé sous pli scellé par les voies les plus rapides et les plus sûres au Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur.

A cet exemplaire sont annexés :

- les enveloppes et bulletins annulés par le bureau ;

- une feuille de dépouillement des votes dûment arrêtée ;

- les réclamations rédigées par les candidats ou leurs représentants ;

- éventuellement les observations du bureau de vote concernant le déroulement du scrutin.

Le troisième exemplaire est conservé à la Sous-Préfecture ou à la Préfecture selon le type d'élection.

 

Article L 88 Le recensement des votes sera le décompte des résultats de vote présentés par les différents bureaux de vote de la circonscription électorale.

Le recensement des votes sera effectué en présence des Présidents des bureaux de vote et des représentants des candidats ou des listes de candidats par une commission administrative centrale désignée par l'autorité de tutelle pour chaque type d'élection et présidée dans tous les cas par l'autorité judiciaire désignée par la Cour Suprême. Les résultats arrêtés par chaque bureau de vote et les pièces annexés ne peuvent en aucun cas être modifiés.

 

Article L 89 Le procès-verbal de ce recensement qui est un document récapitulatif, est établi en double exemplaire en présence des candidats ou de leurs représentants. Il est signé de tous les membres de la commission administrative centrale qui en adresse un exemplaire au Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur.

Un exemplaire du procès-verbal visé à l'alinéa ci-dessus est affiché au siège de la commission centrale de recensement.

 

Article L 90 Les listes d'émargement de chaque bureau de vote, signées du Président et des assesseurs demeurent déposées pendant huit jours au Secrétariat de la circonscription électorale où elles sont consultées sans déplacement par tout électeur requérant.

 

Article L 91 Tout candidat ou son représentant dûment habilité a le droit, dans les limites de sa circonscription électorale, de contrôler toutes les opérations de vote, de dépouillement des bulletins et de décompte des voix dans tous les locaux où s'effectuent ces opérations. Il peut inscrire au procès-verbal toutes observations ou contestations sur le déroulement des opérations.

 

Article L 92 Le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur après avoir achevé la totalisation globale des résultats, rend publique cette totalisation.

 

Section 4 : Du Vote Par Procuration

 

Article L 93 Peuvent exercer, à leur demande, leur droit de vote par procuration, les électeurs appartenant à l'une des catégories énumérées ci-après retenus par des obligations hors de la circonscription électorale où ils ont été inscrits.

1o) les militaires et paramilitaires et plus généralement les électeurs légalement absents de leur domicile au jour du scrutin ;

2o) les travailleurs en déplacement régulier ;

3o) les malades hospitalisés ou soignés à domicile ;

4o) les grands invalides et infirmes.

 

Article L 94 Le mandataire doit jouir de ses droits électoraux et être inscrit sur la même liste électorale que le mandant ou avoir accompli son devoir électoral au niveau de la circonscription électorale.

 

Article L 95 Les procurations données par les personnes visées à l'article L 93 ci-dessus doivent être légalisées par les autorités compétentes.

Pour les militaires et paramilitaires, cette formalité est accomplie par devant le commandant d'unité.

 

Article L 96 Chaque mandataire ne peut utiliser qu'une procuration au niveau d'une circonscription électorale.

 

Article L 97 La mandataire participe au scrutin dans les conditions prévues à l'article L 78. Il doit présenter la carte d'électeur du mandant.

La procuration est estampillée au moyen d'un cachet humide.

 

Article L 98 Le mandant peut annuler sa procuration à tout moment avant le vote.

Il peut voter personnellement s'il se présente au bureau de vote avant que le mandataire n'ait exercé ses pouvoirs.

 

Article L 99 En cas de décès ou de privation des droits civils et civiques du mandant, la procuration est annulée de plein droit.

 

Article L 100 La procuration est valable pour un seul scrutin.

 

Titre 2 : Des Dispositions Spéciales Relatives A L'élection Des Conseils De District Et De Quartier

 

Article L 101 Un acte du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur fixe les modalités d'élection des Conseils de District et de Quartier et le nombre de conseillers.

 

Titre 3 : Dispositions Speciales Relatives A L'election Des Conseils Communautaires

 

Article L 102 Les Conseils communautaires sont élus au scrutin proportionnel de liste à un tour par les habitants de la Communauté Rurale de Développement, pour un mandat de quatre (4) ans. Le délai court à compter du dernier renouvellement général de chaque Conseil quelle qu'ait été la date de ce renouvellement.

Le nombre de conseillers par Communauté Rurale de Développement est fixé par arrêté du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur.

 

Article L 103 Si le Conseil communautaire a perdu, par le fait des vacances survenues, le tiers de ses membres, il est procédé à des élections complémentaires dans un délai de six (6) mois à compter de la dernière vacance.

Dans le même délai, des élections ont lieu en cas de dissolution du Conseil et de démission de l'ensemble de ses membres.

Dans l'année qui précède le renouvellement général des conseils, les élections complémentaires ne sont obligatoires qu'au cas où le Conseil a perdu la moitié de ses membres.

 

Article L 104 La déclaration de candidature résulte du dépôt au niveau de la Sous-Préfecture d'une liste répondant aux conditions des articles L 105, L 106 et L 107.

Cette déclaration faite collectivement est présentée par un des candidats figurant sur la liste.

La déclaration signée de chaque candidat comporte expressément :

- les nom, prénoms, surnoms éventuels, date et lieu de naissance, profession et domicile de chaque candidat ;

- la dénomination de la liste ;

- le nom de la Communauté Rurale de Dévelopement.

La déclaration comporte, en annexe, le programme qui sera développé durant la campagne électorale.

Un récépissé de déclaration est délivré au déclarant.

 

Article L 105 La déclaration de candidature doit être déposée trente (30) jours francs avant la date du scrutin par le mandataire de la liste.

 

Article L 106 La liste des candidats au Conseil communautaire doit comprendre autant de candidatures que de sièges à pourvoir.

 

Article L 107 Après le dépôt des candidatures, aucun rajout ni suppression, ni modification de l'ordre de présentation ne peut se faire sauf cas de décès ou d'empêchement légal.

Dans ce cas, le mandataire de la liste fait sans délai une déclaration complémentaire de candidature à l'autorité de tutelle qui la reçoit et en assure la publication par affichage à tous les bureaux de vote concernés, et s'il y a lieu, la diffusion par voie radiophonique ou par tout autre moyen de communication. La déclaration précisera le rang du candidat de remplacement sur la liste.

 

Article L 108 Nul ne peut être candidat sur plus d'une liste et dans plus d'une circonscription électorale.

 

Article L 109 Tout rejet d'une candidature ou d'une liste de candidature doit être motivé. Ce rejet doit être notifié dans un délai de dix (10) jours francs à compter de la date de dépôt.

Le rejet peut faire l'objet d'un recours devant le Tribunal ou la Justice de Paix dans un délai de deux jours francs à compter de la date de notification du rejet.

Le Tribunal ou la Justice de Paix statue dans un délai de cinq (5) jours francs et notifie immédiatement la décision aux parties intéressées et au Préfet qui enregistre la candidature du candidat ou la liste de candidature, si telle est la décision du Tribunal.

La décision du Tribunal n'est susceptible d'aucune voie de recours.

 

Article L 110 Les opérations de vote et le dépouillement se déroulent conformément aux dispositions du titre 1, chapitre 7 de la présente loi.

La Commission Administrative sous-préfectorale vérifie et centralise les résultats enregistrés par les Commissions électorales des Communautés Rurales de Développement et rend publique la totalisation globale des résultats, deux (2) jours au plus tard après celui du scrutin. Si aucune contestation relative à la régularité des opérations électorales n'a été déposée dans les cinq (5) jours suivant la publication de la totalisation globale des résultats, le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur proclame les résultats définitifs.

 

Article L 111 Le contentieux qui peut naître à l'occasion des élections est soumis à l'examen de la Commission Administrative sous-préfectorale.

Les représentants des listes des candidats impliqués ou concernés n'ont pas voix délibérative.

 

Article L 112 Tout candidat ou son représentant a le droit de contester la régularité des opérations de vote conformément aux dispositions de l'article L 91 en déposant une réclamation dans le bureau de vote où il a voté. Cette réclamation est consignée au procès-verbal du bureau de vote et transmise à la Commission Administrative de la Sous-Préfecture. La Commission administrative statue sur toutes les réclamations qui lui sont soumises conformément aux dispositions de l'article L 101. Elle prononce ses décisions dans un délai maximal de cinq (5) jours à compter de la saisine. Elle statue sans frais de procédure après simple avertissement donné à toutes les parties intéressées. Ses décisions sont susceptibles de recours devant le Tribunal ou la Justice de Paix qui statue dans les cinq jours de la saisine. Le jugement du Tribunal ou de la justice de Paix qui n'est susceptible d'aucun recours est notifié aux parties intéressées et transmis au Ministère chargé de l'Intérieur. En cas d'annulation, de nouvelles élections sont organisées dans les soixante (60) jours qui suivent l'annulation.

 

Titre 4 : Des Dispositions Speciales Relatives A L'election Des Conseillers Communaux

 

Article L 113 Le Conseil communal est élu au scrutin proportionnel de liste à un tour. Le nombre de Conseillers est fixé comme suit :

- 11 Conseillers pour les Communes dont la population est égale ou inférieure à 10 000 ;

- 15 Conseillers de 10 001 à 30 000 habitants ;

- 19 Conseillers de 30 001 à 40 000 habitants ;

- 23 Conseillers de 40 001 à 50 000 habitants ;

- 27 Conseillers de 50 001 à 60 000 habitants ;

- 31 Conseillers de 60 001 à 100 000 habitants ; Pour les Communes de plus de 100 000 habitants, le nombre de Conseillers est augmenté d'une unité par tranche supplémentaire de 25 000 habitants dans la limite maximum de 41 Conseillers.

 

Article L 114 Les Conseillers communaux sont élus pour un mandat de quatre (4) ans. Le délai court à compter du dernier renouvellement intégral de chaque conseil, qu'elle qu'ait été la date de ce renouvellement. Toutefois, un décret peut abréger ou proroger le mandat du Conseil communal afin de faire coïncider son renouvellement avec la date du renouvellement général des Conseils communaux.

 

Article L 115 Si le Conseil communal a perdu, par l'effet de vacance le tiers de ses membres, il est procédé à des élections complémentaires dans un délai de soixante (60) jours au plus tard à compter de la dernière vacance. Dans le même délai, des élections ont également lieu en cas d'annulation des élections, de dissolution du Conseil communal ou de démission de tous ses membres. Dans l'année qui précède le renouvellement général des conseils communaux, les élections complémentaires ne sont obligatoires qu'au cas où le Conseil communal a perdu la moitié de ses membres.

 

Article L 116 Les électeurs sont convoqués conformément aux dispositions de l'article L 65. Les opérations de vote, de dépouillement et la proclamation des résultats se déroulent conformément aux dispositions du chapitre 7, titre 1er de la présente loi. Les dispositions des articles L 103 à L 111 inclus sont applicables aux élections communales.

 

Titre 5 : Des Dispositions Speciales Relatives A L'election Des Deputes A L'assemblee Nationale

 

Chapitre 1 : Du Mode D'election Des Deputes

 

Article L 117 Conformément aux dispositions de l'article 48, alinéa 1 de la Loi Fondamentale, nul ne peut être candidat aux élections à l'Assemblée Nationale, s'il n'est présenté par un parti politique légalement constitué.

 

Article L 118 Chaque député est représentant de la Nation toute entière. Les deux tiers des députés sont élus au scrutin de liste nationale à la représentation proportionnelle. Les communes de Conakry et les Préfectures constituent les circonscriptions pour l'élection du tiers des députés au scrutin majoritaire uninominal à un tour.

 

Article L 119 Pour déterminer le nombre de députés élus pour chaque liste nationale de candidats, il est procédé de la façon suivante :

on divise le nombre total de suffrages exprimés par le nombre des députés à élire ; autant de fois ce quotient est contenu dans le nombre des suffrages obtenus par une liste, autant celle-ci obtient de candidats élus. Une fois cette opération effectuée, les sièges restant à pourvoir sont attribués aux listes bénéficiant des plus forts restes. En cas d'égalité, le siège est attribué au plus âgé des candidats.

 

Article L 120 Chaque liste nationale doit comprendre un nombre de candidats égal au nombre de sièges à pourvoir. Les sièges sont attribués aux candidats d'après l'ordre de présentation sur chaque liste.

 

Article L 121 Le député élu au scrutin uninominal dont le siège devient vacant, par suite de décès, de démission, d'acceptation d'une fonction gouvernementale ou de toute autre cause, est remplacé à la suite d'élection partielle. Les élections partielles dans la circonscription électorale concernée ont lieu dans les six mois qui suivent la déclaration de vacance du siège.

Si celle-ci intervient au cours de la dernière année de la législature, il n'est pas pourvu au vacant.

Le député élu sur liste nationale dont le siège devient vacant par suite de décès, de démission, d'acceptation d'une fonction gouvernementale ou toute autre cause qu'une invalidation remplacé par le premier candidat non élu sur la liste du titulaire dans l'ordre de présentation de cette liste au moment de l'élection.

Le Président de l'Assemblée Nationale appelle le remplaçant à exercer le mandat du titulaire.

Ce remplacement quelle qu'en soit la cause, est irrévocable.

 

Article L 122 En cas de contestation d'un acte du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur pris en application des articles L 143, L 145, L 146 et L 147, les mandataires des listes de candidats peuvent, dans les vingt quatre heures suivant la notification de la décision ou sa publication, se pourvoir devant la Cour Suprême, qui statue dans les trois (3) jours qui suivent celui de l'enregistrement de la requête.

 

Article L 123 Après la date limite de dépôt des listes nationales, aucune substitution, aucun retrait de candidature, aucune permutation dans l'ordre des candidats sur une liste n'est admis.

Toutefois, entre cette même date et la veille du scrutin à zéro (0) heure, en cas de décès ou d'inéligibilité d'un ou de plusieurs candidats, le mandataire de la liste fait sans délai une déclaration complémentaire de candidature au ministère chargé de l'Intérieur qui la reçoit, en assure la publication par affichage à tous les bureaux de vote concernés et s'il y a lieu, la diffusion par voie radiophonique ou tout autre moyen de communication.

La déclaration précisera le rang du candidat de remplacement sur la liste.

 

Article L 124 Le mandat des députés à l'Assemblée Nationale expire à l'ouverture de la première session ordinaire qui suit la cinquième année de leur élection.

La Nouvelle Assemblée dont l'élection des Députés est organisée dans le trimestre qui précède cette session entre en fonction à cette date.

 

Article L 125 En cas de dissolution, conformément aux dispositions de l'article 76 de la Loi Fondamentale, les élections générales ont lieu dans les soixante (60) jours qui suivent la dissolution.

 

Chapitre 2 : Des Conditions D'éligibilité

 

Article L 126 Tout citoyen qui a la qualité d'électeur peut être élu à l'Assemblée Nationale s'il est présenté par un parti politique légalement constitué et dans les conditions et sous les réserves des lois et règlements en vigueur.

 

Article L 127 Nul ne peut être élu à l'Assemblée Nationale s'il n'est âgé de vingt-cinq ans révolus le jour du dépôt de sa candidature.

 

Article L 128 Les étrangers naturalisés ne sont éligibles qu'à l'expiration d'un délai de dix (10) ans à compter de la date du décret de naturalisation, sous réserve qu'ils résident en Guinée depuis cette date.

 

Chapitre 3 : Du Régime Des Inéligibilités

 

Article L 129 Ne peuvent être élus députés :

- ceux qui sont atteints de démence ou sont placés sous sauvegarde de la justice (au sens du code civil)

- ceux qui sont secourus par les budgets communaux, les budgets préfectoraux, le budget de l'Etat et les oeuvres sociales ;

- ceux qui ont fait l'objet de condamnation pour crime ou pour délit, sauf sur présentation d'un acte de réhabilitation.

