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UPDATE: An Introduction to Colombian Governmental Institutions and Primary Legal Sources

 

By Antonio Ramírez and Hernando Otero

Antonio Ramírez received law degrees from the Universidad Católica Andres Bello (Venezuela) and Duke University Law School and a library science degree from St. John´s University (U.S.A.).  He currently works as a reference librarian at the St. John´s University Law School Library. Previous working experience includes years of service at the Attorney General’s Office in Venezuela, New York University’s Law School Library, and Columbia University’s Law School Library. He also works as a freelance translator of legal materials.

 

Hernando Otero is an international trade and investment attorney licensed to practice both in Colombia and in New York State. He has a Master of Laws degree in International Law from New York University's School of Law and a bachelor's degree in law from Universidad de los Andes in Bogotá-Colombia. His recent experience includes working on cross-border investment and arbitration of international disputes.  

 

Published March 2013
(Previously updated by Antonio Ramirez on June 2010;
and by Antonio Ramírez and Hernando Otero on August 2011)

See the Archive Version

Table of Contents

I. Colombia’s Political Organization

A. Legislative Branch

1.  Legislative Process

2. Hierarchy of Legal Norms

B. Executive Branch

C. Judicial Branch

D.  Other Important Government Institutions

II. Primary Sources of Colombian Law

A. Legal Codifications

B. International Trade and Investment Treaties

C.  Judicial Decisions

D. Colombian Law in English

III. Bibliography of sources on Colombian law in English

A. Treatises  

B.  Articles

I.  Colombia’s Political Organization (See Const., arts. 1, 113, 286, 322,)

The Republic of Colombia is organized as a unitary republic that has administratively decentralized a number of governmental functions and recognizes limited autonomy to subnational governments to administer their own affairs.  The country is mainly divided into32 departments and a  capital district, Bogotá D.C. Colombia’s central government is made up by the three traditional branches of government and “other organs” that are independent (see below section I.D.).  

                 

A. Legislative Branch (See Const., arts. 132-149)

According to the Constitution the legislative branch in Colombia is composed of a national congress that includes both a Senate (Senado) and a House of Representatives (Cámara de Representantes).  The Senate is composed of 100 members elected every 4 years through a direct nation-wide vote and 2 additional senators that represent indigenous communities. Representatives are also elected for 4 year periods based on electoral districts; 2 for every one of 32 departments and the capital city Bogotá and additional members based on population. Additional members are elected from special electoral districts for indigenous (1), Afro-Colombian (2), political minorities (1) and expatriate communities (1) (see Decree 300 of 2010). There are currently 166 representatives.

 

Congress meets for two periods during each session: July 20th-November 16th, followed by March 16th-June 20th. The President together with one or more ministers may call special session of Congress. According to the Constitution, Congress’ main functions are to issue national legislation and to exercise political control over the government and the administration (Const., art. 114).

 

1. Legislative Process (Const., arts. 150-170 and Laws3, 5 of 1992 as amended)

In addition to members of congress, legislative bills may be initiated by the national government (in some instances exclusively), 30% of departmental deputies or municipal councilors and by public petitions (signed by a number equivalent to 5% of registered voters). The (1) Constitutional Court, (2) Supreme Court, (3) Council of State, (4) Superior Council of Justice Administration, (5) the National Electoral Council, (6) the Attorney General, (7) the National Comptroller, (8) the Inspector General, and (9) the National Ombudsman may also submit bills related to their functions.

 

Most bills are submitted to the Secretariat of either chamber. Once received, a bill is first published in the Congressional Gazette (Gaceta del Congreso) and then assigned to one of seven standing committees by subject matter. The president of each committee assigns one or more members to act as -bill sponsors and present a report to the full committee (also published in the Congressional Gazette).The bill is then debated, potentially amended, voted on and if approved, will be submitted to the plenary of each chamber. The bill is assigned one or more sponsors in the plenary session where again it will be debated. Although there is room for amendments, the chamber may decide to send the bill back to the committee whenever its text becomes significantly different from the one originally submitted. Once the bill is approved by one chamber, it will undergo the same process in other chamber. Inconsistencies between texts of a same bill approved by each chamber may be resolved by joint committees and be resubmitted again to each plenary for a vote. In some instances the standing committees of each chamber may be called upon by the President of the Republic to debate a bill jointly for reasons of urgency.

