UPDATE: An Introduction to Colombian Governmental Institutions and Primary Legal Sources

 

By Antonio Ramírez

 

Update by Hernando Otero

 

 

Hernando Otero is an international arbitration and mediation attorney with experience as counsel of record and as an international arbitrator in proceedings pursuant to multilateral and bilateral trade and investment treaties (FTAs and BITs) and commercial agreements. He is an Adjunct Associate Professor of arbitration and mediation at the Washington College of Law in Washington D.C. and a mediator with the District of Columbia Superior Court. He has served as an arbitrator before the World Bank’s International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) and has been appointed as an international arbitrator by the International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) Court of Arbitration. He has appeared as counsel in proceedings under the ICSID Convention, the ICSID Additional Facility and the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. He is on the London Court International Arbitration (LCIA) and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority’s (FINRA) lists of neutrals, and on the Hong Kong International Arbitration Centre’s (HKIAC) Panel of Arbitrators. He is also on the Bogota Chamber of Commerce Arbitration and Conciliation Center’s (CACCCB) closed list of international arbitrators for proceedings seated in Colombia and on its high-amount closed list for local arbitration proceedings. He is licensed to practice law in the state of New York, the District of Columbia, and in Colombia.

 

Antonio Ramírez received law degrees from the Universidad Católica Andres Bello (Venezuela) and Duke University Law School and a library science degree from St. John´s University (U.S.A.).  He worked as a reference librarian at the St. John´s University Law School Library. Previous working experience includes years of service at the Attorney General’s Office in Venezuela, New York University’s Law School Library, and Columbia University’s Law School Library. He also works as a freelance translator of legal materials.

 

Published April/May 2015

(Previous update by Antonio Ramirez on June 2010; by Antonio Ramírez and Hernando Otero on August 2011)

See the Archive Version

 

Table of Contents

I. Colombia’s Political Organization

A. Legislative Branch

1.   Legislative Process

2. Hierarchy of Legal Norms

B. Executive Branch

C. Judicial Branch

D.   Other Important Government Institutions

II. Primary Sources of Colombian Law

A. Legal Codifications

B. International Trade and Investment Treaties

C.   Judicial Decisions

D. Colombian Law in English

III. Bibliography of sources on Colombian law in English

A. Treatises  

B.   Articles

 

I.         Colombia’s Political Organization (See Const., arts. 1, 113, 286, 322,)

The Republic of Colombia is organized as a unitary republic that has administratively decentralized a number of governmental functions and recognizes limited autonomy to subnational governments to administer their own affairs.  The country is mainly divided into 32 departments and a capital district, Bogotá D.C. Colombia’s central government is made up by the three traditional branches of government and “other organs” that are independent (see below section I.D.).  

                 

A.        Legislative Branch ( See Const., arts. 132-149)

According to the Constitution the legislative branch in Colombia is composed of a national congress that includes both a Senate ( Senado ) and a House of Representatives ( Cámara de Representantes ).  The Senate is composed of 100 members elected every 4 years through a direct nation-wide vote and 2 additional senators that represent indigenous communities. Representatives are also elected for 4 year periods based on electoral districts; 2 for every one of 32 departments and the capital city Bogotá and additional members based on population. Additional members are elected from special electoral districts for indigenous (1), Afro-Colombian (2), political minorities (1) and expatriate communities (1) (see Decree 300 of 2010). There are currently 166 representatives.

 

Congress meets for two periods during each session: July 20th-November 16th, followed by March 16th-June 20th. The President together with one or more ministers may call special session of Congress. According to the Constitution, Congress’ main functions are to issue national legislation and to exercise political control over the government and the administration (Const., art. 114).

 

1.         Legislative Process (Const., arts. 150-170 and Laws3, 5 of 1992 as amended)

In addition to members of congress, legislative bills may be initiated by the national government (in some instances exclusively), 30% of departmental deputies or municipal councilors and by public petitions (signed by a number equivalent to 5% of registered voters). The (1) Constitutional Court, (2) Supreme Court,  (3) Council of State, (4) Superior Council of Justice Administration, ( 5) the National Electoral Council, (6) the Attorney General, (7) the National Comptroller, (8) the Inspector General, and (9) the National Ombudsman may also submit bills related to their functions.