 

Article L 130 Sont inéligibles, les militaires et paramilitaires de tous grades ainsi que les Magistrats des Cours et Tribunaux en position de service.

Sont également inéligibles dans les Préfectures et Communes dans lesquelles ils exercent ou ont exercé depuis au moins un an :

- les Préfets ;

- les Secrétaires Généraux des Préfectures et des Communes ;

- les sous-Préfets et leurs adjoints.

Les trésoriers, les receveurs et les payeurs à tous les niveaux ne peuvent faire acte de candidature pendant la durée de leur fonction.

 

Article L 131 Est déchu de plein droit de son mandat de député celui dont l'inéligibilité se révèle après la proclamation des résultats du scrutin ou qui, pendant la durée de son mandat, se trouve dans l'un des cas d'inéligibilité prévus par la présente loi.

La déchéance est constatée par la Cour Suprême à la requête du Bureau de l'Assemblée.

 

Chapitre 4 : Des Incompatibilites

 

Article L 132 Le mandat de député est incompatible avec la qualité de membre du Conseil Economique et Social.

 

Article L 133 L'exercice de toute fonction publique non élective est incompatible avec le mandat de député.

En conséquence, toute personne exerçant l'une des fonctions visées à l'alinéa précédent, élue à l'Assemblée Nationale est remplacée dans ses fonctions et placée dans la position prévue à cet effet par le statut la régissant dans les huit (8) jours qui suivent son entrée en fonction, ou en cas de contestation de l'élection, dans les huit (8) jours suivant la décision de validation.

L'exercice de fonctions confiées par un Etat étranger ou une organisation internationale et rémunérées sur leur fonds est également incompatible avec le mandat de député.

Toutefois, les membres du personnel enseignant de l'enseignement supérieur ne sont pas concernés par les dispositions des deux premiers alinéas du présent article.

 

Article L 134 Les députés peuvent, au cours de leur mandat, être chargés par le Chef de l'Etat de missions administratives temporaires, avec l'accord du Bureau de l'Assemblée.

Le cumul du mandat de député et de la mission ne peut excéder six mois.

A l'expiration de ce délai, la mission cesse d'être temporaire et est régie par les dispositions de l'article L 133 à moins qu'elle n'ait été renouvelée par décret pris en Conseil des Ministres pour une nouvelle période de six mois sans que la durée totale de la mission puisse excéder vingt quatre mois.

En tout état de cause, l'exercice du mandat de député est suspendu pendant la durée de la mission ; il reprend à l'expiration de celle-ci.

 

Article L 135 Sont incompatibles avec le mandat de député, les fonctions de Président Directeur Général ainsi que celles de Directeur Général et de Directeur Général Adjoint exercées dans les établissements publics et les entreprises placées sous le contrôle de l'Etat. Il en est de même de toutes fonctions exercées de façon permanente en qualité de conseiller auprès de ces mêmes établissements ou entreprises. Il en est également de même de la situation d'actionnaires majoritaires dans les entreprises placées sous le contrôle de l'Etat.

Les sociétés, entreprises et établissements visés ci-dessus répondent aux définitions retenues dans les textes en vigueur en République de Guinée.

 

Article L 136 Sont incompatibles avec le mandat de député, les fonctions de chef d'entreprise, de Président Directeur Général, d'Administrateur délégué, de Directeur Général, Directeur Général Adjoint ou Gérant, exercés dans :

1o) les Sociétés, entreprises ou établissements, bénéficiant sous forme de garantie d'intérêts, de subvention, ou sous une forme équivalente, d'avantages assurés par l'Etat ou par une collectivité publique, sauf dans le cas où ces avantages découlent de l'application automatique d'une législation générale ou d'une réglementation générale ;

2o) les Sociétés ayant exclusivement un objet financier et faisant publiquement appel à l'épargne et au crédit ;

3o) les Sociétés et entreprises dont l'activité consiste principalement dans l'exécution de travaux, la prestation de fournitures ou de services pour le compte ou sous le contrôle de l'Etat, d'une collectivité ou d'un établissement dont plus de la moitié du capital social est constitué de participation de sociétés ou d'entreprises ayant ces mêmes activités.

 

Article L 137 Il interdit à tout député d'exercer en cours de mandat une fonction de Président Directeur Général, Chef d'entreprise ou toute fonction exercée de façon permanente dans les sociétés, établissements ou entreprises visés à l'article précédent.

Il est de même interdit à tout député d'être, en cours de mandat, actionnaire majoritaire d'une telle société, établissement ou entreprise.

Il est interdit en outre à tout député d'exercer en cours de mandat une fonction de Chef d'entreprise, de Président Directeur Général, d'Administrateur délégué, de Directeur Général, Directeur Général Adjoint ou Gérant, ou toute fonction exercée de façon permanente en qualité de conseil dans une société, un établissement, une entreprise quelconque.

Il est de même interdit à tout député d'être, en cours de mandat, actionnaire majoritaire d'une telle société, établissement ou entreprise.

Toutefois, les interdictions mentionnées aux quatre alinéas ci-dessus ne s'appliquent pas lorsque les fonctions concernées étaient exercées au moment de la première élection de l'intéressé en tant que député, ou lorsque la situation d'actionnaire majoritaire existait lors de cette élection. Dans ce cas, l'exercice en cours de mandat de toute fonction nouvelle mentionnée aux quatre alinéas précédents est subordonné à l'autorisation préalable du Bureau de l'Assemblée Nationale.

 

Article L 138 Nonobstant les dispositions des articles précédents, les Députés, membres d'une autre Assemblée (Communauté Rurale de Développement par exemple) ou d'un conseil municipal peuvent être désignés par cette Assemblée ou ce conseil pour les représenter dans les organismes d'intérêt régional ou local à condition que ces organismes n'aient pas pour objet de faire ou de distribuer des bénéfices et que les intéressés n'y occupent pas de fonctions rémunérées.

En outre, les députés, même non membres d'une Assemblée ou d'un conseil désignés ci-dessus, peuvent exercer des fonctions de :

- Président du Conseil d'Administration ;

- Administrateur délégué, ou membre du conseil d'Administration des sociétés à participation publique majoritaire ou des sociétés ayant un objet exclusivement social lorsque ces fonctions ne sont pas rémunérées.

 

Article L 139 Il est interdit à tout Avocat inscrit au barreau, lorsqu'il est investi d'un mandat de député, d'accomplir directement ou indirectement par l'intermédiaire d'une association, d'un associé, d'un collaborateur ou d'un secrétaire sauf devant la Haute Cour de Justice, tout acte de sa profession dans les affaires à l'occasion desquelles des poursuites pénales sont engagées devant les juridictions répressives pour crimes ou délits contre la chose publique en matière de presse ou d'atteinte au crédit et à l'épargne.

Il lui est interdit dans les mêmes conditions de plaider ou de consulter contre l'Etat, les collectivités décentralisées ou les établissements publics et les sociétés placées sous le contrôle de l'Etat.

 

Article L 140 Il est interdit à tout Député de faire figurer ou de laisser figurer son nom suivi de l'indication de sa qualité de Député, dans toute publicité relative à une entreprise financière, industrielle ou commerciale.

Sont punis d'un emprisonnement de un à six mois et d'une amende de 100.000 à 500.000 FG, les fondateurs, directeurs ou gérants de sociétés ou d'établissements à objet commercial, industriel ou financier qui auront fait figurer ou laissé figurer le nom d'un député dans l'intérêt de l'entreprise qu'ils dirigent ou qu'ils se proposent de fonder. En cas de récidive, les peines ci-dessus prévues peuvent être doublées.

 

Article L 141 Le député qui, lors de son élection se trouve dans l'un des cas d'incompatibilité visés au présent chapitre est tenu d'établir dans les huit (8) jours qui suivent son entrée en fonction qu'il a démissionné des fonctions incompatibles avec son mandat ou qu'il ne se trouve plus dans la situation d'actionnaire majoritaire déclarée incompatible en vertu des articles L 135 alinéa 1 et L 137 alinéa 4 ou, s'il est titulaire d'un emploi public, qu'il a demandé à être placé dans la position spéciale prévue par son statut. A défaut, il est déclaré démissionnaire d'office, à moins qu'il ne se démette volontairement de son mandat de député.

Le Député qui, en cours de mandat, a accepté une fonction incompatible avec celui-ci, ou qui s'est mis dans la situation d'actionnaire majoritaire déclarée incompatible en vertu des articles L 135 alinéa 1 et L 137 alinéa 4 ou qui a méconnu la nécessité de l'autorisation préalable du Bureau de l'Assemblée Nationale prévue à l'article L 137 dernier alinéa, est également déclaré démissionnaire d'office, à moins qu'il ne se démette volontairement de son mandat de député.

La démission d'office est constatée dans tous les cas par la Cour Suprême à la demande du Bureau de l'Assemblée Nationale. Elle n'entraîne pas l'inéligibilité.

 

Chapitre 5 : De La Déclaration De Candidature

 

Article L 142 Conformément aux dispositions de l'article 48 alinéa premier de la Loi Fondamentale, tout parti politique légalement constitué et désireux de participer aux élections législatives doit, selon le cas, faire une ou deux déclarations :

- la première concerne les candidatures au scrutin majoritaire ;

- la seconde concerne le scrutin de liste nationale à la représentation proportionnelle.

Les déclarations doivent comporter :

1o) la dénomination du Parti Politique qui accorde l'investiture ;

2o) la couleur et l'emblème ou le signe ou le symbole choisi pour l'impression des bulletins de vote ;

3o) les nom, prénoms, filiation, la date et le lieu de naissance avec précision du service, de l'emploi et du lieu d'affectation, s'il est agent de l'Etat ;

4o) la signature de chacun des candidats ;

5o) l'indication de la circonscription électorale dans laquelle le candidat se présente, pour ce qui concerne le scrutin majoritaire uninominal ;

6o) en annexe, le programme qui sera développé durant la campagne électorale.

Pour le scrutin majoritaire uninominal :

- les Partis ne sont pas tenus de présenter un candidat dans chaque circonscription électorale ;

- une même personne ne peut être candidate dans plus d'une circonscription.

Pour le scrutin à la proportionnelle :

- la liste présentée doit être conforme aux dispositions de l'article L 144.

Une même personne ne peut être candidate sur plus d'une liste de candidature et ne peut non plus être candidate à la fois au scrutin majoritaire et au scrutin à la proportionnelle.

 

Article L 143 Les déclarations de candidature doivent être accompagnées pour chaque candidat, des pièces suivantes :

1o) un extrait d'acte de naissance ;

2o) un bulletin no 3 du casier judiciaire datant de moins de trois mois ;

3o) une déclaration par laquelle l'intéressé certifie qu'il pose sa candidature, qu'il n'est candidat que sur une seule liste ou dans une seule circonscription et qu'il ne se trouve dans aucun des cas d'inéligibilité prévu par la présente loi ;

4o) le récépissé de dépôt du cautionnement prévu à l'article L 181.

Les déclarations sont également accompagnées d'une attestation par laquelle le Parti Politique investit les intéressés en qualité de candidats.

 

Article L 144 Les déclarations de candidature sont déposées au Ministère chargé de l'Intérieur, cinquante (50) jours au moins avant la date du scrutin par le mandataire du Parti Politique qui a donné son investiture. Le Ministère chargé de l'Intérieur délivre un récépissé de ces dépôts. Le récépissé ne préjuge pas de la validité des candidatures présentées.

 

Article L 145 N'est pas recevable la déclaration qui :

1o) ne comporterait pas le nombre de candidats requis ;

2o) ne comporterait pas les indications prévues à l'article L 142 ;

3o) ne serait pas accompagnée de pièce prévues à l'article L 143.

Dans le cas où, pour l'un des motifs énumérés ci-dessus, le Ministère chargé de l'Intérieur estime qu'une liste n'est pas recevable, il notifie les motifs de sa décision au mandataire de ladite liste dans les trois (3) jours suivant son dépôt.

 

Article L 146 S'il apparaît qu'une déclaration de candidature a été déposée en faveur d'une personne inéligible ou se trouvant dans tout autre cas d'irrégularité, le Ministère chargé de l'Intérieur rejette ladite déclaration dans les sept (7) jours suivant le dépôt de la candidature et notifie le rejet au candidat ou à son représentant.

Le candidat ou son représentant dispose de trois (3) jours pour attaquer la décision de rejet devant la Cour Suprême qui statue dans les sept jours de sa saisine.

Si le délai mentionné à l'alinéa premier, n'est pas respecté, la candidature doit être reçue.

 

Article L 147 Au plus tard trente jours avant le scrutin, le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur publie par arrêté la liste des candidatures retenues. Cet arrêté est pris après présentation au Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur par le mandataire du candidat ou de la liste, du récépissé de versement ou cautionnement prévu par les articles L 181, L 182 et L 183 de la présente loi.

En cas de contestation des listes publiées, la Cour Suprême est saisie par les partis intéressés dans les quarante huit heures de leur publication. La Cour Suprême statue dans les quarante huit heures de la saisine et autorise le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur à publier la liste définitive.

 

Chapitre 6 : De La Campagne Electorale

 

Article L 148 La campagne en vue de l'élection des députés à l'Assemblée Nationale, se déroule conformément aux dispositions du chapitre 6 Titre 1 de la présente loi.

 

Chapitre 7 : Des Operations Electorales Et Du Recencement Des Votes

 

Article L 149 Les électeurs sont convoqués par décret publié trente (30) jours avant la date du scrutin conformément à l'article L 65.

 

Article L 150 Les dispositions des articles L 83, L 85, L 86 et L 88 sont applicables à l'élection des députés à l'Assemblée Nationale.

 

Article L 151 Au vu de tous les procès-verbaux des commissions administratives centrales, le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur effectue le recensement général des votes.

Si au cours du recensement général, il apparaît que l'incohérence des résultats figurant dans les procès-verbaux rend ceux-ci inexploitables ou si des procès-verbaux sont entachés d'un vice substantiel affectant la sincérité de leur rédaction, le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur, après vérification des procès-verbaux des bureaux de vote, prononce par décision, la nullité desdits procès-verbaux.

Dans ce cas, le nombre d'inscrits figurant sur les procès-verbaux déclarés nuls n'est pas pris en compte dans le recensement général des votes.

Au terme de ce recensement général, le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur dresse un procès-verbal qu'il transmet sans délai à la Cour Suprême.

 

Article L 152 Le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur rend publique la totalisation globale des résultats dans le délai maximum de 48 heures.

 

Article L 153 Si aucune contestation relative à la régularité des opérations électorales n'a été déposée au greffe de la Cour Suprême par l'un des candidats dans le délai prévu à l'article L 154, la Cour Suprême déclare les députés définitivement élus le huitième jour suivant la publication de la totalisation globale des résultats.

 

Chapitre 8 : Du Contentieux

 

Article L 154 Les candidats disposent d'un délai de cinq (5) jours francs à compter de la publication de la totalisation globale des résultats pour contester la régularité des opérations électorales. Les requêtes sont déposées au Greffe de la Cour Suprême. Il en est donné récépissé par le Greffier en chef. Sous peine d'irrécevabilité, les requêtes doivent préciser les faits et moyens allégués et respecter les délais de dépôt.

 

Article L 155 Les requêtes sont communiquées par le Greffier en chef de la Cour Suprême aux mandataires des candidats ou listes en présence qui disposent d'un délai maximum de trois jours francs pour déposer leur mémoire en réponse.

Il est donné récépissé du dépôt du mémoire par le Greffier en chef.

 

Article L 156 La Cour Suprême examine et tranche définitivement toute réclamation et statue souverainement sur la régularité de l'élection des membres de l'Assemblée Nationale.