 

Once approved by Congress, the bill is submitted to the President who may object to it for reasons of convenience or constitutionality. Objections by reasons of constitutionality are submitted to the Constitutional Court. If both chambers (by simple majority votes) override the President’s objections for reasons of convenience, or if the Court dismisses objections for reasons of constitutionality, the President is required to sanction and promulgate the bill as law.  Promulgation of a law takes place by its publication in the Official Gazette (Diario Oficial) and its entry into force takes place at that time or on the date indicated in the statute.

 

2. Hierarchy of Legal Norms  

The hierarchy of Colombian norms is fairly typical of civil law jurisdictions. The supreme set of norms is provided by the Constitution. Congress in turn approves statutes (leyes) with varying hierarchy that in all cases must conform to the Constitution. Once enacted, citizens can challenge their constitutionality before the Constitutional Court (Corte Constitucional). The Court’s decisions are definitive and mandatory.

 

Most statutes are ordinary laws (leyes ordinarias). There are instances (foreign war, internal disturbance or social, economic or environmental emergency) in which the President is temporarily empowered by the Constitution or by Congress to issue Decrees with the force of law that are equal to ordinary laws (Decretos Ley o Decretos Legislativos). International treaties duly ratified by Congress also have the status of law. The Constitution expressly provides that international human rights treaties prevail over in the internal legal order (Const., art. 93).

 

The Constitution grants the President regulatory power to issue Decrees (Decretos), Resolutions (Resoluciones), Directives (Directivas) and Orders (Ordenes) that  must conform to existing laws (Const., art. 189-11). That power (normally manifested in the form of Decrees and Resolution) is exercised through government ministries and agencies.  Departmental assemblies and municipal councils also exercise regulatory power within their jurisdictions through Ordinances (Ordenanzas) and Agreements (Acuerdos) respectively, that must conform to national norms. Once enacted, national, departmental and municipal administrative norms and conduct can be challenged vis-à-vis their legality before the administrative tribunals, which have the power to annul them (see below). 

 

B. Executive Branch

The President of Colombia is the head of the executive branch. The President is elected, together with the Vice-President, by a nationwide, universal, direct, and majority (50% + 1) vote every 4 years (a second round of voting is mandated if a single candidate fails initially to attain a majority). The President may be reelected for an additional term.  Pursuant to the Constitution the President who is also the head of State and commander-in-chief of the armed forces is called to perform a considerable number of governmental functions (art. 189). In order to do so, he directs both the central and decentralized levels of the public administration.

 

The central level of the executive branch currently includes among others organs, the Presidency, the Vice Presidency, 16 ministries (as of May 2011, see Law 1444 of 2011), and administrative agencies.  Ministers and agency heads are appointed by the President and are tasked with setting sectoral policy. The presidency maintains a reliable and useful website but with limited English content. The full list of ministries is the following:

 

·                Ministry of the Interior  (Ministerio del Interior)

·                Ministry of Foreign Affairs    (Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores)

·                Ministry of Finance and Public Credit (Ministerio de Hacienda y Crédito                                                             Público).

·                Ministry of Justice and Law (Ministerio de Justicia y del Derecho)

·                Ministry of National Defense  (Ministerio de Defensa Nacional)

·                Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (Ministerio de Agricultura y                                                 Desarrollo Rural)

·                Ministry of Health and Social Security (Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social)

·                Ministry of Labor (Ministerio del Trabajo)

·                Ministry of Mines and Energy (Ministerio de Minas y Energía)

·                Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Tourism (Ministerio de Comercio,                                                              Industria y Turismo)

·                Ministry of National Education (Ministerio de Educación Nacional)

·                Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development (Ministerio de                                                      Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible)

·                Ministry of Housing, City and Territory (Ministerio de Vivienda, Ciudad y                                        Territorio)

·                Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications (Ministerio de                                                      Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones).

·                Ministry of Transportation (Ministerio de Transporte)

·                Ministry of Culture (Ministerio de Cultura)

 

The decentralized level of government encompasses autonomous State agencies and State-owned or controlled enterprises that have been delegated governmental functions in some instances.  Particularly with the enactment of the current Constitution in 1991 (arts. 1, 209-211), the government has gradually withdrawn from its historical role of service provider by privatizing or liquidating state entities and assets. In others, it has chosen to maintain its regulatory role while unbundling historical State monopolies, opening sectoral markets and competing with private operators through state-owned or controlled enterprises. Some of the more notable decentralized and autonomous government agencies exercising regulatory authority are:

 

·                National Hydrocarbon Agency   (Agencia Nacional de Hidrocarburos).

·                National Mining Agency (Agencia Nacional de Minería).