 

Most bills are submitted to the Secretariat of either chamber. Once received, a bill is first published in the Congressional Gazette ( Gaceta del Congreso ) and then assigned to one of seven standing committees by subject matter. The president of each committee assigns one or more members to act as -bill sponsors and present a report to the full committee (also published in the Congressional Gazette). The bill is then debated, potentially amended, voted on and if approved, will be submitted to the plenary of each chamber. The bill is assigned one or more sponsors in the plenary session where again it will be debated. Although there is room for amendments, the chamber may decide to send the bill back to the committee whenever its text becomes significantly different from the one originally submitted. Once the bill is approved by one chamber, it will undergo the same process in other chamber. Inconsistencies between texts of a same bill approved by each chamber may be resolved by joint committees and be resubmitted again to each plenary for a vote. In some instances the standing committees of each chamber may be called upon by the President of the Republic to debate a bill jointly for reasons of urgency.

 

Once approved by Congress, the bill is submitted to the President who may object to it for reasons of convenience or constitutionality. Objections by reasons of constitutionality are submitted to the Constitutional Court. If both chambers (by simple majority votes) override the President’s objections for reasons of convenience, or if the Court dismisses objections for reasons of constitutionality, the President is required to sanction and promulgate the bill as law.  Promulgation of a law takes place by its publication in the Official Gazette ( Diario Oficial ) and its entry into force takes place at that time or on the date indicated in the statute.

 

2.         Hierarchy of Legal Norms  

The hierarchy of Colombian norms is fairly typical of civil law jurisdictions. The supreme set of norms is provided by the Constitution. Congress in turn approves statutes ( leyes ) with varying hierarchy that in all cases must conform to the Constitution. Once enacted, citizens can challenge their constitutionality before the Constitutional Court ( Corte Constitucional ). The Court’s decisions are definitive and mandatory.

 

Most statutes are ordinary laws ( leyes ordinarias ). There are instances (foreign war, internal disturbance or social, economic or environmental emergency) in which the President is temporarily empowered by the Constitution or by Congress to issue Decrees with the force of law that are equal to ordinary laws ( Decretos Ley o Decretos Legislativos) . International treaties duly ratified by Congress also have the status of law. The Constitution expressly provides that international human rights treaties prevail over in the internal legal order (Const., art. 93).

 

The Constitution grants the President regulatory power to issue Decrees ( Decretos ), Resolutions ( Resoluciones ), Directives ( Directivas ) and Orders (Ordenes) that  must conform to existing laws (Const., art. 189-11). That power (normally manifested in the form of Decrees and Resolution) is exercised through government ministries and agencies.  Departmental assemblies and municipal councils also exercise regulatory power within their jurisdictions through Ordinances ( Ordenanzas ) and Agreements ( Acuerdos ) respectively that must conform to national norms. Once enacted, national, departmental and municipal administrative norms and conduct can be challenged vis-à-vis their legality before the administrative tribunals, which have the power to annul them (see below). 

 

B.        Executive Branch

The President of Colombia is the head of the executive branch. The President is elected, together with the Vice-President, by a nationwide, universal, direct, and majority (50% + 1) vote every 4 years (a second round of voting is mandated if a single candidate fails initially to attain a majority). The President may be reelected for an additional term.  Pursuant to the Constitution the President who is also the head of State and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is called to perform a considerable number of governmental functions (art. 189). In order to do so, he directs both the central and decentralized levels of the public administration.

 

The central level of the executive branch currently includes among others organs, the Presidency, the Vice Presidency, 16 ministries (as of May 2011, see Law 1444 of 2011), and administrative agencies.  Ministers and agency heads are appointed by the President and are tasked with setting sectoral policy. The presidency maintains a reliable and useful website . The full list of ministries is the following:

 

·        Ministry of the Interior ( Ministerio del Interior )

·        Ministry of Foreign Affairs  ( Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores )

·        Ministry of Finance and Public Credit ( Ministerio de Hacienda y Crédito Público ).