Dans le cas où elle constate l'existence d'irrégularité, il lui appartient d'apprécier si, eu égard à la nature et à la gravité de ces irrégularités, il y a lieu, soit de maintenir les résultats de la totalisation globale rendus publics par le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur conformément aux dispositions de l'article L 152, soit de prononcer leur annulation totale ou partielle.

La Cour Suprême statue sur requête dans les dix (10) jours qui suivent son dépôt. Son arrêt emporte proclamation définitive ou annulation de l'élection.

En cas d'annulation, il est procédé à un nouveau scrutin dans les trente (30) jours qui suivent.

 

Titre 6 : Des Dispositions Speciales Relatives A L'election Du President De La Republique

 

Chapitre 1 : Du Depot De Candidatures

 

Article L 157 Tout candidat à la présidence de la République doit être :

- de nationalité guinéenne de naissance ;

- jouir de ses droits civils et politiques ;

- être âgé de quarante ans au moins et de soixante dix ans au plus à la date de dépôt de la candidature.

 

Article L 158 Les dépôts de candidatures sont faits au Greffe de la Cour Suprême quarante (40) jours au moins et soixante (60) au plus avant la date du scrutin.

 

Article L 159 La déclaration de candidature à la Présidence de la République faite par le parti doit comporter :

1o) les nom, prénoms, date, lieu de naissance et filiation du candidat ;

2o) la mention que le candidat est de nationalité guinéenne de naissance et qu'il jouit de ses droits civils et de ses droits politiques conformément à l'article L 157 de la présente loi ;

3o) la dénomination du parti politique qui accorde l'investiture ;

4o) la signature du candidat ;

5o) la couleur choisie pour l'impression des bulletins de vote et éventuellement le symbole ou signe qui doit y figurer.

 

Article L 160 La déclaration de candidature doit être accompagnée des pièces suivantes :

- un certificat de nationalité ;

- un extrait d'acte de naissance ;

- un bulletin no 3 du Casier judiciaire datant de moins de trois mois ;

- un certificat médical de visite et de contre-visite datant de moins de trois mois ;

- le récépissé de dépôt du cautionnement prévu à l'article L 181.

 

Article L 161 Pour s'assurer de la validité des candidatures déposées et du consentement des candidats, la Cour Suprême fait procéder à toute vérification qu'elle juge utile.

 

Article L 162 Conformément à l'article 26, alinéa 3 de la Loi Fondamentale, la Cour Suprême arrête et publie la liste des candidats trente neuf (39) jours avant le premier tour de scrutin. Cette publication est faite par affichage au greffe de la Cour Suprême. Les électeurs sont convoqués par décret trente huit (38) jours avant le scrutin.

 

Article L 163 Le droit de réclamation contre toute candidature est ouvert à tout parti politique légalement constitué.

Les réclamations doivent parvenir au greffe de la Cour Suprême avant l'expiration du jour suivant celui de l'affichage de la liste des candidats.

La Cour Suprême statue sans délai.

 

Article L 164 Si la Cour Suprême constate le décès ou l'empêchement définitif de tout candidat à la Présidence de la République figurant sur la liste prévue à l'article L 162, elle décide, s'il y a lieu, de rouvrir les délais pendant lesquels des candidatures nouvelles peuvent être déposées. Dans ce cas, une nouvelle date du scrutin est fixée dans les conditions prévues à l'alinéa 3 de l'article 25 de la Loi Fondamentale.

 

Article L 165 Dans le cas où, à l'issue du premier tour, aucun candidat n'a obtenu la majorité absolue, il est procédé à un deuxième tour de scrutin dans les délais et conditions prévus à l'article 25 alinéa 2 et l'article 29 alinéa 2 de la Loi Fondamentale.

Les retraits éventuels de candidature à ce deuxième tour sont portés à la connaissance de la Cour Suprême par les candidats 24 heures au plus tard, après la proclamation du résultat du premier tour.

La Cour Suprême arrête alors et publie par affichage la liste des deux seuls candidats admis à se présenter au second tour.

 

Article L 166 La convocation des électeurs pour le deuxième tour est faite par décret sept (7) jours au moins avant le scrutin.

 

Chapitre 2 : De La Campagne Electorale

 

Article L 167 La campagne électorale est ouverte trente (30) jours avant le scrutin et close la veille de celui-ci à zéro heure.

En cas de deuxième tour, la campagne électorale est ouverte le lendemain de la proclamation des résultats du premier tour et close la veille du deuxième tour à zéro heure.

Elle se déroule dans les deux cas conformément aux dispositions du chapitre 6, titre 1 de la présente loi.

 

Chapitre 3 : Des Opérations Electorales

 

Article L 168 Le scrutin pour l'élection du Président de la République a lieu conformément à l'article 25 alinéa 1 de la Loi Fondamentale, quarante cins (45) jours au plus et trente (30) jours au moins avant la date de l'expiration du mandat du Président de la République en fonction.

Toutefois, dans les cas de vacance prévus à l'article 34 de la Loi Fondamentale, le scrutin pour l'élection du Président de la République a lieu, sauf cas de force majeure constaté par la Cour Suprême, trente cinq (35) jours au moins et cinquante (50) jours au plus après l'ouverture de la vacance.

 

Article L 169 Le corps électoral est convoqué par décret du Président de la République trente huit (38) jours avant le scrutin, conformément aux dispositions de l'article L 65 de la présente loi.

Le dépouillement, le recensement des votes, la publication des résultats des bureaux de vote, la totalisation globale des résultats et la publication de cette totalisation ont lieu conformément aux dispositions du titre 1, chapitre 7, section 3 de la présente loi.

 

Chapitre 4 : Du Recensement General Des Votes Et De La Proclamation Des Resultats

 

Article L 170 Le recensement général des votes et la transmission du procès-verbal de ce recensement à la Cour Suprême par le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur s'effectuent conformément aux dispositions de l'article L 151.

 

Article L 171 Le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur rend publique la totalisation globale des résultats dans le délai maximum de quarante huit heures.

 

Article L 172 Si aucune contestation relative à la régularité des opérations électorales n'a été déposée par l'un des candidats au greffe de la Cour Suprême dans les huit (8) jours qui suivent le jour où la première totalisation a été rendue publique, la Cour Suprême proclame élu le Président de la République.

Est élu le candidat qui a obtenu la majorité absolue des suffrages au premier tour, la majorité simple au second tour.

En cas de contestation, les résultats sont proclamés dans les conditions définies à l'article L 176 de la présente loi.

 

Chapitre 5 : Du Contentieux

 

Article L 173 Dans les conditions et délais fixés par l'article 30 alinéa 1 de la Loi Fondamentale, tout candidat au scrutin peut contester la régularité des opérations électorales sous la forme d'une requête adressée au Premier Président de la Cour Suprême.

 

Article L 174 La requête est déposée au greffe de la Cour Suprême.

Il en est donné acte par le Greffier en chef.

Sous peine d'irrecevabilité, la requête doit préciser les faits et moyens allégués et respecter les délais de dépôt.

 

Article L 175 La requête est communiquée par le Greffier en chef de la Cour Suprême aux autres candidats intéressés qui disposent d'un délai maximum de 24 heures pour déposer un mémoire en réponse. Il est donné récépissé du dépôt du mémoire par le Greffier en chef.

 

Article L 176 La Cour Suprême statue dans les trois (3) jours qui suivent la saisine. Son arrêt emporte proclamation définitive ou annulation de l'élection.

En cas d'annulation, de nouvelles élections sont organisées dans les soixante (60) jours.

 

Titre 7 : Des Dispositions Financieres

 

Article L 177 Les actes de procédures, les décisions et registres relatifs aux élections sont dispensés de timbre, de l'enregistrement et des frais de justice.

Les cartes d'électeurs, les bulletins de vote, les circulaires sont dispensés d'affranchissement en période électorale.

 

Article L 178 Sont à la charge de l'Etat, les dépenses résultant de la fourniture des cartes d'électeurs ainsi que celles de l'organisation des élections. Les dépenses engagées par les partis politiques durant la campagne électorale sont à leur charge.

 

Article L 179 Les barèmes de la rémunération pour prestations inhérentes à la préparation matérielle et au déroulement du scrutin à la charge des pouvoirs publics, sont fixés par arrêté conjoint du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur et de celui des Finances.

 

Article L 180 Les campagnes électorales sont financées aux moyens :

- des ressources des partis politiques ;

- des subventions éventuelles de l'Etat accordées équitablement ;

- éventuellement, des revenus des candidats.

Les modalités d'application des dispositions du présent article sont fixées par voie réglementaire.

 

Article L 181 Sur proposition d'une Commission des Finances composée :

- du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur, Président ;

- du représentant du Ministre des Finances, Rapporteur ;

- des représentants de chacun des partis légalement constitués, et engagés dans l'élection, membres ;

- le Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur fixe par arrêté au plus tard soixante (60) jours avant le scrutin :

- le montant du cautionnement à verser au trésor public contre récépissé, quarante (40) jours au moins et cinquante neuf (59) jours au plus avant celui du scrutin, par les candidats ou les mandataires des partis politiques prenant part à une élection législative ou présidentielle ;

- et le plafond autorisé du montant global des dépenses pouvant être engagées par un candidat ou un parti politique prenant part à une élection législative ou présidentielle.

 

Article L 182 Le cautionnement représente la contrepartie de la prise en charge par l'Etat des frais d'impression des bulletins de vote, professions de foi et affiches de propagande dans les conditions fixées par la partie réglementaire du présent Code électoral.

 

Article L 183 Le cautionnement est remboursé aux candidats ou aux mandataires des partis politiques dans les quinze jours qui suivent la proclamation définitive des résultats.

Ont droit au remboursement intégral du cautionnement :

- tout candidat élu ou ayant recueilli au moins 5 % des suffrages exprimés au scrutin majoritaire uninominal à un tour des législatives ;

- toute liste ayant obtenu un siège ou recueilli au moins 5 % des suffrages exprimés au scrutin de liste nationale à la proportionnelle ;

- tout candidat à l'élection présidentielle ayant recueilli au moins 5 % des suffrages exprimés.

 

Article L 184 Il est interdit à tout parti politique ou à tout candidat prenant part à une élection législative ou présidentielle d'engager pour la campagne électorale des dépenses excédant le plafond autorisé par la commission indiquée à l'article L 181.

 

Article L 185 Tout parti politique ou candidat engagé dans une élection doit constituer pour ses dépenses électorales, un fonds dénommé "Fonds électoral" alimenté conformément aux dispositions de l'article L 180.

 

Article L 186 Les partis politiques, les candidats prenant part aux élections législatives ou présidentielles sont tenus d'établir un compte de campagne.

Le compte de campagne reçoit le "Fonds électoral".

Le compte de campagne retrace l'origine du "Fonds électoral" et l'ensemble des dépenses effectuées pendant les opérations électorales.

La personne responsable des dépenses électorales ne doit puiser que dans ce "Fonds électoral" pour défrayer les dépenses électorales.

 

Article L 187 Dans les trente (30) jours qui suivent la proclamation définitive des résultats, les partis politiques ou les candidats ayant pris part au scrutin déposent auprès de la Chambre des comptes de la Cour Suprême leur compte de campagne accompagné des pièces justificatives des ressources et des dépenses effectuées.

Ces comptes sont certifiés à la Chambre des Comptes de la Cour Suprême par des comptables agréés.

La Chambre des Comptes de la Cour Suprême rend publics les comptes de campagne afin de recueillir dans un délai de quinze (15) jours les observations des citoyens et des partis politiques sur lesdits comptes.

 

Article L 188 Après vérification des pièces justificatives des comptes, la Cour Suprême rend son arrêt. S'il est constaté un dépassement des dépenses de campagne par rapport au plafond autorisé, la Chambre des Comptes de la Cour Suprême adresse dans les quinze (15) jours qui suivent le dépôt des comptes, un rapport au Procureur de la République qui doit engager des poursuites judiciaires contre les contrevenants.

 

titre 8 : Des Pénalités

 

Article L 189 Toute personne qui se fait inscrire sous un faux nom ou une fausse qualité, ou qui, en

se faisant inscrire a dissimulé une incapacité prévue par la loi, ou qui réclame et obtient une inscription sur plus d'une liste, sera punie d'un emprisonnement d'un à six mois et d'une amende de 100 000 à 250 000 FG ou de l'une de ces deux peines seulement.

 

Article L 190 Toute personne qui, à l'aide de déclaration frauduleuse ou de faux certificats se sera fait inscrire ou aura tenté de se faire inscrire sur une liste électorale, ou qui, à l'aide des moyens frauduleux aura fait inscrire ou rayer indûment un citoyen, sera punie des peines prévues à l'article L 189 de la présente loi.

 

Article L 191 Toute personne qui, déchue du droit de voter, par suite d'une condamnation judiciaire, ou par suite d'une faillite non suivie de réhabilitation, a voté, soit en vertu d'une inscription sur les listes antérieures à sa déchéance, soit en vertu d'une inscription postérieure, mais opérée sans sa participation, sera punie des peines prévues à l'article L 189 de la présente loi.

 

Article L 192 Quiconque aura voté, soit en vertu d'une inscription obtenue frauduleusement, soit en prenant faussement les nom, prénoms, et qualités d'un électeur inscrit, sera puni d'un emprisonnement de six mois à un an et d'une amende de 250 000 à 500 000 FG ou de l'une de ces deux peines seulement.

 

Article L 193 Sera puni des peines prévues à l'article L 192 le citoyen qui a profité d'une inscription multiple pour voter plus d'une fois. La même peine est appliquée à quiconque a empêché par inobservation volontaire de la loi, l'inscription sur une liste électorale d'un citoyen remplissant les conditions fixées par le présent Code.

 

Article L 194 Toute infraction aux dispositions des articles L 48 alinéa 3, L 54 et L 55 sera punie d'un emprisonnement de six mois à un an et d'une amende de 100 000 à 200 000 FG ou de l'une de ces deux peines seulement.

 

Article L 195 Quiconque étant chargé dans un scrutin de recevoir, compter ou dépouiller les bulletins contenant les suffrages des citoyens, a soustrait, ajouté ou altéré des bulletins, ou a lu volontairement un nom autre que celui inscrit, sera puni d'un emprisonnement de six mois à un an, d'une amende de 250 000 à 500 000 FG et de l'interdiction du droit de voter et d'être éligible pendant cinq ans au moins et dix ans au plus.

Toutes autres personnes coupables des mêmes faits énoncés dans l'alinéa premier seront punies d'un emprisonnement de six mois au moins et un an au plus, d'une amende de 100 000 à 250 000 FG ou de l'une de ces deux peines seulement.

 

Article L 196 A l'exception des membres des forces publiques légalement requis, quiconque est entré dans un bureau de vote avec une arme apparente sera passible d'une amende de 250 000 à 500 000 FG.

La peine sera d'un emprisonnement de quinze jours à trois (3) mois et d'une amende de 50 000 à 100 000 FG si l'arme était cachée.

 

Article L 197 Sera puni d'une emprisonnement de quinze jours et d'une amende de 25 000 F, quiconque aura introduit ou tenté d'introduire dans un bureau de vote des boissons alcoolisées.

Quiconque aura introduit ou tenté d'introduire des stupéfiants dans un bureau de vote, sera poursuivi et puni conformément à la loi.

 

Article L 198 Quiconque à l'aide de fausses nouvelles, propos calomnieux ou autres manoeuvres frauduleuses aura détourné des suffrages ou déterminé un ou plusieurs électeurs à s'abstenir de voter, sera puni d'un emprisonnement d'un mois à un an et d'une amende de 100 000 à 500 000 FG ou de l'une de ces deux peines seulement.

 

Article L 199 Quiconque trouble les opérations d'un bureau de vote, porte atteinte à l'exercice du droit électoral ou à la liberté de vote, ou empêche un candidat ou son représentant d'assister aux opérations de vote, est puni d'un emprisonnement de six mois à deux ans et d'une amende de 250 000 à 1 000 000 FG ou de l'une de ces deux peines seulement.