·                National Agency of Infrastructure (Agencia Nacional de Infraestructura)

·                Electricity and Natural Gas Regulatory Commission (Comisión de Regulación de Energía) y Gas

·                Potable Water and Basic Sanitation Regulatory Commission (Comisión de Regulación de Agua Potable y Saneamiento Básico)

·                Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (Comisión de Regulación de Telecomunicaciones).

·                Superintendency for Public Utilities (Superintendencia de Servicios Públicos Domiciliarios

·                Financial Superintendency (Superintendencia Financiera).

·                Superintendency for Health (Superintendencia Nacional de Salud)

·                Superintendency for Companies (Superintendencia de Sociedades)

·                Tax and Customs Directorate (Dirección de Aduanas e Impuestos Nacionales - DIAN)

·                Superintendency for Industry and Commerce (Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio).

 

At a subnational level, departments and municipalities are governed by democratically elected governors and majors respectively. Departmental assemblies (deputies) and municipal councils (councilors) issue general and binding rules in their respective jurisdictions, but are considered part of the executive branch (See law 489 of 1998, art. 39).

 

C. Judicial Branch

Colombia’s judicial branch is made up of the State’s high courts — the Constitutional Court (Corte Constitutional), the Supreme Court (Corte Suprema de Justicia), the Council of State (Consejo de Estado), the Superior Council of Justice Administration (Consejo Superior de la Judicatura), the Attorney General’s Office (Fiscalía General de la Nación) and the lower administrative and civil courts.

 

·                The Constitutional Court (Corte Constitutional) reviews the constitutionality of enacted laws when challenged before the court by any citizen (ie. no specific cause of action is required). The Court also chooses to ultimately and definitively review lower court decisions resulting from a constitutionally sanctioned legal recourse to protect a person’s constitutional rights (Acción de Tutela).  Finally, the Court is also responsible for reviewing the constitutionality of international treaties as a condition for their ratification. The Court’s website has helpful decision indices and search tools in Spanish (see “relatoría”). 

 

·                The Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia) is the highest court for civil (including commercial), criminal and labor disputes. The Court has the power to quash appeal decisions by the Superior Tribunals (Tribunales Superiores) in each judicial district (in turn each judicial district includes municipal courts and circuit courts with jurisdiction based on subject-matter and amount in dispute). The Court is also responsible for the recognition of foreign judgments and arbitral awards (a process known as exequatur). The Court’s website has useful decision search tool in Spanish (see “consulta jurisprudencial”).

 

·                The Council of State (Consejo de Estado) is the highest court for disputes arising from administrative conduct or omissions (including those of the Inspector General and Comptroller General). It has the power to annul government decrees, administrative regulations and order the State to pay damages to aggrieved contractual parties.  The Court also reviews the appeals decisions of the Administrative Tribunals (Tribunales Administrativos).

 

·                The Attorney General’s Office (Fiscalía General de la Nación) is an independent institution that investigates and prosecutes criminal conduct both of private individuals and public officials (with some exceptions for high public officials).  Together with the Inspector General and the Comptroller General, the Attorney General is frequently called upon to opine on public matters and warn of potential criminal conduct. See Const., arts. 249-253 and other governing norms on its website: “Normas de creación de la Entidad.”

D.  Other Important Government Institutions

The Constitution  has granted autonomy to a number of “other organs” that do not belong to the three traditional three branches including the following:

 

·                The National Comptroller’s Office (Contraloría General de la República): exercises fiscal control over government accounts and expenditures. The Comptroller General warns of possible detriment to the treasury, audits government entities, and investigates and determines fiscal liability both of private citizens and public officials. Its findings can be annulled by the administrative courts. See Const., arts. 267-8 and other applicable norms on its website: “Información al Ciudadano” - “Normatividad”. A number of subnational comptroller offices (departments and municipalities) control the expenditures of locally generated revenues. 

 

·                The Office of the Inspector General (Procuraduría General de la Nación): safeguards the administration’s compliance with the Constitution and applicable laws. The Inspector General frequently warns of possible violations, intervenes in judicial process and investigates and determines disciplinary liability by public officials. Liability findings take different forms including the suspension or dismissal of the officials but the decisions may annulled by the administrative courts. See Const. art. 277 and other applicable norms on its website: “Info Institucional-Normatividad.” A number of municipal ombudsmen (personeros municipales) exercise local jurisdiction. Together with the National Ombudsman Office (Defensoría del Pueblo), and the local ombudsmen, the Inspector General endeavors to promote and protect human rights.

 

·                Central Bank (Banco de la República): is responsible for setting the monetary and exchange rate policy. The most important portions of the Central Bank’s website are available in English here.