·        Ministry of Justice and Law ( Ministerio de Justicia y del Derecho )

·        Ministry of National Defense  ( Ministerio de Defensa Nacional )

·        Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development ( Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural )

·        Ministry of Health and Social Security ( Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social )

·        Ministry of Labor ( Ministerio del Trabajo )

·        Ministry of Mines and Energy ( Ministerio de Minas y Energía )

Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Tourism ( Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo )

·        Ministry of National Education ( Ministerio de Educación Nacional )

·        Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development ( Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo        Sostenible )

·        Ministry of Housing, City and Territory ( Ministerio de Vivienda, Ciudad y Territorio )

·        Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications ( Ministerio de Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones ).

·        Ministry of Transportation ( Ministerio de Transporte )

·        Ministry of Culture ( Ministerio de Cultura )

 

The decentralized level of government encompasses autonomous State agencies and State-owned or controlled enterprises that have been delegated governmental functions in some instances.  Particularly with the enactment of the current Constitution in 1991 (arts. 1, 209-211), the government has gradually withdrawn from its historical role of service provider by privatizing or liquidating state entities and assets. In others, it has chosen to maintain its regulatory role while unbundling historical State monopolies, opening sectoral markets and competing with private operators through state-owned or controlled enterprises. Some of the more notable decentralized and autonomous government agencies exercising regulatory authority are:

 

·        National Hydrocarbon Agency ( Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos ).

·        National Mining Agency ( Agencia Nacional de Minería ).

·        National Agency of Infrastructure ( Agencia Nacional de Infraestructura ).

·        Electricity and Natural Gas Regulatory Commission ( Comisión de Regulación de Energía y Gas ).

·        Potable Water and Basic Sanitation Regulatory Commission ( Comisión de Regulación de Agua Potable y Saneamiento Básico ).

·        Telecommunications Regulatory Commission ( Comisión de Regulación de Telecomunicaciones ).

·        Superintendency for Public Utilities ( Superintendencia de Servicios Públicos Domiciliarios ).

·        Financial Superintendency ( Superintendencia Financiera )

·        Superintendency for Health ( Superintendencia Nacional de Salud ).

·        Superintendency for Companies ( Superintendencia de Sociedades ).

·        Tax and Customs Directorate ( Dirección de Aduanas e Impuestos Nacionales – DIAN ).

·        Superintendency for Industry and Commerce ( Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio ) .

 

At a subnational level, departments and municipalities are governed by democratically elected governors and majors respectively. Departmental assemblies (deputies) and municipal councils (councilors) issue general and binding rules in their respective jurisdictions, but are considered part of the executive branch (See Law 489 of 1998, art. 39).

 

C.         Judicial Branch

 

Colombia’s judicial branch is made up of the State’s high courts — the Constitutional Court ( Corte Constitutional ), the Supreme Court ( Corte Suprema de Justicia ), the Council of State ( Consejo de Estado ), the Superior Council of Justice Administration ( Consejo Superior de la Judicatura ), the Attorney General’s Office ( Fiscalía General de la Nación ) and the lower administrative and civil courts.

 

·        The Constitutional Court ( Corte Constitutional ) reviews the constitutionality of enacted laws when challenged before the court by any citizen (ie. no specific cause of action is required). The Court also chooses to ultimately and definitively review lower court decisions resulting from a constitutionally sanctioned legal recourse to protect a person’s constitutional rights ( Acción de Tutela ).  Finally, the Court is also responsible for reviewing the constitutionality of international treaties as a condition for their ratification. The Court’s website has helpful decision indices and search tools in Spanish (see “ relatoría ”). 

 

·        The Supreme Court of Justice ( Corte Suprema de Justicia ) is the highest court for civil (including commercial), criminal and labor disputes. The Court has the power to quash appeal decisions by the Superior Tribunals ( Tribunales Superiores ) in each judicial district (in turn each judicial district includes municipal courts and circuit courts with jurisdiction based on subject-matter and amount in dispute). The Court is also responsible for the recognition of foreign judgments and arbitral awards (a process known as exequatur ). The Court’s website has useful decision search tool in Spanish (see “ consulta jurisprudencial ”).