Si le coupable est porteur d'arme, il encourt une peine d'emprisonnement de un à cinq ans et une amende de 500 000 à 1 500 000 ou l'une de ces deux peines seulement.

Lorsque les infractions prévues aux alinéas 1 et 2 ci-dessus sont commises par suite d'un plan concerté pour être exécuté, le coupable sera puni d'un emprisonnement de cinq à dix ans, et de l'interdiction de droit de voter et d'être éligible pendant cinq ans au moins et dix ans au plus et d'une amende de 250 000 à 1 500 000 FG.

 

Article L 200 Quiconque commet un outrage ou exerce des violences envers un ou plusieurs membres d'un bureau de vote, ou qui, par voies de fait ou menaces, aura retardé ou empêché les opérations électorales, sera puni d'un emprisonnement de six mois à deux ans et d'une amende de 100 000 à 500 000 FG sans préjudice des poursuites judiciaires pouvant être engagées par la victime.

 

Article L 201 L'enlèvement irrégulier de l'urne contenant les suffrages émis et non encore dépouillés, ou des procès-verbaux ou de tout document constatant les résultats du scrutin, sera puni d'un emprisonnement d'un à cinq ans et d'une amende de 250 000 à 1 500 000 FG ou de l'une de ces deux peines seulement.

Si cet enlèvement a été effectué par un groupe de personnes et avec violence, la peine sera de cinq à dix ans d'emprisonnement et l'amende de 1 500 000 à 3 000 000 FG.

 

Article L 202 La violation de l'urne soit par un membre de bureau, soit par un agent de l'autorité préposé à la garde des bulletins non encore dépouillés, sera punie d'un emprisonnement d'un à cinq ans et d'une amende de 1 500 000 à 3 000 000 FG.

 

Article L 203 Quiconque par des dons ou libéralités en espèce ou en nature, par des promesses de libéralités, de faveurs, d'emplois publics ou privés ou d'autres avantages, aura influencé ou tenté d'influencer le vote d'un ou plusieurs électeurs ou d'un collège électoral à s'abstenir de voter, sera puni d'un emprisonnement de trois mois à deux ans et d'une amende de 50 000 à 500 000 FG ou de l'une de ces deux peines seulement.

Ces peines seront assorties de la déchéance civique pendant une durée de cinq ans.

Seront punis des mêmes peines, ceux qui auront agréé ou sollicité les mêmes dons, libéralités ou promesses.

 

Article L 204 Tout candidat qui, de mauvaise foi, aura souscrit une déclaration inexacte sur son éligibilité ou sur sa présence sur une liste, sera puni d'un emprisonnement d'un mois à un an et d'une amende de 50 000 à 250 000 FG.

 

Article L 205 Quiconque, soit dans une commission de contrôle de listes électorales, soit dans une commission administrative, soit dans un bureau de vote, ou en dehors de ceux-ci, avant, pendant ou après un scrutin, aura, par inobservation volontaire des lois et règlements en vigueur ou par toute manoeuvre ou actes frauduleux, porté atteinte ou tenté de porter atteinte à la sincérité du vote, empêché ou tenté d'empêcher les opérations du scrutin, violé ou tenté de violer le secret du vote ou aura changé ou tenté de changer le résultat, sera puni d'un emprisonnement de un mois à un an et d'une amende de 150 000 à 600 000 FG.

Le coupable pourra en outre être privé de ses droits civiques pendant deux ans au moins et cinq ans au plus.

S'il est fonctionnaire de l'ordre administratif ou judiciaire, agent ou préposé de l'autorité publique, la peine sera portée au double.

 

Article L 206 Ceux qui par menace contre un électeur, soit en lui faisant craindre de perdre son emploi ou d'exposer à un dommage sa personne, sa famille ou ses biens, l'auront déterminé à voter ou auront influencé ou tenté d'influencer son vote seront punis d'un emprisonnement de trois mois à un an et d'une amende de 50 000 à 500 000 FG, ou de l'une de ces deux peines seulement.

Lorsque ces menaces sont accompagnées de violence ou de voies de fait, les peines sont celles prévues par l'article L 200 de la présente loi et par le Code Pénal.

 

Article L 207 Quiconque enfreint les dispositions visées à l'article L 42 sera puni d'un emprisonnement d'un mois à un an et de l'interdiction du droit de vote et d'être éligible pendant un an au moins et cinq ans au plus.

 

Article L 208 Toute personne qui en violation des articles L 56 et L 57, utiliserait ou laisserait utiliser à son profit les attributs, biens et moyens de l'Etat, d'un organisme public, d'une association, d'une organisation non gouvernementale, sera punie des peines d'emprisonnement de six mois à deux ans et d'une amende de 250 000 à 2 500 000 FG.

 

Article L 209 Tout imprimeur qui enfreindra aux dispositions de l'article L 53 alinéa 4 sera puni d'une amende de 75 000 FG par modèle d'affiches ou de bulletins.

Les affiches ou bulletins incriminés sont immédiatement retirés de la circulation par acte du Ministre chargé de l'Intérieur ou du Préfet.

 

Article L 210 Quiconque enfreint aux dispositions relatives à l'établissement des comptes de campagne prévu à l'article L 186 sera puni d'un emprisonnement d'un à cinq ans et d'une amende de 1 500 000 à 3 000 000 FG, ou de l'une des deux peines seulement.

 

Article L 211 Aucune poursuite contre un candidat, en vertu des articles L 202 et 210 ne peut être exercée avant la proclamation du scrutin.

 

Article L 212 Les pénalités prévues au présent titre sont applicables sans préjudices des autres sanctions prévues par les lois et règlements en vigueur.

Les complices des infractions visées au présent titre sont punissables.

 

Article L 213 Toute condamnation prononcée dans le cadre de la présente loi ne pourra, en aucun cas, avoir pour effet, l'annulation d'une élection régulièrement validée par les instances compétentes.

 

Titre 9 : Dispositions Finales

 

Article L 214

La présente loi organique qui abroge toutes dispositions contraires sera publiée au Journal Officiel de la République de Guinée et exécutée comme Loi de l'Etat.

Conakry, le 23 décembre 1991

Général Lansana Conté

 

 

English version

 

The Transitional National Recovery, after some debate, adopted;
The President of the Republic promulgated the Act set out below


Part 1: The Provisions of Common to all Elections and Consultations

Chapter 1: General Provisions

Article L 1: Suffrage is universal, direct, equal and secret.

Article L 2: The Minister of Interior has the authority, which is organizing the elections. The Courts shall ensure the regularity of the elections and resolve electoral disputes under the conditions defined by this Act.
In accordance with the Fundamental Law, the Supreme Court shall ensure the regularity of presidential and legislative elections.
The Ministry of the Interior is required to inform the Supreme Court of various acts and transactions relating to these elections.
The Supreme Court may, at any time, prescribe any measures it deems appropriate to the regularity and the proper conduct of elections.


Chapter 2: The Requirements to Be Elector

Article L 3: Are voters, all Guinean at least 18 years old on election day, enjoying their civil and political rights, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 443 of the Civil Code, and not being in any condition of incapacity provided by the law in force.

Article L 4: The conditions for the electorate of naturalized aliens are laid down by Article 89, paragraph 2 of the Civil Code.
Women who acquired Guinean nationality through marriage under the conditions laid down by Article 49 of the Civil Code are voters, in accordance with the provisions referred to in Article 53 of the Civil Code.
Also voters, foreigners with the right to vote under reciprocal agreements.

Article L 5: Nobody can vote:
-If he is not registered on the electoral roll of the electoral district where is his home within the meaning of Article 244 of the Civil Code;
-He has lived for at least six months home in the said home, subject to the provisions of Article 10 below;
-If he has not fulfilled its civic duties;
-If he has not a national identity card and a certificate of residence or one of the documents listed in Article 21 of this Act.


Chapter 3: The Electoral Lists

Section 1: Conditions For Inclusion On The Electoral Lists

Article L 6: The registration on the electoral roll is compulsory for every citizen fulfilling the conditions required by law.

Article L 7: Nobody can be registered on more than one list of electors or to be registered more than once on the same list.

Article L 8: Should not be included in the electoral roll except in the case of rehabilitation:
1)Individuals convicted of the crime;
2)Those sentenced to a term of imprisonment without probation or a sentence of imprisonment for a term exceeding one month, with or without a fine, for any of the following offences:
-Theft;
-Fraud;
-Breach of trust;
-Misappropriation and embezzlement committed by a public official;
-Corruption and influence peddling;
3) Those convicted of a crime of counterfeiting, and in general, for one of the offences punishable exceeding five years;
4) Those sentenced to more than three months imprisonment without probation, or a sentence of imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months sentence for a crime other than those mentioned in the second paragraph above;
5) Those who are in a state of absentia;
6) non rehabilitated bankrupts whose bankruptcy has been declared either by Guinean courts, or by a foreign judgement enforceable in the Republic of Guinea;
7)Internees and incapacitated adults;
8)Individuals to whom the courts have forbidden the right to vote.

Article L 9: There is a list of electors for each commune and for each Community of Rural Development (CRD). A copy of this list is submitted to the Sub-Prefecture for the file of sub-prefects, in the prefecture for the file of prefecture, governorate, for the city of Conakry and the Ministry of the Interior responsible for the general file. It is also compiled a list of voters for each diplomatic mission in the Republic of Guinea.
These lists form the consular file kept by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Copies of these lists are filed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to the Ministry of the Interior responsible for the general file.

Article L 10: The voter list of municipalities include:
1) All voters who are domiciled in the municipality or resident for at least six months at the time of registration;
2) Those who are subject to a compulsory residence as an officer or agent of the State, local government and public institutions, or as an agent of corporations and private enterprises.

Article L 11: In Community Rural of Development, the electoral list includes all voters who have their main residence there.

Article L 12: Are also registered on the electoral rolls in the Municipalities and Community of Rural Development, who, while not fulfilling the terms of age and residency during the establishment of the electoral list, attain that age before the final closure of lists.

Article L 13: Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 5, paragraph 1 Guinean citizens established or in service abroad and registered in the Chancery of Guineans Embassies or Consulates, are registered on the electoral roll of the Embassy or Consulate.

Article L 14: The electoral list must include the name, affiliation, occupation, date and place of birth of each voter and the neighborhood or district of residence.

Article L15: The production of a certificate of residence and one of the requirements of Article 21 is required of any individual who seeks its inclusion on a voter list.

Article L 16: Every citizen referred to in articles 5 and 13 can claim the inclusion of a non-registered voter or cancellation of a voter improperly registered. That same opportunity will be provided to the Mayor, the President of the Community of Rural Development.
Applications from third parties cannot have the purpose other than registration or individual radiation. They must specify the identity of each person whose registration or cancellation is claimed. Any voter whose registration is challenged must be informed within three business days so that he could submit its comments to the Administrative Commission. The notification, which must be made free of charge, will contain an indication of the reason for the request for cancellation.
In the event of cancellation, he may challenge the decision of the Administrative Commission, which is responsible for him to provide the reasons for his challenge to the President of the Court or Judge of the Peace in the period from 1 to 15 December. This period is reduced to eight days in the event of exceptional revision of electoral lists. Any omitted voter can also submit his comments to the Administrative Commission and file, if necessary, his complain to the presiding judge or the Justice of the Peace. 

Article L 17: The Court of First Instance or the Justice of the Peace of each Prefecture sit by ordinance on the case of a dispute. The ordinance is not liable to appeal.


Section 2: The Establishment and Revision of Electoral Lists

Article L 18: The voters lists of municipalities are drawn up by one or more administrative commissions consist of:

-A representative of the government appointed by the prefect or by the Governor of the city of Conakry and acting as President;
-The City Mayor or his representative;
-A representative of each candidate or list of candidates;
The voter list of Communities of Rural Development are drawn up by one or more commissions consisting of administrative:
-A delegate of the administration appointed by the sub-prefect and acting as President;
-The Chairman of the Community of Rural Development or his representative;
-A representative of each candidate or party list of candidates.
The administrative commissions for the revision of voter list must associate in their work, the heads of the district or representatives thereof.


Article L 19: The period of revision of electoral rolls is scheduled to be held from October 1 to December 31 each year. The Mayor or the Chairman of the Community of Rural Development Council carries out the posting of the notice of opening of the period revision of voter registration by October 1.
Applications for registration or cancellation are expressed with the competent departments of Municipalities and Communities of Rural Development during the period stipulated in the first paragraph of this article. Fifteen days prior to the end of registration, the Mayor and the Chairman of the Community of Rural Development shall conduct the posting of a notice of closure of operations of revision.

 
Article L 20
: In case of an exceptional revision of electoral rolls, the dates for opening and closing of the revision period shall be determined by decision of the Minister of the Interior before the convening of the electorate.

Article L 21:The electoral lists are permanent.
They are subject to annual revision.
They are drawn from census records and supplemented in accordance with the provisions of Articles 18 L, 19 L 20 L. The preparation and revision of electoral rolls are made upon presentation of one of the following documents.
-Identity card;
-Passport;
-Military record;
-Booklet of civil or military pension;
-Student card of the current school year;
-Consular card;
-A certificate from the district chief and counter-signed by two prominent citizens of the District for rural people.

The administrative commission shall provide each voter a receipt bearing the registration number on the electoral roll.
The elections are conducted on the basis of the revised list in the last trimester of the year preceding that of elections.

Article L 22: As part of the annual revision of electoral rolls, it is

prepared from December 1st of every year with a table of correction consisting of:
-Newly registered voters or ex officio by the Administrative Commission or at the request of voters;
-Voters removed or ex officio by the Administrative commission or at the request of voters.

 

Article L 23: This table of correction must bear all the indications of identity that must appear on the electoral roll and the reasons for listing or delisting.
The corrigendum, once adopted, should be signed by the president and all members of the Administrative Commission and tabled at the City Hall or at the headquarters of the Community of Rural Development accompanied by a certificate of deposit.

Article L 24: The Mayor of the municipality or the President of the Community of Rural Development must:
1) give notice to the people of this filing through poster affixed to the usual places and making known that the claims are received for a period of 15 days;
2) send within two days to the regulatory authority, a copy of the table of correction and a copy of the minutes of the filing.

Article L 25: The table of registration and cancellation established by the Administrative Commission is posted at the usual place of official publications on November 30. Minutes of the work deposited to mayor’s office or the Chairman of the Community of Rural Development can be accessed by whoso wishes or copied at his expense with out displacing the said document.

Article L 26: The original work submitted to the City Council or the Community of Rural Development can be transmitted to any claimant interested in receiving one or copying at its own expense, but without moving those documents.

Article L 27: Complaints are recorded in a register opened for this purpose at the City Hall or at the headquarters of the Community of Rural Development. They are worn in the chronological order of their submission and must include the full name, affiliation, date and place of birth and residence of each claimant and the statement of the grounds on which they are based. The claims are made in writing. He must be given a receipt.

Article L 28: The claims are reviewed by the court or justice of the peace, which has ten days to decide. The decision must be brought to the attention of people interested in the three days of the judgement.

Article L 29: The decisions of the court can be communicated to all applicants wishing to obtain this information, the secretariat of the Town Hall or at the headquarters of the Community of Rural Development, but without displacing the said documents.

Article L 30: The Administrative Commission brings to the tables which were published on November 30 all changes resulting from the decisions of the Tribunal of the First Instance or justice of the peace. Moreover, it removed the names of voters whose deaths have occurred since the publication of the correction table and the names of those who have been deprived of the right to vote by a final judgement.
It will table these amendments, which must be signed by the president and all members and immediately forwarded to the Mayor or to the headquarters of the Community of Rural Development and to the regulatory authority.