 

II.  Primary Sources of Colombian Law

Historical and updated texts of the Constitution are available on the Georgetown University´s School of Foreign Service - Political Database of the Americas. An English translation of the Constitution is available from the University of Richmond. The authoritative source of Colombian legislation is the National Printing Office’s (Imprenta Nacional) Official Gazette (Diario Oficial), published since 1864. It is available online. Both the Senate (starting from 1992) and the Presidency (from August 2002; see “Normativa”) provide free online legislation databases.  The Senate’s website is particularly useful indicating which provisions have been derogated, modified, etc. and relevant jurisprudence. Ministry and agency websites are normally the best source for sectoral or topical regulations (see “Normas” or “Normatividad”).

 

Other sites with general or topic specific legislation are:

 

·                Lexadin - Free access to the full text in Spanish of a significant number of codes     and laws arranged by subject.

·                Juriscol  - Free access to the full text in Spanish of a significant number of codes    and laws arranged in alphabetical order.

·                Juriversia - Fee-based access to the full text in Spanish of a significant number of codes   and laws arranged in chronological order.

·                Natlaw - Fee based access to the full text in Spanish of recent laws arranged in        alphabetical order by subject.

·               ILO - Free access to the full text in Spanish of labor laws and regulations.

·                Wipolex -    Free access to the full text  in Spanish of intellectual property  laws  and   regulations.Todo el Derecho - offers a good index of Colombian legislation. Access to the                  actual materials is available only to paying subscribers.

·                VLex - Fee based access to the full text in Spanish of laws, articles, treatises and  

                some legal materials in English.

A. Legal Codifications

Colombia's legal system has a legislative origin, grounded on the "written law", as opposed to the "common" or "judicial" law systems in the US, UK, Canada, etc. Colombia’s legal system is heavily influenced by French, Spanish and Italian legal systems and therefore has a number of “Codes” (Códigos) that codify a number of provisions for a particular subject matter or area of law. These codes have been enacted by law and therefore have the status of “ordinary laws” (see above). The principal codifications include the following:

 

·                Civil Code (Código Civil, 1873, as amended): The scope and coverage of the Civil Code are       extremely broad. It governs contracts, torts, property, obligations, capacity of persons,      marriage, divorce, paternity, guardianship, and succession.

·                Commercial Code (Código de Comercio, 1971, as amended): It regulates commercial               transactions and entities, negotiable instruments, and bankruptcy. For all matters not     resolved by the Commercial Code, the provisions of the Civil Code apply. 

·                Criminal or Penal Code (Código Penal, 2000, as amended): It establishes criminal                   offenses punishable by law.

·                Code of Criminal Procedure (Código de Procedimiento Penal, 2004, as amended): It                  defines the procedures that are to be followed by the Attorney General{s Office and the                 criminal courts.

·                Code of Civil Procedure (Código de Procedimiento Civil,1970, as amended): It defines the      procedures required to litigate before the civil courts.

 

B. International Trade and Investment Treaties

 

 

Colombia’s International Trade and Investment Agreements (February 2013)

Instruments 

Date of Signature

Entry into Force

Andean Community (Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru)

May 26, 1969

October 16, 1969

Colombia – Mexico Free Trade or G-2 Agreement

 

June 13, 1994

January 1, 1995

June 11, 2011 (Protocol)

August 2, 2011

Caribbean Community Preferential Trade Agreement

July 24, 1994

January 1, 1995

Colombia – Peru Bilateral Investment Treaty

 

April 26, 1994

 

March 21, 2004 (derogated)

 

May 7, 2001 (amending protocol)

December 11, 2007 (new agreement)

December 30, 2010

Andean Community-Mercosur Preferential Trade Agreement

October  18, 2004

Febrero 1, 2005 (Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil); April 19, 2005 (Paraguay)

Colombia – Spain Bilateral Investment Treaty

March 31, 2005

September 22, 2007

Colombia – Chile Free Trade Agreement

November 27, 2006

May 8, 2009

Colombia – Switzerland Bilateral Investment Treaty

May 17, 2005

October 6, 2009

Colombia – El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras Free Trade Agreement

August 9, 2007

 

November 12, 2009 (Guatemala)

February 1, 2010 (El Salvador)

March 27, 2010 (Honduras)

Colombia – Canada Free Trade Agreement

November 21, 2008

August 15, 2011

Colombia – United States Free Trade Agreement

November 22, 2006

May 15, 2012

Colombia – China Bilateral Investment Treaty

November 22, 2008

July 2, 2012

India Bilateral Investment Treaty

November 10, 2009

July 2, 2012

Colombia- European Free Trade Association Free Trade Agreement

November, 25, 2008

July 1, 2011 (Switzerland, Liechtenstein)