 

·        The Council of State ( Consejo de Estado ) is the highest court for disputes arising from administrative conduct or omissions (including those of the Inspector General and Comptroller General). It has the power to annul government decrees, administrative regulations and order the State to pay damages to aggrieved contractual parties.  The Court also reviews the appeals decisions of Administrative Tribunals ( Tribunales Administrativos ).

 

·        The Attorney General’s Office ( Fiscalía General de la Nación ) is an independent institution that investigates and prosecutes criminal conduct both of private individuals and public officials (with some exceptions for high public officials).  Together with the Inspector General and the Comptroller General, the Attorney General is frequently called upon to opine on public matters and warn of potential illegal conduct. See Const., arts. 249-253 and other governing norms on its website: “ Normativa .”

 

D.  Other Important Government Institutions

                  The Constitution has granted autonomy to a number of “other organs” that do not belong to the three traditional three branches including the following:

 

·        The National Comptroller’s Office ( Contraloría General de la República ): exercises fiscal control over government accounts and expenditures. The Comptroller General warns of possible detriment to the treasury, audits government entities, and investigates and determines fiscal liability both of private citizens and public officials. Its findings can be annulled by the administrative courts. See Const., arts. 267-8 and other applicable norms on its website: “Información al Ciudadano” - “Normatividad”. A number of subnational comptroller offices (departments and municipalities) control the expenditures of locally generated revenues. 

 

·        The Office of the Inspector General ( Procuraduría General de la Nación ): safeguards the administration’s compliance with the Constitution and applicable laws. The Inspector General frequently warns of possible violations, intervenes in judicial process and investigates and determines disciplinary liability by public officials. Liability findings take different forms including the suspension or dismissal of the officials but the decisions may annulled by the administrative courts. See Const. art. 277 and other applicable norms on its website: “Info Institucional-Normatividad.” A number of municipal ombudsmen ( personeros municipales ) exercise local jurisdiction. Together with the National Ombudsman Office ( Defensoría del Pueblo ), and the local ombudsmen, the Inspector General endeavors to promote and protect human rights.

 

·        Central Bank ( Banco de la República ): is responsible for setting the monetary policy and a number of other function detailed in a helpful webpage available in English

 

II. Primary Sources of Colombian Law

Historical and updated texts of the Constitution are available on the Georgetown University´s Political Database of the Americas . The authoritative source of Colombian legislation is the National Printing Office’s ( Imprenta Nacional ) Official Gazette ( Diario Oficial ), published since 1864. The Senate  and the Presidency     (see “Normativa”) provide free online legislation databases. The Senate’s website is particularly useful indicating which provisions have been derogated, modified, etc. and relevant jurisprudence. Ministry and agency websites are normally the best source for sectoral or topical regulations (see “Normas” or “Normatividad”). The Ministry of Justice also provides an online searchable database .

 

A.        Legal Codifications

Colombia's legal system has a legislative origin, grounded on the "written law", as opposed to the "common" or "judicial" law systems in the US, UK, Canada, etc. Colombia’s legal system is heavily influenced by French, Spanish and Italian legal systems and therefore has a number of “Codes” ( Códigos ) that codify a number of provisions for a particular subject matter or area of law. These codes have been enacted by law and therefore have the status of “ordinary laws” (see above). The principal codifications include the following:

 

·          Civil Code ( Código Civil , 1887, as amended): The scope and coverage of the Civil Code are extremely broad. It governs contracts, torts, property, obligations, capacity of persons, marriage, divorce, paternity, guardianship, and succession.

·          Commercial Code ( Código de Comercio , Decree 410 of 1971, as amended): It regulates commercial transactions and entities, negotiable instruments, and bankruptcy. For all matters not resolved by the Commercial Code, the provisions of the Civil Code apply. 

·          Criminal or Penal Code ( Código Penal , Law 599 of 2000, as amended): It establishes criminal offenses punishable by law.