Article L 31: Not later than January 8, the changes on the table of correction are carried to the electoral roll, which becomes the electoral roll for the current year.
The lists are finalized on January 8 of each year.
The new voters' list will be tabled at the Secretariat of the Town Hall or at the headquarters of the Community of Rural Development. It can be transmitted to any claimant who may consult or take copies at his own expense.
A copy shall be sent:
-In the sub-prefect for the file of the Sub-prefecture;
-To the Prefect for the file of the Prefecture;
-Minister of the Interior responsible for the general file.

Section 3: Registration or Cancellation Outside the Periods for Review

Article L 32: The following may be included or removed on completion of the electoral list at least 24 hours before the ballot:
-Functionaries of services or public institutions, private or public companies, officials of public or private companies that have been subject to transfer or who have retired as well as members of their families living with them at the time of the transfer or retirement upon presentation of their decisions to transfer or retirement and the certificate of cancellation issued by the authority of the former residence;
-Guineans who have reached the age of majority for election, on production of documentary of evidence;
-Guineans registered abroad when they return on an interim basis in one of the electoral districts, on presentation of their consular card;
-Voters already registered on the electoral roll when they change their  place of residence on presentation of the certificate of cancellation issued by the authority of the former residence;
-People whose registration or cancellation has been ordered by the courts in accordance with the law.

 

Chapter 4: Control Of The Registration an Electoral Lists

Article L 33: The Minister of the Interior shall maintain the general registration of voters for inspection of voter registration. A decree lays down the conditions for the organisation and functioning of this file, files Sub-prefecture and prefecture.

Article L 34: When it is found that on general file a voter is recorded by mistake on more than one list, its inclusion is maintained on the list of its most recent application. His cancellation other lists occurs automatically. When the same voter is registered by mistake more than once on the same list, he must not remain but on a single registration.
Every cancellation is communicated by the Minister of Interior to Prefect and the Sub-prefect to update their files.
The cancellation is made upon production of documentary evidence.

Chapter 5: Voters’ Cards

Article L 35: The government is responsible for the printing and preparation of voters' cards at the expense of the state.

Article L 36: The model cards and the modalities for establishing and expiry date are determined by a decision of the Minister of Interior.

Article L 37: The Governor for the city of Conakry and prefects for their Prefecture, named by decision members of the commission of the distribution of voters’ cards forty-five days before the election.

Article L 38: A voting card mentioning the electoral list and indicating the polling station where the voter will vote shall be issued to each voter. This distribution starts 30 days before the polling day and ends on the eve of the polling day. The handing over of the cards is to be held against a receipt as mentioned in article L 21 by the commissions provided for in article L 35 in places of distribution to be determined by an act of the Mayor or the President of the Community of Rural Development.
The electoral cart is strictly individual and cannot be subject to transfer, assignment or negotiation.

Article L 39: Registration cards, which have not be taken by the voters until the eve of the vote, are delivered against receipt to clustered commissions of distribution designated by the Governor for the city of Conakry and prefects for prefectures.
They remain kept for the interested voters throughout the duration of the election. However, they can be returned to their owner as justification for their identity and presentation of the receipt.
For a receipt of a card, which has not been found, the President of the Commission regrouped immediately authorizes for the establishment of a new card after checking on the electoral roll. At the close of polling, the Commission establishes consolidated Minutes signed by all members.
Those cards not withdrawn at the close of polling, returned under seal stamped and initialled by the Commission consolidated to the Governor for the city of Conakry and the Prefect for the Prefectures. These cards will be kept for the next Review Board, which will decide on the validity of the registration of their respective owners.

Article 40 L: The color of voters' cards should vary from one election to another. The renewal of registration cards may be decided at any time by the Minister of the Interior.


Chapter 6: The Electoral Campaign

Article L 41: Election campaigns are declared open:
1) for the municipal and rural elections fifteen days before the polling day;
2) for the legislative elections, twenty days before polling day;
3) for the presidential elections thirty days before polling day.
They all end on the eve of the day before the vote at zero hour. The dates of opening and closing of the campaigns are set by decree of the President of the Republic.

Article L 42: Nobody can by any means and in whatever form campaign outside the period stipulated in the previous article.

Article L 43: The following are the only authorized to organize meetings for campaign:
-Candidates or representatives of the lists of candidates in local elections or the election of Communities of Rural Development;
-Political parties legally constituted.

Article L 44: The demonstrations, gatherings for elections are conducted in accordance with the provisions of the law on public meetings and demonstrations.

Article L 45: The electoral meeting, which aims is the choice or hearing of candidates in the elections, is open only to candidates, their agents and members of their party.

Article L 46: The demonstrations, gatherings for election cannot be held on site or public roads without prior declaration made to the Mayor or the President of the Community of Rural Development at least 24 hours in advance. They are prohibited between 23 pm and 7 am. The declaration must be made in written form and during the legal hours of opening of administrative services.
The statement mentions the names and positions of officers of the meeting. Receipt will be given. If no designation by the signatories of the statement, the officers are elected by the meeting at the beginning of it.

Article L 47: Each meeting should have a bureau consisting of at least three members.
The officers and the signatories of the statement are responsible for breaches of the requirements of this article and article L 46 and are liable to penalties prescribed by law for such offences. The Bureau is responsible for maintaining law and order, to give the meeting a characteristics mentioned by the statement, to prohibit any speech contrary to public order and morals or containing incitement to an act constituting a crime or misdemeanor.
And in general to prevent any breaches of the laws.

Article L 48: An official of the administrative or judicial order may be delegated by the administrative authorities to attend the meeting.
He chooses his place. It reports on the progress of the meeting to the competent authority.
If there is a disturbance or assault, the president of the Bureau, lest fall within the scope of

Article L 196 of this Act, stops the meeting.

Article L 49: During the election period, in the municipalities or in Community of Rural Development, the Mayor or the President of the Rural Community Development designates by an administrative act:
-Places exclusively to receive posters, laws, acts of the public authorities on the ballot;
-Special places reserved for professions of faith, circulars and posters.
In each of these locations, a surface area is allocated to each individual candidate or list of candidates. Any display on the election, even poster stamped, is prohibited outside these sites, or on sites for other candidates. The locations are allocated in the order of arrival of requests.

Article L 50: Requests should be addressed by candidates or representatives of political responsible parties to the Minister of the Interior, the prefect or sub-prefect, as appropriate, no later than eight (8) days before the election. They are recorded and transmitted to the mayor or the President of the Community of Rural Development. 

Article L 51: Each individual candidate or political party with a candidate or list of candidates, can be printed and sent to voters during the election campaign, a circular of propaganda sheet including a double-sided format of 21 X 27; This circular is subject to the formality of legal deposit.


Article L 52: The campaign through displays is governed by the provisions of Articles L 49 and L 50.

Article L 53: A candidate or a political party may not use a title, color, a logo, a symbol or sign already chosen by another candidate or another political party.
If two or more candidates or lists of competitors adopt the same color or even the same emblem or symbol or sign, the Minister of the Interior rules within eight (8) days by allocating to each candidate or list his colour, emblem, symbol or sign in order of seniority.
It informs concerned parties.

 
It prohibits the choice of emblem with a combination of the three national colors: red, yellow, green.

Article L 54: It is prohibited under the penalties provided for in Article 196 L [194] of this Act, to distribute on the polling day, newsletters, bulletins or other documents of propaganda.

Article 55 L: It is an offence for any public official to distribute during his hours of service, newsletters, bulletins or other documents of propaganda under the penalties provided for in Article L 196  [194].

Article L 56: Are prohibited and may be punishable, upon action of the Public Prosecutor, penalties applicable to influence peddling:
- Donations and gifts in cash or in kind as well as pledges, gifts or administrative favors made to an individual, a commune or community of any citizens for propaganda purposes in order to influence or attempt to influence the voting. 
-Using for the same purpose goods and means of an institution or a government agency and the state in general;
-Using for the same purpose any process to commercial advertising.

Article L 57: Associations and apolitical Non-Governmental Organizations, and especially those with supports and privileges granted by the State, may not support candidates and political parties. 

Article L 58 : Every candidate shall refrain from any action or attitude, gesture or any other offensive behavior, dishonourable, illegal or immoral and must ensure the proper conduct of the election campaign. 

Article L 59: Any candidate or list of candidates has equitable access to the media of the State during the election campaign.

Article L 60: The Guinean Radio and Television Stations and the Rural Radio stations announce meetings involving electoral candidates.

Article L 61: During the election campaign, the time and schedule of broadcasts on Radio and Television, the conditions of their production and achievement, the manner of their programming and distribution are determined by decision of the Minister of Information, on the proposal of the National Council of Communication.

Article L 62: The Supreme Court shall ensure the regularity of the election campaign.
It shall ensure, through the National Council of Communication, that the principle of equal treatment between the candidates is respected in the state printing media and the news programmes of the Guinean Radio and Television Stations and the Rural Radio stations regarding reproduction and the comments of speeches, writings, the activities of candidates and political parties as well as the presentation of these candidates and the political parties. 
The National Council of Communication makes recommendations to the competent authorities and may apply to the Supreme Court in case of non-compliance with the provisions of this law in the field of communication.
The Supreme Court, if necessary, intervenes to ensure that equality is respected.

Article L 63: The Minister of Information, in addition to the emission time available to each candidate and each political party engaged in an election, hold under the supervision of the National Council of Communication, contradictory debates on radio and television.

Article L 64: Either motion or at the request of the National Council of Communication, the Supreme Court may suspend the broadcast of the official campaign, in the twenty four hours following the completion of this program, if the speaker's words is a serious breach of the obligations of political parties resulting from Article 1 of the Fundamental Law, particularly with regard to respect:
-Republican character, secular and democratic State;
-That all citizens are equal, irrespective of their origin, race, ethnicity, religion and opinion;
-Institutions of the Republic;
-National independence, territorial integrity and unity of the state;
-Of public order and freedoms.
The referral of the Supreme Court suspends the broadcast in question. Supreme Court sits within a period of forty-eight hours from the date of referral.
It may prohibit the broadcast, in whole or in part. If the National Council of Communication does refer to the Supreme Court within twenty-four hours or, if the Supreme Court does not sit within the time specified above, the issue shall be broadcast at the earliest.

Chapter 7: Operations to Vote

Section 1: Preparations Of Operations to Ballot

Article L 65: Voters are summoned by a decree published in National Gazette:
-Thirty-eight days before the election for the presidential elections;
-Seventy days before the election for the legislative elections;
-Sixty days before the election for the municipal elections and elections of Communities of Rural Development.
In case of cancellation, voters are called for new elections taking place sixty days after the cancellation.

Article L 66: The electoral districts are, as applicable:
-The quarter or district, for the election of councils of quarter and district;
- Community of Rural Development for the council of the community;
-The Commune, in the communal elections;
-Prefecture and Communes of Conakry, for the legislative elections in uninominal poll;
-The country for the legislative elections of list of candidates for proportional representation and for the presidential elections.
The electoral districts may only be amended by law.

 

Article L 67: In electoral districts, voters are divided by Act of the Minister of the Interior or the Prefect, in as many polling stations as required by the number of voters and local constraints.

Section 2: Voting

Article L 68: Election Day is set by Presidential decree. The ballot only lasts a single day throughout the national territory. It opens seven hours in the morning and ends in eighteen hours in the evening. It takes place on a Sunday.
However, in order to facilitate the exercise of voting rights, the competent authority may, in exceptional cases, take measures to the effect of delaying the closing time of voting in all or part of a constituency, charge for it to report to the higher authority. Mention is made of these acts in the minutes. These acts are immediately displayed at the entrance of polling stations.

Article L 69: In each room of balloting, the Administrative Commission deposits the ballots on the tables prepared for that purpose. The wording and technical characteristics of these ballots are defined by regulation. Communication is made to the Supreme Court by the Minister of the Interior.

Article L 70: The vote takes place in envelopes provided by the Administration. The envelopes are of a uniform type, opaque and not wet-glue. On polling day, they are made available to voters in the voting room. Before the ballot, the Board should note that the number of envelopes corresponds exactly to that of registered voters.
If  these envelopes run out, the Chairman of the polling station is required to obtain some from the Administrative Commission. Mention must be made in the minutes of the number of envelopes provided.

Article L 71: There shall be established a polling station for a thousand voters at most. The list of polling stations is the subject of a decision of the Minister of Interior, thirty days before the election. The order is transmitted through the administrative authorities, to the Mayors and Presidents of Communities of Rural Development that ensure the publication in the district under their jurisdiction.
The office is composed of:
-A President;
-Of a Vice-President;
-A Secretary;
-Two Assessors.

Article L 72: The members of the polling station shall be appointed by decision of the Minister of the Interior on the proposal of the prefects. They are required by the prefects among voters in the constituency, to the exclusion of candidates and their direct relatives or affinity to the fourth degree.
The decision of the Minister of Interior and the requisition of the Prefect are notified to those concerned by the prefect and the sub-prefect.
The head of the public security forces competent receives amplification.
In the event of failure of the office of President, it is officially replaced by the Vice-President.
In the event of failure of a member of the bureau noted at the opening or during polling, it is proceeded to his replacement by the President, who chose by lot from among the electors present who can read and write French. Mention is made in minutes.
The Minister of the Interior designates the Presidents of the polling station and shall ensure their allocation in such a way that no one is required to chair a polling station in the locality of where it comes from or resides.
In the same vein, it should be careful to make a good distribution of polling stations within a single electoral constituency.
The Presidents of polling station will be selected among managers of the State known for their honesty, integrity and good character.

Article L 73: The chairman of the polling station has police powers within the polling station and can expel any person who disrupts the operations of the vote. No armed force shall not; without his permission, be placed in the voting room or its immediate vicinity, or intervene in any way whatsoever. No one can enter the polling room, carrying a concealed apparent or weapon, with the exception of members of the public forces legally required.

Article L 74: The members of the polling station are responsible for all the operations assigned to them by the present law and regulations. Candidates can ask on their initiative to be represented in these operations.

Article L 75: Every voter on the list of electors in the constituency, is entitled to vote in the office to which he was attached, unless it is deprived of the right to vote after his inclusion.
However, subject to verification of their identity cards, their voter’s cards, are allowed to vote outside their constituency, members of polling stations, officials of the security forces, the military, journalists, the aircraft crews, sailors and all other people on the move for reasons of service, as well as the candidates on the list of a political party with regard to the parliamentary elections.
In each polling station, he shall be a registry of full name, affiliation and occupation of all electors who is supposed to vote, under the exemptions provided by this article.

Article L 76: In each polling station, there is a voting booth for two hundred and fifty registered voters at most. Voting booth should not be placed so as to hide it from the public the electoral process.

Article L 77: At no time during the balloting, the number of officers present in the polling station may not be less than three.

Article L 78: On entering the hall to vote, the voter must present their voter registration card.
The voter must also be seen at the same time with his identity card by the presentation of one of the items listed in Article 21. The voter affix the fingerprint of his left thumb in the place reserved for this purpose on the electoral roll for signature.
These requirements having been satisfied, the voter takes himself an envelope and a ballot paper for each candidate or list of candidates and proceeded alone in the voting booth where he places the ballot paper of his choice in the envelope. He then makes sure that he holds a single envelope. The President notes without touching the envelope that the voter introduces himself in the ballot box.

Article L 79: Every voter suffering infirmity, placing him in impossibility to put his ballot paper in the envelope and bring it in the ballot box is allowed to be assisted by an elector of his choice.

Article L 80: The ballot box should have only one opening in which to pass the envelope containing the ballot paper. Before the start of the ballot, it must have been closed with two different locks, and to the voters and delegates of candidates find that it is empty. The keys remain, one in the hands of the President of the polling station and the other in the hands of the oldest assessor. 

Article L 81: By the closure of polling, the electoral list of signature is signed by all members of the polling station.

Section 3: The Counting

Article L 82: Immediately after the closure of polling, there shall be counting in the following manner:
The ballot box is opened and the number of envelopes is checked.
If the number is greater or less than that of signatures, it is mentioned in the minutes.
The Office of vote chooses among voters present, a number of tellers, who can read and write French, to be officially selected to train with the polling, the commission of counting. They are divided in groups of four or more.
The counting of votes in each polling will take place before the delegates of political parties and candidates.

Article L 83: In each group, one of the tellers extract each ballot envelope and hand it unfolded to another teller, the latter shall read aloud; the indications on the ballot are identified by at least two tellers on lists prepared for that purpose.

Article L 84: The invalid ballots are not regarded as votes cast during vote counting.
Shall be deemed invalid ballots:
1) envelope without ballot paper or ballot paper without envelope;
2) several different ballot paper in a single envelope;
3) torn envelopes or ballot papers, or having written or indications that the voters have made themselves known;
4) ballot papers fully or partially crossed out;
5) ballot papers or envelopes non-regulatory.
The invalid ballot papers and envelopes are attached to the report and counter-signed by the officers. They should be clearly marked causes of their invalidity.
The number of invalid ballots was subtracted from the number of registered voters on the electoral roll, to determine the actual number of voters who voted.

Article L 85 : The votes obtained by candidate or list of candidates are aggregated and recorded by the secretary of the office. In each polling station, the results of the counting are the subject of a minute written in indelible ink. It includes, where appropriate, comments or reservations of the candidates or their representatives. The minutes of votes is completed in three copies signed by the members of the polling station. Immediately after the counting, and since the establishment of minutes, the result of the ballot is made public by the President of the polling station and displayed by him in the voting room, this figure is merely temporary .
At his own expense, any legal representative of a political party can have a copy of the minutes of the preliminary results.

Article L 86: Each President of the polling station, transmits by the fastest way to the Secretariat of the Electoral district one of the copies of the minutes accompanied by documents that must be attached, all meant to be given to the commission of Census Voting Planned for each type of election.

Article L 87: The second copy of the minutes of polling is sent under seal through the fastest and safest means in the Minister of the Interior.
In this example are attached:
-Envelopes and ballot papers cancelled by the Bureau;
-A sheet of counting of votes duly adopted;
-Claims submitted by the candidates or their representatives;
-Possibly the comments of the polling station about the election.
The third copy is kept at the sub-prefecture or Prefecture depending on the type of election.

Article L 88: The identification of votes will be a breakdown of the voting results submitted by the different polling stations in the constituency. The identification of votes will be conducted in the presence of Presidents of polling stations and representatives of candidates or lists of candidates by an administrative commission appointed by the central authority for each type of election and chaired in all cases by the 'judicial authority designated by the Supreme Court. The results concluded by each polling station and the documents annexed can under no circumstances be changed.

Article L 89: The minutes of the census, which is a summary document, is drawn up in duplicate in the presence of the candidates or their representatives. It is signed by all members of the Central Administrative Commission, which sends a copy to Minister of the Interior.
A copy of the record referred to in the above paragraph is displayed at the headquarters of the Central Commission of the Census.

Article L 90: The signature lists for each polling station, signed by the President and assessors are filed for eight days to the Secretariat of the electoral district where they are viewed without displacing it by any elector who wishes to.

Article L 91: Any candidate or his duly authorized representative shall have the right, within the limits of his constituency, can supervise all operations of voting, counting of ballot and counting of votes in all areas where these operations are carried out. It can be entered into the minutes, any comments or protests over the process.

Article L 92: The Minister of the Interior after completing the aggregation of results, makes public this aggregation.

Section 4: The Vote By Proxy

Article L 93: Can exercise, upon their request, their right to vote by proxy, voters belonging to one of the categories listed below chosen by Bonds out of the electoral district in which they were enrolled.
1) military and paramilitary and more generally the voters legally absent from their homes to polling day;
2) workers in regular transportation;
3) patients hospitalized or treated at home;
4) severely disabled and infirm.

Article L 94: The agent must exercise his right of election and be registered on the electoral roll of that of the grantor or have completed his right to vote in the constituency.

Article L 95: Proxies given by the persons referred to in Article L 93 above shall be authenticated by the competent authorities. For military and paramilitary, this formality is completed before the unit commander.

Article L 96: Each agent may only use a proxy at a constituency.

Article L 97: The agent participating in the elections under the conditions provided for in Article L 78 must present the voter's card of the principal. The proxy order is stamped with a wet seal.

Article L 98: The principal may revoke its proxy at any time before the vote. he may vote in person if present at the polling station before the agent has exercised its powers.

Article L 99: In the event of death or deprivation of civil rights and civic responsibilities of the principal, the order of proxy is set aside straightly.

Article L 100: The proxy is valid for a single ballot.

Part 2: Special Provisions Relating To The Election Of Council Of District And Quarter

Article L 101: An act of the Minister of Interior sets the procedure for the election of District and Quarter Councils and the number of advisors.

Part 3: Special Provisions Relating To The Election Of Community Councils   

Article L 102: The Community Councils are elected through proportional representation list for single-round by the inhabitants of the Community of Rural Development, for a term of four years. The period runs from the last renewal of each General Council irrespective of the date of this renewal.
The number of advisers by Community of Rural Development was established by a decision of the Minister of Interior.

Article L 103: If the community has lost, by the fact vacancies occurred, the third of its members, elections will be conducted within six months from the last vacancy.
At the same time, elections will be held in the event of dissolution of the Council and the resignation of all its members.  In the year preceding the renewal of the General Council, the elections are mandatory only if the Council has lost half of its members.

Article L 104: The nomination follows the filing in the sub-prefecture of a list that meets the requirements of sections provided in the articles L 105, L 106 and L 107. This statement is made collectively by one of the candidates on the list. The declaration signed by each candidate explicitly:
-The full name, any aliases, date and place of birth, occupation and address of each candidate;
-The name of the list;
-The name of the Community of Rural Development.
The statement contains, as an appendix, the program will be developed during the election campaign. A receipt of the statement is issued to declaring.

Article L105: The nomination must be filed in thirty days before polling day by the representative of the list.

Article L 106: The list of candidates for the Community Council shall include more many candidates than seats to be filled.

Article L 107: Following receipt of applications, no addition or deletion or modification of the order of presentation can take place except in cases of death or legal obstacle.
In this case the agent makes the list without delay an additional statement of candidacy for the approving authority, which receives and takes charge of the publication by displaying at all polling stations, and where appropriate, the dissemination by radio or any other means of communication. The declaration will specify the rank of replacement candidate on the list.

Article L 108: No person may be a candidate on more than one list, and in more than one constituency.

Article L 109: Any rejection of the application or a list of candidates must be motivated. This rejection must be notified within a period of ten days from the date of filing. The rejection can be appealed before the Tribunal of First Instance or the Justice of the Peace within two days from the date of notification of rejection. The Tribunal or the Justice of the Peace sits within five days and notify immediately the decision of the stakeholders and the Prefect that registers the candidate or candidates to the list of candidates, if such is the Tribunal's decision.
The Tribunal's decision is not subject to any appeal.

Article L 110: The operations of voting and the counting are carried out in accordance with the provisions of Title 1, Chapter 7 of this Act.
The Administrative Commission of the sub-Prefecture checks and centralizes the results recorded by the Electoral Commissions of Communities of Rural Development and publishes the aggregation of results, two days after the balloting. If no dispute regarding the regularity of elections has been filed within five days of publication of the aggregation of results, the Minister of the Interior announce the final results.

Article L 111: The litigation that may arise in connection with the elections is under consideration by the Administrative Commission of sub-prefecture.
Representatives of the lists of candidates concerned in or affected do not vote.

Article L 112: Any candidate or his representative has the right to challenge the legality of voting operations in accordance with the provisions of article L 91 by filing a claim in the polling station where he voted. That complaint is recorded in the minutes of the polling station and forwarded to the Administrative Commission of the Sub-Prefecture. The Commission shall decide on all claims submitted in accordance with the provisions of Article L101. It pronounces its decisions within a maximum period of five days from the date of referral. They decide without costs of the proceedings after a simple warning given to all parties concerned. Its decisions may be appealed before the Tribunal or the Justice of the Peace, which decides within five days of the referral. The judgement of the Tribunal of Justice and Peace, which is subject to no appeal is notified of the parties concerned and forwarded to the Ministry of Interior. If cancelled, new elections are held within sixty days after the cancellation.

Part 4: Special Provisions Relating To The Election Of Advisers Communaux

Article L 113: The Municipal Council is elected by proportional representation list for single round. The number of Councillors shall be as follows:
-11 Councillors  for the Council of Communal whose population is less than or equal to 10000;
-15 Councillors for 10001 to 30000 inhabitants;
-19 Councillor for 30001 to 40000 inhabitants;
-23 Councillors for 40001 to 50000 inhabitants;
-27 Councillors for 50001 to 60000 inhabitants;
-31 Councillors  for 60001 to 100000; For Towns with more than 100000 inhabitants, the number of consultants has increased by one unit for each additional 25000 residents within the maximum limit of 41 Councillors.

Article L114: The Municipal Councillors are elected for a term of four years. The period runs from the last renewal of each Council, it may have been the date of this renewal. However, a decree may shorten or extend the mandate of the municipal council in order to bring its renewal with the renewal date generally from local councils.

Article L 115: If the Municipal Council has lost, as a result of the vacancy thirds of its members, there shall be elections within a period of sixty days after the last vacancy. At the same time, elections are also taking place in the event of cancellation of elections, dissolution of the municipal Council or resignation of all its members. In the year preceding the renewal of general councils, the elections are mandatory only if the municipal Council has lost half of its members.

Article L 116:Voters are summoned in accordance with the provisions of article L 65. The casting of votes, counting and the announcement of the results is carried out in accordance with the provisions of chapter 7, part 1 of this Law. The provisions of Articles L 103 to L111 included are applicable to elections.

Part 5: Special Provisions Relating to The Election Of Members Of The National Assembly. 

Chapter 1: The Mode Of Election Of MPs

Article L117: In accordance with the provisions of Article 48, paragraph 1 of the Fundamental Law, no person may be a candidate for election to the National Assembly, if it is submitted by a legally constituted political party.

Article L 118: Each deputy is representative of the nation as a whole. Two third of the MPs are elected through a national list of proportional representation. The communes in Conakry and prefectures are constituencies for the election of one third of MPs in single-seat majority voting in a ballot.

Article L 119: To determine the number of MPs elected for each national list of candidates, it is proceeded in the following manner:
Dividing the total number of votes cast by the number of MPs to be elected; as many times this quotient is contained in the number of votes obtained by a list, provided it gets elected candidates. Once that process is complete, the remaining vacancies are attributed to the lists enjoying the highest remainders. In case of a tie, the seat is allocated to older candidates.

Article L 120: Each national list must include a number of candidates equal to the number of seats to be filled. The seats are allocated to candidates according to the order of presentation on each list.

Article L 121: MP elected in single mandate constituencies whose seat becomes vacant as a result of death, resignation, acceptance of a governmental function, or any other cause, shall be replaced as a result of election. The elections in the constituency concerned take place within six months after the declaration of vacant.
If the latter occurs in the last year of the legislature, there is no filling of vacancy.
The MP elected on national lists whose seat becomes vacant as a result of death, resignation, acceptance of a governmental function, or any other cause that invalidation replaced by the unelected first candidate on the list of the holder in the order of this list at the time of the election.
The President of the National Assembly calls for the replacement exercise the mandate of the incumbent. This replacement, whatever its cause, is irrevocable.

 

Article L 122: In the event that an act of the Minister of the Interior issued under sections L 143, L 145, L 146 and L 147, agents of lists of candidates may, within twenty-four hours of notification of decision or its publication, appeal to the Supreme Court, which decides within three days after the date of registration of the complaint.

Article L 123: After the deadline for national lists, no substitutions, no withdrawal of candidacy, no permutation in the order of candidates on a list is allowed.
However, between that date and the day before the vote at zero hour, in the event of death or disqualification of one or more candidates, the agent of the list makes without delay an additional statement of candidacy for the ministry in charge of the Interior which receives, provides the publication by displaying at all polling stations concerned and if necessary, broadcast by radio or other means of communication.
The declaration will specify the rank of the candidate of replacement on the list.

Article L 124: The mandate of the MPs to the National Assembly expires at the opening of the first regular session after the fifth year of their election.
New Assembly, whose election of MPs is organized in the quarter of the year preceding the session, takes office on that date.

Article L 125: In the event of dissolution, in accordance with the provisions of Article 76 of the Fundamental Law, the general elections are held within sixty days of the dissolution.

Chapter 2: Conditions Of Eligibility

Article L 126: Any citizen who qualifies elector can be elected to the National Assembly if he is presented by a legally constituted political party and under the conditions and subject to the laws and regulations in force.

Article L 127: Nobody shall be elected to the National Assembly if he is younger than twenty-five years of age on the day of filing of his candidacy.

Article L 128: The naturalized aliens are eligible at the end of a period of ten years from the date of the decree of naturalization, provided they reside in Guinea since then.

Chapter 3: The System Of Ineligibility

Article L 129: May not be elected as MPs:
-Those suffering from insanity or are placed under safeguards of justice (as defined in the Civil Code)
-Those who are rescued by municipal budgets, the budgets of prefecture, the State budget and welfare;
-Those who have been convicted for a criminal offence, except upon presentation of an Act of rehabilitation.

Article L 130: Are ineligible, the military and paramilitary forces of all ranks and the Judges/Magistrates in a position of service.
Also ineligible in the Prefectures and municipalities in which they hold or have held for at least one year:
-Prefects;
-The Secretaries General of Prefectures and Municipalities;
-Sub-prefects and their deputies.
The treasurers, and the recipients and payers at all levels may not be candidates for the duration of their office.

Article L131: Is deposed by right of his office, MP whose ineligibility is revealed after the declaration of results of the ballot or who, during his term of office, is located in one of the cases of disqualification provided in this Act.
Deprivation is proven by the Supreme Court at the request of the Bureau of the Assembly.

Chapter 4: Incompatibilities

Article L 132: The function of MP is incompatible with membership of the Economic and Social Council.

Article L 133: The exercise of any non-elective public service is incompatible with the function of MP.
Accordingly, any person, who carries one of the functions referred to in the preceding paragraph, elected to the National Assembly is replaced in his post and placed in the position intended for this purpose by the governing status within eight days after he took office, or in the event of contesting the election, in the eight days after the decision of validation.
The exercise of the functions entrusted by a foreign state or an international organization and paid on their fund is also incompatible with the functions of MP.
However, members of the teaching staff in higher education are not affected by the provisions of the first two paragraphs of this article.

Article L 134: Members may, during their tenure, be appointed by the Head of State of temporary administrative missions, with the concurrence of the Bureau of the Assembly..
The cumulating of the PM status and that of the mission shall not exceed six months.
At the expiration of that period, the mission ceases to be temporary and is governed by the provisions of Article L 133 unless it is renewed by Act of the Council of Ministers for a further period of six months, but the total duration of the mission may not exceed twenty-four months. In any event, the exercise of the functions of MP is suspended for the duration of the mission, which resumed at the end of it.

Article L 135: Are incompatible with the functions of MP, the position of Chairman and CEO as well as Managing Director and Deputy Managing General exercised in public enterprises and enterprises under state control.

 

It is equally so for all functions exercised permanently as an advisor to the same institutions or enterprises, as well as shareholders in the enterprises under state control. Companies, businesses and institutions described above comply with the definitions in the laws in force in the Republic of Guinea.

Article L 136: Are incompatible with the functions of MP, the position of head of the company, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Managing Director, General Director, Deputy General Director or CEO, exercised in: 
1) Companies, firms or institutions, benefiting in the form of guaranteed of interest or subsidy, or equivalent, benefits provided by the State or by a public body, except where these benefits accrue to the automatic application of a general law or regulation generally;
2) Companies object of which is purely financial and forming public and private companies and credit;
3) Companies and enterprises activities of which is mainly the execution of works, the provision of supplies or services for the account or under the control of the State, a community or an institution of which more than half of the share capital is made up of companies or enterprises having such activities.