·          Code of Criminal Procedure ( Código de Procedimiento Penal , Law 906 of 2004, as          amended): It defines the procedures that are to be followed by the Attorney General{s            Office and the criminal courts.

·          General Code of Procedure ( Código General del Proceso , Law 1564 of 2012, as amended):           It defines the procedures required to litigate before the civil courts.

 

B.        International Trade and Investment Treaties

 

 

Colombia’s International Trade and Investment Agreements (March 2015)

Instruments

Date of Signature

Entry into Force

Andean Community (Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru)

May 26, 1969

October 16, 1969

Colombia – Mexico Free Trade or G-2 Agreement

 

June 13, 1994

January 1, 1995

June 11, 2011 (Protocol)

August 2, 2011

Caribbean Community Preferential Trade Agreement

July 24, 1994

January 1, 1995

Colombia – Peru Bilateral Investment Treaty

 

April 26, 1994

 

March 21, 2004 (derogated)

 

May 7, 2001 (amending protocol)

December 11, 2007 (new agreement)

December 30, 2010

Andean Community-Mercosur Preferential Trade Agreement

October  18, 2004

February 1, 2005 (Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil); April 19, 2005 (Paraguay)

Colombia – Spain Bilateral Investment Treaty

March 31, 2005

September 22, 2007

Colombia – Chile Free Trade Agreement

November 27, 2006

May 8, 2009

Colombia – Switzerland Bilateral Investment Treaty

May 17, 2005

October 6, 2009

Colombia – El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras Free Trade Agreement

August 9, 2007

 

November 12, 2009 (Guatemala)

February 1, 2010 (El Salvador)

March 27, 2010 (Honduras)

Colombia – Canada Free Trade Agreement

November 21, 2008

August 15, 2011

Colombia – United States Free Trade Agreement

November 22, 2006

May 15, 2012

Colombia – China Bilateral Investment Treaty

November 22, 2008

July 2, 2012

India Bilateral Investment Treaty

November 10, 2009

July 2, 2012

Colombia- European Free Trade Association Free Trade Agreement

November, 25, 2008

July 1, 2011 (Switzerland, Liechtenstein)

Venezuela Preferential Trade Agreement

November 28, 2011

October 19, 2012

Colombia – United Kingdom Bilateral Investment Treaty

March 9, 1994

N/A

March 17, 2010 (revised)

October 10, 2014

Belgium/Luxembourg Bilateral Investment Treaty

February 4, 2009

Pending

Andean Community-European Union Trade Agreement

June 26, 2012

Pending

 

South Korea

Bilateral Investment Treaty

July 6, 2010

Pending

(modified by FTA)

Free Trade Agreement

February 21, 2013

Pending

Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement

May 22, 2013

Pending

Panama Free Trade Agreement

September 20, 2013

Pending

Japan

Bilateral Investment Treaty

September 12, 2011

Pending

(modified by FTA)

Economic Association Agreement

Pending

Pending

Israel

September 30, 2013

Pending

Singapore Bilateral Investment Treaty

July, 17, 2013

Pending

France Bilateral Investment Treaty

July 10, 2014

Pending

Turkey Bilateral Investment Treaty

July 28, 2014

Pending

 

 

Note: As of March 2015, there are a number of additional free trade agreements and bilateral investment treaties being negotiated or in the process of being signed.

 

C.         Judicial Decisions

Since 1887 all the Supreme Court’s decisions have been officially published in the Gaceta Judicial , and since 1915 those of the Council of State are published in the Anales del Consejo de Estado .  The Constitutional Court has its own monthly gazette entitled Gaceta de la Corte Constitucional , which collects its rulings since it started operating in 1992; there is also a semiannual compilation entitled Gaceta Constitucional . Each high court website (see above) provides a free online database of its decisions. There is no comprehensive (official or unofficial) regular publication of lower court opinions.  A privately published monthly serial, Derecho Colombiano , features selections of lower court decisions.  Some departments have their own judicial reviews ( revistas judiciales ), which include the most important decisions of their courts.