Article L 137: It prohibits any MP from exercising during his term of office a function of CEO, Manager or any function permanently occupied in enterprises, institutions or companies mentioned in the preceding article.
It also prohibits any MP to be, during his term of office, a majority shareholder of such a company, institution or corporation.
It also prohibits any MP from exercising during their term of office the position of Company manager, Chief Executive Officer, Managing Director, Director General, Deputy Director General and CEO, or any function performed permanently as counsel in a company, institution, enterprise whatever.
It also forbids any MP to be, during his term of office, a majority shareholder of such a corporation, institution or corporation.
However, the prohibitions listed in four paragraphs above do not apply when the functions were performed at the time of the first election of the person concerned as a Member of Parliament, or when the situation of majority shareholder existed during the first election. In this case, the current year mandate of any new function referred to the four preceding paragraphs shall be subject to prior authorization from the Office of the National Assembly.

Article L 138: Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding articles, Members of Parliament, members of another Assembly (Community of Rural Development, for example) or a city council may be appointed by that Assembly or this council to represent them in the bodies of regional or Local interest provided that these agencies do not have as object to make or distribute profits and that the persons concerned do not occupy any remunerated position..
In addition, the MPs, even non-members of the Assembly or council described above, may perform functions:
-Chairman of the Board;
-Managing Director, or a member of the board of directors of companies with public participation majority or corporations with an exclusively social object when these functions are not remunerated.

Article L 139: It is prohibited for any Trial Lawyer, when he is invested with the mandate of a MP to perform directly or indirectly through an association, business associate, a collaborator or a Secretary except to the High Court of Justice, every act of his profession in business against which criminal charges are brought before the criminal courts for crimes or offences against public affairs in the press or interference with credit and saving.
It is prohibited under the same conditions to plead or check against the government, decentralized local government or public institutions and companies under state control.

Article L 140: It is prohibited for any MP to include or let his name, followed by an indication of his capacity as MP, be included in any publicity relating to any financial, industrial or commercial company. 
Are punishable by imprisonment of one to six months and a fine of 100,000 to 500,000 FG, founders, directors or managers of companies or establishments having commercial, industrial or financial interest which have included or left included the name of an MP in the interest of the company they run or they intend to found. In case of repetition, the penalties provided above may be doubled.

Article L 141: The MP who, during his election lies in a case of inconsistency referred to in this chapter is required to establish within eight days after he took office that he has resigned from functions incompatible with his mandate as MP or he is no longer in the position of majority shareholder declared incompatible under Articles L 135 paragraph 1, and L 137, paragraph 4, or if he holds a public office, that he has asked to be placed in the  position provided by his special status. Failing that, he is dismissed from office, unless he voluntarily resigns his tenure as MP.
The MP who, during his term of office, has accepted an office incompatible with it, or who has been in the position of majority shareholder declared incompatible under Articles L 135 paragraph 1 and L 137, paragraph 4, or who disregarded the need for prior authorization from the Bureau of the National Assembly provided for in Article L 137 last paragraph, is also dismissed from office, unless he voluntarily resigns his tenure as MP.
The resignation is observed in all cases by the Supreme Court at the request of the Bureau of the National Assembly. It does not carry ineligibility.

Chapter 5: The Declaration Of Application

Article L 142: In accordance with the provisions of Article 48 paragraph one of the Fundamental Law, any legally constituted political party and willing to participate in the legislative elections should, as appropriate, make one or two statements:
-The first concerns the nominations for the post voting;
-The second concerns the lists of candidates nationwide proportional representation.
Statements must include:
1) Name of Political Party, which presents the candidate;
2) Color and the logo or sign or symbol chosen for the printing of ballot papers;
3) Full name, affiliation, the date and place of birth with precision of the service, employment and the duty, if it is a Government employee;
4) Signature of each candidate;
5) Indication of the constituency in which the candidate is, with regard to the uninominal majority poll;
6) In the annex, the program will be developed during the election campaign.
For the uninominal majority poll:
-The parties are not required to nominate a candidate in each electoral district;
-The same person cannot be a candidate in more than one constituency.
For the proportional:
-The list should conform to the provisions of Article L 144.
The same person may not be a candidate on more than one list of candidates and can not be a candidate for both the majority and proportional polls.

Article L 143: The declarations of candidacy must be accompanied for each candidate, with the following documents:
1) A birth certificate;
2) A bulletin No. 3 from criminal records delivered at least three months ago;
3) A statement that certifies that the candidate is on a single list or in a single constituency and that they are not in any of the cases provided for ineligibility  Act;
4) Deposit bail slip  under Article L 181.
The statements are also accompanied by a certificate by which the Political Party invests interested as the candidates.

Article L 144: The declarations of candidacy are filed with the Ministry of the Interior, fifty days before the date of the vote by the representative of the Political Party which gave his candidacy. The Ministry of the Interior issued a receipt of these deposits. The receipt does not prejudge the validity of nominations.

Article L 145: Is not admissible the statement that:
1) did not include the required number of candidates;
2) did not include the indications provided for in Article L 142;
3) is not accompanied by documents provided for in Article L 143.
In cases where, for one of the reasons listed above, the Ministry of the Interior believes that a list is not admissible, he shall notify the reasons for its decision to the representative of the list within three days of its filing.

Article L 146: If it appears that a declaration of candidacy was filed on behalf of a person ineligible or in any other event of a discrepancy, the Ministry of the Interior rejects the declaration within seven days after the submission of the application and notify the rejection to the candidate or his representative.
The candidate or his representative has three days to challenge the decision before the Supreme Court, which decides within seven days of receiving it.
If the deadline mentioned in the first paragraph, is not fulfilled, the application must be received.

Article L 147: Not later than thirty days before the election, the Minister of the Interior publishes by Act the list of candidates. This order is issued after submission to the Minister of the Interior by the agent of the candidate or list, of the receipt or payment bond provided by Articles L 181 L 182 and L 183 of this Act.
In case of challenge of the lists published, the challenge is filed to the Supreme Court by the concerned parties within forty eight hours of their publication. Supreme Court sits within forty-eight hours of the referral and authorizes the Minister of the Interior to publish the final list.

Chapter 6: The Electoral Campaign

Article L 148: The campaign for the election of MPs to the National Assembly, shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of chapter 6 Title 1 of this Act.

Chapter 7: Elections And Operations Of Voting Recencement

Article L 149: Voters are summoned by a Presidential decree issued thirty days before the elections in accordance with Article L 65.

Article L 150: The provisions of Articles L 83, L 85, L 86 and L 88 are applicable to the election of MPs to the National Assembly.

Article L 151: Considering all the minutes of the Central Administrative Commission, the Minister of the Interior makes the general census of votes.
If during the census, it appears that the inconsistency of the results contained in the records makes them unusable or if minutes were marred by a substantive defect affecting the sincerity of their writing, the Minister responsible for Interior, after verification of the minutes of the polling stations, declared by decision, the invalidity of those minutes.
In this case, the number of registered voter appearing on the minutes declared invalid is not reflected in the general vote.
At the end of this census, the Minister of the Interior prepares minutes immediately forward it to the Supreme Court.

Article 152: The Minister of the Interior shall make public the aggregation of results within the maximum period of 48 hours.

Article L 153: If no dispute regarding the regularity of elections has been filed at the Registry of the Supreme Court by one of the candidates within the period provided for in Article L 154, the Supreme Court declares MPs finally elected on the eighth day following the publication of the comprehensive aggregation of results.

Chapter 8: For Contentious

Article L 154: Candidates have a period of five days from the publication of the aggregation of results to contest of the regularity of electoral operations. The complaints are filed with the Registrar of the Supreme Court. A receipt is given by the Registrar-in-chief. Under penalty of inadmissibility the appeal must specify the facts and the alleged means alleged and meet deadlines for filing.

Article L 155: The complaints are sent by the Chief Registrar of the Supreme Court to agents of the candidates or lists who have a maximum period of three days to file their reply.
A receipt is given of filing of the brief by the Registrar-in-chief.

Article L 156: The Supreme Court examines and sets all claims definitively and rules on the legality of the election of members of the National Assembly. In cases where it finds the existence of irregularities, it can assess whether, in view of the nature and gravity of these irregularities, it is necessary to maintain the results of the comprehensive aggregation made public by the Minister of the Interior in accordance with the provisions of Article L 152, either makes their complete or partial cancellation.
Supreme Court sits on request within ten days of the filing. Its final decision stands for proclamation or cancellation of the election.
If cancelled, it is to hold a new election within thirty days.

Part 6: Special Provisions Relating To The Election Of The President Of The Republic

Chapter 1: The Filing Of Nominations

Article L 157: Every candidate for the Presidency of the Republic must be:
-Guinean of nationality by birth;
-Enjoy their civil and political rights;
-Be forty years old and at least seventy years at the date of filing the application.

Article L 158: Deposits of candidacies are made to the Registry of the Supreme Court forty days and at least sixty before polling day.

Article L 159: The declaration of candidacy for the Presidency of the Republic by the party shall contain:
1) the full name, date and place of birth and affiliation of the candidate;
2) a statement that the applicant is of Guinean nationality of birth and that he enjoys his civil and political rights in accordance with article L 157 of this Act;
3) the name of the political party that presents the candidate;
4) the signature of the applicant;
5) the color chosen for the printing of ballot papers and possibly a symbol or sign which should be included.

Article L 160: The nomination must be accompanied by:
-A certificate of nationality;
-A birth certificate;
-A bulletin No. 3 of the police Criminal record dating for less than three months;
-A medical certificate of inspection and check-up dating for less than three months;
-The deposit bail slip under Article L 181.

Article L 161: To ensure the validity of applications filed and the consent of the candidates, the Supreme Court can carry out any investigation, which it deems appropriate.

Article L 162: In accordance with Article 26, paragraph 3 of the Fundamental Law, the Supreme Court shall establish and publish the list of candidates thirty-nine days before the first round of balloting. This publication is issued by display at the Registry of the Supreme Court. Voters are summoned by decree thirty-eight days before the election.

Article L 163: The right to claim against any candidature is open to any legally constituted political party. Claims must be received by the Registry of the Supreme Court before the expiry of the day following the posting of the list of candidates.
Supreme Court rules without delay.

Article L 164: If the Supreme Court finds for death or permanent inability of any candidate for the Presidency of the Republic on the list provided for in Article L 162, it decides, if necessary, to reopen the periods during which new nominations can be filed. In this case, a new election date is set in the conditions provided for in paragraph 3 of Article 25 of the Fundamental Law.

Article L 165: In the case where, after the first ballot, no candidate obtains an absolute majority, there shall be a second ballot within the time limits and conditions laid down in Article 25, paragraph 2 and Article 29 paragraph 2 of the Fundamental Law.
Withdrawals of any application for the second round are brought to the attention of the Supreme Court by the candidates not later than 24 hours after the proclamation of the result of the first round.
The Supreme Court then adopts and publishes by display the list of only two candidates to go to the second round.

Article L 166: The convening of voters for the second round is made by decree seven days before the election.

Chapter 2: The Electoral Campaign

Article L 167: The electoral campaign opens thirty days before the polling day and closes it at zero hour. In the event of a second round, the election campaign opened on the day after the announcement of the results of the first round and closed on the eve of the second round at zero hour.
It takes place in both cases in accordance with the provisions of chapter 6, part 1 of this Act.

Chapter 3: Elections Of Operations

Article L 168: The ballot for the election of the President shall be held in accordance with article 25 paragraph 1 of the Fundamental Law, forty five days and not more than thirty days before the date of expiry of the tenure of the President in office.
However, in the event of a vacancy provided for in Article 34 of the Fundamental Law, the ballot for the election of the President of the Republic is recognized by the Supreme Court, thirty-five days at least and fifty days at most after the opening of the vacancy.

Article L 169: The electorate is summoned by decree of the President of the Republic thirty-eight days before the election, in accordance with the provisions of article L 65 of this Act.
The counting of the votes, the census of votes, the publication of the results of polling, the aggregation of results and publication of this aggregation in accordance with the provisions of Title 1, Chapter 7, Section 3 of this Act.


Chapter 4: General Census Of Voting And The Announcement Of Results

Article L 170: The final counting of votes and transmission of Minutes of the census to the Supreme Court by the Minister of the Interior is carried out in accordance with the provisions of Article L 151.

Article L 171: The Minister of the Interior shall make public the aggregation of results within the maximum period of forty-eight hours.

Article L 172: If no dispute regarding the regularity of elections has been filed by one of the candidates to the Registry of the Supreme Court within eight days from the day when the first aggregation was published, the Supreme Court proclaims elected President of the Republic.
The candidate who obtains an absolute majority of votes for the first round, and a simple majority for the second round.
In case of dispute, the results are set forth in the conditions defined in Article L 176 of this Act.

Chapter 5: The Challenge

Article L 173: Under the conditions and time limits set by article 30 paragraph 1 of the Fundamental Law, a candidate in the election may contest the legality of the electoral operations in the form of a petition addressed to the First President of the Supreme Court.

Article L 174: The complaint is filed to the Registry of the Supreme Court.
It is acknowledged by the Registrar-in-chief.
To be accepted, the request must specify the facts and the alleged means and meet the deadlines for filing.

Article L 175: The complaint is forwarded by the Chief Registrar of the Supreme Court to other interested candidates who have a maximum period of 24 hours to lodge a response. It is given a receipt of filing of the brief by the Registrar-in-chief.

Article L 176: the Supreme Court rules within three days after the date of referral. Its final decision stands for proclamation or cancellation of the election.
If cancelled, new elections are held within sixty days.

Part 7: Financial Provisions

Article L 177: Acts of procedures, decisions and records relating to elections are exempt from stamp, registration and legal costs.
The voter cards, ballot papers, the circulars are exempt from stamps during election time.

Article L 178: Shall be borne by the state, the expenses resulting from the provision of voter cards, as well as the organization of elections. Expenses incurred by political parties during the election campaign are dependent on them.

Article L 179: The rates of pay for benefits inherent to the material preparation and conduct of elections to be borne by the government are determined by a joint decree of the Minister of Interior and that of Finance.

Article L 180: Election campaigns are financed by the means of:
-Resources of political parties;
-Eventual grants from the State granted fairly;
-Possibly, the income of applicants.
The modalities for implementing the provisions of this Article shall be determined by regulations.

Article L 181: At the suggestion of a Commission of Finance composed:
-The Minister of the Interior, President;
-The representative of the Minister of Finance, Raporteur;
-Representatives from each of the legally constituted parties, and engaged in the election, members;
-Minister of the Interior set by Official Act no later than sixty days before the election:
-The guarantee to be paid to the public treasury against a receipt, forty (40) days and fifty-nine days prior to the election, by the candidates or agents of the political parties taking part in a legislative election or Presidential;
-And the authorized ceiling on total expenditure can be incurred by a candidate or a political party taking part in a parliamentary or presidential election.

Article L 182: The guarantee represents the counterpart of the cost of printing of ballot papers, professions of faith and propaganda posters by the State under conditions established by the regulatory part of this electoral code.

Article L 183: The deposit shall be refunded to the candidates or representatives of political parties within fifteen days after the proclamation of the final results.
Those entitled to full reimbursement of bail are:
-Any candidate or elected with at least 5% of the votes cast in the election at uninominal majority in a single round of legislative;
-Any list having obtained a seat or at least 5% of the votes cast in the election of national lists by proportional representation;
-Any presidential candidate who receives at least 5% of the votes cast.

Article L 184: It is prohibited for any political party or any candidate taking part in a parliamentary or presidential election to engage in the electoral campaign expenditures in excess of the limits prescribed by the commission stated in Article L 181.