 

D.               Colombian Law in English

There is no governmental source of primary sources of Colombian law translated into English. There are some sources which provide an introduction to the legal regime in some areas of international interest.

 

·        The US State Department publishes a yearly “ Investment Climate Statement

·        The US Commercial Service has a “ Country Commercial Guide

·        The government’s investment promotion agency maintains a website on how to invest in the country

·        The OECD provides an English translation of the Anti-Corruption Statute (Law 1474 of 2011)

·        Deloitte published a Taxation and Investment in Colombia 2014 report on its website

·        The Brookings Institution provides a list of laws and policies on internal displacement

·        The Economist Intelligence Unit’s 201o report on the intellectual-property environment in Colombia is available online

·        A report on the infrastructure legal regime authored by the Infrastructure Journal is available from the World Bank

·        The Colombian Securities Exchange published a “ Colombian Market Profile and Foreign Investor’s Guide

·        The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) outlines the country’s intellectual property regime

 

III.      Bibliography of sources on Colombian law in English

 

A.        Treatises  

The following is a list of English language treatises available in US libraries. Though some may be outdated, they provide a useful starting point for topical research.

 

·        Cavelier Abogados, Doing business in Colombia, Juris Pub. 2011.

 

·        “Colombia” in Nations of the world, 2014: a political, economic & business handbook, Grey House Publishing 2014.

 

·        Hudson, Rex A., "Colombia: A Country Study." Library of Congress, 2010.

 

·        Omar E. García-Bolívar, Hernando Otero, eds. “Colombia”, in Recognition and Enforcement of International Commercial Arbitral Awards in Latin America: Law, Practice and Leading Cases, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2014.

 

·        Jonathan C. Hamilton, Omar E. García-Bolívar, Hernando Otero, eds.  “Colombia”, in Latin American Investment Protections: Comparative Perspectives on Laws, Treaties, and Disputes for Investors, States and Counsel, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012.

 

·        Leathley, Christian, International dispute resolution in Latin America : an institutional overview, Kluwer Law International 2007

 

·        Kleinheisterkamp, Jan, International commercial arbitration in Latin America: regulation and practice in the MERCOSUR and the associated countries, Oceana Publication 2005.

 

·        Reyes, Francisco, Latin American company law, Carolina Academic Press, 2013

 

·        Rincón, Daniel, Energy Law in Colombia, Kluwer Law International 2014.

 

·        Szesnat, Felicity, et. al ., “Colombia” in International Law and the Classification of Conflicts. OUP Oxford, 2012.

 

 

B.        Articles

                  Finally, a number of articles and notes on Colombian law have been published in law reviews and journals in recent years including the following:       

 

2015:

 

·     Chen, Duanjie and Perry, Guillermo E., Mining Taxation in Colombia (February 26, 2015). SPP Research Paper No. 8. Available at SSRN

·     Diez, Federico J., et al.  Productivity and export market participation: evidence from Colombia . No. 14-14. 2015.

·     Faguet, Jean-Paul and Sanchez, Fabio and Villaveces, Juanita , Land Reform, Latifundia and Social Development at Local Level in Colombia , 1961-2010 (February 12, 2015). Documento CEDE No. 2015-06. Available at SSRN

·     Gill, Lesley. "State formation and Class Politics in Colombia." State Theory and Andean Politics: New Approaches to the Study of Rule (2015): 78.

·     Granda, Catalina, and Franz Hamann.  Informality, Saving and Wealth Inequality in Colombia . Inter-American Development Bank, 2015.

·     Lemaitre, J. and Sandvik, K. B. (2015), Shifting Frames, Vanishing Resources, and Dangerous Political Opportunities: Legal Mobilization among Displaced Women in Colombia. Law & Society Review, 49: 5–38. doi: 10.1111/lasr.12119

·     Lozano-Espitia, Luis Ignacio, and Juan Manuel Julio-Román.  Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Growth: Evidence from Regional-Level Panel Data for Colombia . No. 012498. Banco de la República, 2015.

·     Núñez, Georgina, and Andrés Oneto. "Corporate governance in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru."