Article L 185: Any political party or candidate involved in an election must constitute for his election expenses, a fund called " electoral Fund " fed in accordance with the provisions of

Article L 180.

Article L 186: Political parties, candidates taking part in presidential or parliamentary elections are required to prepare a campaign account. The campaign account receives the "Trust election."
The campaign account is traces the origin of the "electoral Fund" and all the expenditure incurred during the electoral process.
The person in charge of election expenses must not draw but in this "election fund" to cover the election expenses.

Article L 187: Within thirty days following the proclamation of the final results, the political parties electoral or candidate electoral taken part in the ballot deposits with the Chamber of Accounts of the Supreme Court their campaign accounts accompanied by supporting documents of resources and expenditure made.
These accounts are certified to the Chamber of Accounts of the Supreme Court of Approved Accountants.
The Chamber of Accounts of the Supreme Court makes public the accounts of campaign in order to receive, within a period of fifteen days, the comments from citizens and political parties to the above accounts.

Article L 188: After verification of the supporting documents for the accounts, the Supreme Court makes its ruling. If there are substantial exceeded campaign expenditure compared to the authorized ceiling, the Chamber of Accounts of the Supreme Court addresses within fifteen days after the filing of accounts, a report to the prosecutor who must engage in legal proceedings against offenders.

Part 8: On Penalties

Article L 189: Anyone registered under a false name or a false quality, or who, by being concealed include an inability provided by law, or who seeks and obtains a listing on more than one list, will be punishable by an imprisonment of one to six months and a fine of 100,000 to 250,000 FG or one of those two penalties.

Article L 190: Any person who, through fraudulent misrepresentation or false certificates will be registered or attempted to be registered on the electoral roll, or who, through fraudulent means will be registered or will improperly remove a citizen, will be punished to the penalties prescribed in section L 189 of this Act.

Article L 191: Any person who, deprived of the right to vote, as a result of a court sentence, or as a result of bankruptcy not followed by rehabilitation, voted either by virtue of a registration prior to his disqualification, or by under a subsequent listing, but made without his participation, will be punished by the penalties provided for in Article L 189 of this Act.

Article L 192: Anyone who voted, either by virtue of a registration obtained fraudulently or under the false names and qualifications of a registered voter, shall be punished with imprisonment from six months to one year and a fine from 250 FG 500000 to 000 or one of those two penalties.

Article L 193: Shall be liable to the penalties prescribed in section L 192 people who took advantage of a multiple registration to vote more than once. The same penalty applies to anyone who has been prevented by voluntary breach of the law, listing for election of a citizen meeting the requirements under the present Code.

Article L 194: Any breach of the provisions of articles L 48, paragraph 3 , L 54  and L 55 will be punished with imprisonment from six months to one year and a fine from 100000 to 200000 FG or one of these penalties .

Article L 195: Whoever is in charge of receiving a ballot, counting of ballots containing the votes of citizens, removed, added or altered ballot papers, or voluntarily read a name other than the one registered, shall be punished with imprisonment of between six months and one year, a fine from 250000 to 500000 FG and the prohibition of the right to vote and be eligible for at least from five years to ten years.
All other persons guilty of the same facts stated in the first paragraph shall be punished by imprisonment for not less than six months and not more than one year, a fine of 100,000 to 250,000 FG or one of these penalties only.

Article L 196: With the exception of members of the security forces required by law, anyone who has entered a polling station with an apparent weapon will be liable to a fine from  250,000 to 500,000 FG. The punishment will be imprisonment for a term of fifteen days to three months and a fine from 50,000 to 100,000 FG where the weapon was concealed.

Article L 197: Will be punished by imprisonment for not less than fifteen days and a fine of 25,000 F, anyone who has introduced or attempted to introduce into polling station alcoholic beverages.
Anyone who introduced or attempted to introduce drugs into a polling station will be prosecuted and punished according to law.

Article L 198: Anyone with false news about slanderous or other fraudulent votes will have diverted one or more voters from voting, shall be punished with imprisonment from one month to one year and a fine 100,000 to 500,000 FG or one of those two penalties.

Article L 199: Anyone troubles operations of a polling station, affects the exercise of electoral law or the freedom to vote, or prohibits a candidate or his representative to attend the casting of votes, shall be punished by imprisonment from six months to two years and a fine from 250,000 to 100,0000 FG or one of those two penalties.
If the offender is carrying a weapon, he faces a prison sentence from one to five years and a fine from 500,000 to 1,500,000, or one of those two penalties.
When the offences specified in paragraphs 1 and 2 above are committed as a result of a concerted plan to be executed, the offender shall be punished with imprisonment from five to ten years, and the prohibition of the right to vote and be eligible for at least five years and not more than ten years and a fine of 250,000 to 1,500,000 FG.

Article L 200: Anyone who commits an offence or exercises violence against one or more members of a polling station, or, for assault or threats, will have delayed or prevented the electoral operations, shall be punished with imprisonment of six months to two years and a fine of 100,000 to 500,000 FG notwithstanding legal action can be initiated by the victim.

Article L 201: The abduction of irregular ballot boxes containing the votes cast and not yet counted, or the minutes or any record of the election results, shall be punished with imprisonment of one to five years and a fine of 250,000 FG to 1,500,000, or one of those two penalties.
If the abduction was carried out by a group of people and with violence, the penalty is five to ten years of imprisonment and a fine ranging from 1,500,000 to 3,000,000 FG.

Article L 202: The violation of the ballot box either by a member of the Bureau or through an agent of the authority responsible for the custody of the ballots not yet counted, will be punished by imprisonment of one to five years and a fine of 1,500,000 FG to 3,000,000 FG.

Article L 203: Anyone with donations or gifts in cash or in kind, with promises of gifts, favors, public or private employment or other benefits, will have influenced attempted to influence the vote of one or more electors or an electoral college to abstain from voting, shall be punished with imprisonment of three months to two years and a fine of 50,000FG to 500,000 FG or one of those two penalties.
These sentences are subject to civil forfeiture for a period of five years. Will be subject to the same penalties, those who have authorized or requested the same gifts, gifts or promises.

Article L 204: Any candidate, who, male fide, has endorsed a false statement about his eligibility or his presence on a list, shall be punished with imprisonment of one month to one year and a fine of 50,000 to 250,000 FG.

Article L 205: Whoever either in a commission to control voter, or in an administrative commission or in a polling station, or outside them, before, during or after an election, will have, by voluntary breach of the laws and regulations in force or by any manoeuvring or fraudulent acts, harmed or attempted to undermine the sincerity of the vote, prevented or attempted to prevent the electoral operations, violated or attempted to violate the secrecy of the vote or will have changed or attempted to change the result, shall be punished with imprisonment of one month to one year and a fine of 150,000FG to 600,000 FG.
The offender may also be deprived of his civic rights for at least two to five years. If he is an administrative or judicial officer or servant of the public authority, the penalty shall be doubled.

Article L 206: Those who by threat against a voter, or by making fear of losing their jobs or expose them to harm his person, family or property, have committed to vote or will have influenced or attempted to influence his vote will be punished with imprisonment of three months to one year and a fine of 50,000 to 500,000 FG, or one of those two penalties.
When these threats are accompanied by violence or assault, the sentences are those provided by article L 200 of this Act and the Penal Code.

Article L 207: Any person who violates the provisions referred to in article L 42 will be punished by imprisonment of one month to one year and the prohibition of the right to vote and be eligible for at least one year to five years.

Article L 208: Anyone who, in violation of articles L 56 and L 57, will have used or allowed use for his own interest, the attributes, property and means of the state, a government agency, association, a non-governmental organization, will be punished custodial sentences of six months to two years and a fine of 250,000 to 2,500,000 FG.

Article L 209: Any printer that violates the provisions of Article L 53 paragraph 4, shall be punished by a fine of 75,000 FG for every model of posters or ballot papers.
The offending posters or bulletins are immediately withdrawn from circulation by Act of the Minister of the Interior or the Prefect.

Article L 210: Any person who violates the provisions relating to the compilation of campaign under Article L 186 shall be punished with imprisonment of one to five years and a fine of 1,500,000 FG to 3,000,000FG, or one of the two penalties.

Article L 211: No action against a candidate, under sections L 202 and L 210 can be exercised before the proclamation of the poll.

Article L 212: The penalties provided for in this title shall apply without prejudice to any other penalties provided by the laws and regulations. Accomplices of the offences in this title are punishable.

Article L 213: Any sentence imposed in the framework of this Act shall not, under any circumstances, lead to the cancellation of an election regularly validated by the competent authorities.

Part 9: Final Provisions

 
Article L 214: This organic law, which repeals all contrary provisions will be published in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Guinea and enforced as law of the State.
Conakry, December 23, 1991
General Lansana Conté

 

 

 

III          Table A: Courts Of Appeal And Courts Lower Courts

Court of Appeal

Tribunal of First Instance

Justice of the Peace

 

 

 

 

CONAKRY

Conakry: (Kaloum, Mafanco,…..

                 Dixinn )

Kindia……………………………

 

 

Boke……………………………..

 

 

Mamou…………………………..

 

Labe .………………………….....

 

 

Special Zone

 

Telimele, Coyah, Dubreka, Forekariah.

 

Fria Bofa Koundara, Goual.

 

 

Dalaba, Pita.

 

Mali, Tougue, Koubia, Lelouma.

 

 

 

KANKAN

Kankan……………………………

 

 

Faranah……………………………

 

 

N’Zerekore………………………..

Siguiri, Kouroussa, Mandiana, Kerouane.

 

Kissidougou, Dabola, Dinguiraye.

 

 

Gueckedou, Yomou, Beyla, Lola, Macenta.

 

    TABLE B : COURTS OF GUINEE AND THEIR PERSONNEL

Courts of Appeal

First President

President of Chamber

Councillors

Solicitor General

Deputy Solicitor General

Substitutes to Solicitor General

Conakry

1

7

14

1

1

7

Kankan

1

3

6

1

1

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tribunals of First Instance

President

President of Section

Magistrates

Examining Magistrates

Public Prosecutor

Substitutes to Public Prosecutor

Boke

1

2

1

1

1

1

Kankan

1

2

1

1

1

1

Kindia

1

2

1

1

1

1

Faranah

1

2

1

1

1

1

Labe

1

2

1

1

1

1

Mamou

1

2

1

1

1

1

N’zerekore

1

2

1

1

1

1

 

SPECIAL ZONE OF CONAKRY

Tribunal of First Instance

President of the Tribunal

President of Section

Magistrates

Examining Magistrates

Public Prosecutor

Substitutes of Public Prosecutor

Kaloum

1

3

8

4

1

5

Mafanco

1

3

8

4

1

5

Dixinn

1

3

6

3

1

3

 

OTHER PARTS OF THE COUNTRY

N#

Justice of the Peace

Magistrate of the Peace

Magistrate

Examining Magistrate

1

Beyla

1

0

1

2

Boke

1

0

0

3

Bofa

1

0

0

4

Coyah

1

0

1

5

Dabola

1

0

1

6

Dalaba

1

0

1

7

Dinguiraye

1

0

0

8

Dubreka

1

0

0

9

Forekariah

1

0

1

10

Fria

1

0

1

11

Goual

1

0

0

12

Gueckedou

1

1

1

13

Kerouane

1

0

0

14

Kissidougou

1

1

1

15

Koubia

1

1

0

16

Koundara

1

1

0

17

Kouroussa

1

0

0

18

Lelouma

1

0

0

19

Lola

1

0

0

20

Macenta

1

1

1

21

Mali

1

0

0

22

Pita

1

1

1

23

Siguiri

1

0

1

24

Telimele

1

0

0

25

Tougue

1

0

0

26

Yomou

1

0

0

 

 



[1] See the Annex 

[2] Dr. Makanera (2001) Guinean Political Regime, p78

[3]  See Annex II

[4] Article 76 of Fundamental Law.

[5] Article 45 of Fundamental Law.

[6] See the status of the President of the Republic.

[7] See the Parliamentary commissions.

[8] Article 25 Internal Regulation Act.

[9] Article L  3, 4 and 5.

[10] Article 50 of the Fundamental Law.

[11] Article 52 of Fundamental Law.

[12] Article 71 of the Fundamental Law.  .

[13] Article 58 of the Fundamental Law.

[14] Articles 60 of Fundamental Law and 72 of Internal Regulation Act.

[15] Other documents deposited are: the previous voted Budget, meaning the expenditure allowed for that year. It is in green color; Budget of program, it examines different actions of a Ministry according to its objective. It is in white color; and the General Annex, which gives a comparison of the budget for each Ministry, chapter-by-chapter, article-by-article with that of the previous year. It is in yellow color.

[16] Article 61 paragraph 2 of Fundamental Law.

[17] Ordinance n#109

[18] Law n#021

[19] Only one judge sits at the hearing.

[20] Article 63 of the law n#021.

[21] Article 2 of Guinean Penal Code classified the infractions into three categories: the infraction punishable by police court are contraventions; the infraction the law considers as misdemeanours; and those the law punishes by afflictive and infamatory sanctions, are crimes. 

[22] Article 134 of Code of Penal Proceedings.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Article 71, Paragraph 2 of the law n# 021.

[25] Article 63 of the law n#021.

[26] See table A and B of the Presidential Decree n#031.

[27] Kaloum, Mafanco and Dixinn.

[28] Article 40, Paragraph 3 of the Decree n#031.

[29] Article 50 of the law n#021.

[30] Article 45 of the law n#021.

[31] Article 43, Paragraph 2 of the law n#021.

[32] Article 55, Paragraph 1 of the law n#021.

[33] Article 55, Paragraph 4 of the law n#021.

[34] Article 56 of the law n#021.

[35] Article 57 of the law n#021.

[36] Article 58 of the law n#021.

[37] Article 55, paragraph 3 of the law n#021.

[38] Article 47 of the law n#021

[39] Article 35 of the law n#021.

[40] Article 36 of the law n#021.

[41] Article 37 of the law n#021.

[42] Article 72, Paragraph 2 of the law n#021.

[43] Article 44, Paragraph 1 of the decree.

[44] Article 7 of the law n#021.

[45] Guinea is divided into four natural regions: Lower Guinea, Upper Guinea, Middle Guinea and Forest Guinea.

[46] See Table A

[47] Ibid.

[48]  Article 9 of the law n#014.

[49]  Article 10 of the law n#014.

[50]  Article 22 of the law n#021

[51]  Article 23 of the law n#021

[52]  Article 24 of the law n#021

[53] Article 1 Paragraph 1 of the Decree 031.

[54] Article 27 Paragraph 2 of the Decree 031.

[55] Article 2 of the Code.

[56] Article 197 of the Code of Penal Proceedings.

[57] Article 61 of the Penal Code.

[58] In criminal cases, the suspect is first taken to the Chamber of Accusation where he is formally charged after the preliminary examination.

[59] Article 231 Paragraph. 4 and 6 of Guinean Labor Code

[60] Article 28 of the Decree /2001/031/PRG/SGG of May 17, 2001.

[61] Article 5 of Decree n#150

[62] Article 12 para.1 of the Decree n# 150

[63] Article 12 para.2 of the Decree n#150

[64] Article 38 of the Code of Penal Procedure.

[65] Article 395 of the Guinean Code of Penal Proceedure.

[66] M. Alioun Drame (1999), Droit, Question-Reponse, p205

[67] Article 482 of the Guinean Code of the Penal Procedures.

[68] Article 484 the Guinean Code of Penal Procedure

[69] Article 493 to 495 of the Code of Penal Procedure

[70] Article 484 of the Code of Penal Procedure

[71] Article 501 of the Code of Penal Procedure

[72] Article 3, 4 and 5 of the Code of Penal Proceedings.

[73] No one can be sentenced for an offence that was not defined as such before the commission of the act.