 

2014:

 

·     Ahrens, Helen. "Access to Justice in Latin America: Challenges to Classifying Legal Development in the Region."  Institutional Competition between Common Law and Civil Law . Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014. 237-248.Bonilla, Daniel. "Liberalism and Property in Colombia: Property as a Right and Property as a Social Function."  Available at SSRN  (2014).

·     Dube, Oeindrila, and Suresh Naidu.  Bases, Bullets and Ballots: the Effect of US Military Aid on Political Conflict in Colombia . No. w20213. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2014.

·     Graham, Felicia Christine. "Social Impacts of Resource Extraction: A Comparative Examination of Andean Latin America and Implications for Rising Colombia."  Perspectives on Global Development and Technology  13.1-2 (2014): 209-223.

·     Isa, Felipe Gómez. "Cultural Diversity, Legal Pluralism, and Human Rights from an Indigenous Perspective: The Approach by the Colombian Constitutional Court and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights."  Human Rights Quarterly 36.4 (2014): 722-755.

 

2013:

 

·     Beittel, June S. "Peace talks in Colombia."  Congressional Research Servic e (2013): 2.

·     Gaviria, Juan Antonio. "The New Colombian Legal Rules on International Arbitration." The Arbitration Brief 3, no. 1 (2013): 65-91.

·     Glushko-Samuelson Intellectual Property Clinicin collaboration with Andrés Izquierdo. 2013. Intellectual Property Reform in Colombia: The Colombian Legislature Must Consider Local and International Conventions and Pass Balanced Copyright Legislation that Preserves the Fundamental Rights of All Colombians. PIJIP Research Paper no. 2013-02.

·     Mantilla-Serrano, Fernando. "Colombia Enacts a New International Arbitration Law."  Journal of International Arbitration  30.4 (2013): 431-441.

·   Patricia Covarrubia; Andres Echeverri Uribe, “The Madrid Protocol in Latin America : Is Colombia changing Business Strategies or Acting as a Guinea Pig?”, European Intellectual Property Review,

Vol. 35, No. 1, p. 15-24.

·   Young, Katharine, and Julieta Lemaitre. "The Comparative Fortunes of the Right to Health: Two Tales of Justiciability in Colombia and South Africa." Harvard Human Rights Journal  26 (2013): 13-08.

 

 

2012:

 

·        Andreu-Guzmán, Federico. “Criminal Justice and Forced Displacement in Colombia.” ICTJ/BrookingsLSE Project on Internal Displacement. July 2012, pp. 1–17.Beittel, June S. Colombia: Background, US Relations, and Congressional Interest. Congressional Research Service, 2012.

·        Moller, Lars Christian. "Fiscal policy in Colombia: Tapping its potential for a more equitable society."  World Bank Policy Research Working Paper  6092 (2012).

·        Parra, Sebastián Nieto, and Mauricio Olivera. Making Reform Happen in Colombia: The Process of Regional Transfer Reform. No. 309. OECD Publishing, 2012.

·        Latorre, Sergio. "Legal Technicalities in Conditions of Political Conflict: The Case of Land Tenure Disputes In Colombia." (2012).

 

2011:

 

·        Beittel, June S. "Colombia: Issues for Congress." Congressional Research Service , 2011.

·        Garcia, Helena Alviar. "Legal Reform, Social Policy, and Gendered Redistribution in Colombia: The Role of the Family."  Am. UJ Gender Soc. Pol'y & L.  19 (2011): 577.

·        De Mello, Luiz, and Diego Moccero. "Monetary policy and macroeconomic stability in Latin America: The cases of Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico." Journal of International Money and Finance  30.1 (2011): 229-245.

·        Summers, Nicole. "Colombia's Victims' Law: Transitional Justice in a Time of Violent Conflict?"  Harv. Hum. Rts. J.  25 (2012): 219-237.

·        Tobón, Natalia. "International joint ventures in Colombia." Comparative law yearbook of international business 33 (2011): 677-700.

·        Universidad de los Andes Public Interest Law Group. "National Report: Colombia." American University Journal of Gender Social Policy and Law 19, no. 1 (2011): 97-112.