Venezuela Preferential Trade Agreement

November 28, 2011

October 19, 2012

Colombia – United Kingdom Bilateral Investment Treaty

March 9, 1994

Pending

March 17, 2010 (revised)

Pending

Belgium/Luxembourg Bilateral Investment Treaty

February 4, 2009

Pending

Andean Community-European Union Trade Agreement

June 26, 2012

Pending

South Korea Bilateral Investment Treaty

July 6, 2010

Pending

Japan Bilateral Investment Treaty

September 12, 2011

Pending

 

 

Note: As of February 2013, there are a number of additional free trade agreements and bilateral investment treaties being negotiated or in the process of being signed.

 

C. Judicial Decisions

Since 1887 all the Supreme Court’s decisions have been officially published in the Gaceta Judicial, and since 1915 those of the Council of State are published in the Anales del Consejo de Estado.  The Constitutional Court has its own monthly gazette entitled Gaceta de la Corte Constitucional, which collects its rulings since it started operating in 1992; there is also a semiannual compilation entitled Gaceta Constitucional. Each high court website (see above) provides a free online database of its decisions. There is no comprehensive (official or unofficial) regular publication of lower court opinions.  A privately published monthly serial, Derecho Colombiano, features selections of lower court decisions.  Some departments have their own judicial reviews (revistas judiciales), which include the most important decisions of their courts.

 

D. Colombian Law in English

A number of Colombian codes, laws and regulations have been translated into English. The Global Legal Information Network - GLIN provides brief but useful summaries of laws and regulations.  A defunct print serial (entitled Legal Bulletin; Bogotá, Colombia:  Ediciones Juan Caro & Asociados), consisting of 37 volumes published between 1963 and 1999, provides translation of a good number of sources (most of which may have been modified, amended, etc.  but still constitute useful starting points). The following is a partial list:

 

·                Political Constitution (translation available in Constitutions of the Countries of   the World).

·                Civil Code (partial translation available in Commercial Laws of the World and        Trusts laws of the world)

·                Commercial Code  (complete translation available in Commercial laws of the            World and partial translation available in Doing business in Colombia)

·                Adoption law (1975) (translation available in 1975 Legal bulletin).

·                Law on alternative dispute resolution (decree No.1818/1998) (translation                    available in Doing business in Colombia).

·                Aviation law (translation available in Air laws and treaties of the world).

·                Law on business incentives (No. 20/1979) (translation available in Tax laws of      the world and Commercial laws of the world).

·                Law on contracts for technology (No. 81/1988) (translation available in 1988            Legal bulletin).

·                Law to prevent corruption of public employees (translation available in 1995           Legal bulletin).

·                Commercial arbitration law (No. 315/1996) (translation available in 34 Legal        bulletins).

·                Law on composition and meeting of creditors (No.222/1995) (translation    available in Doing business in Colombia).

·                Consumer protection law (No. 73/1981) (translation available in 1981 Legal              bulletin).

·                Copyright law (No. 23/1982) (translation available in Copyright laws and treaties                of the world and Doing business in Colombia).

·                Law on corporate tax structure (No. 223/1995) (translation available in 1995           Legal bulletin).

·                Law on ecological insurance policies (No.491/1999) (translation available in           Jan/Feb 1999 Legal bulletin).

·                Electronic commerce law (No. 527/1999) (translation available in Foreign tax         law bi-weekly bulletin no. 24).

·                Law on financial institutions and intermediaries (No. 45/1990) (translation           available in 1991 Legal bulletin).

·                Law on government contracts (No. 80/ 1993) (translation available in 1993 Legal                   bulletin and in Doing Business in Colombia).

·                Income tax law (No. 6/1992) (translation available in Tax laws of the world:              Colombia).

·                Law on internal public debt (No. 487/1998 (translation available in 1999 Foreign                  tax law biweekly bulletin No.12).

·                Law on mining and oil industries (No.20/1969) (translation available in 9                International legal materials).

·                Law on the social security system (No.100/1993) (translation available in Legal    Bulletin 1994).

·                Law on tax-free trade zone (No. 109/1985) (translation available in 1985 Legal        Bulletin).

·                Law on the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone, and the continental shelf                   (No. 10/1978) (translation available in New directions in the law of the sea vol.              7).

·                Unfair competition law (No. 256, 1996) (translation available in 34 Legal                   bulletins).

 

III. Bibliography of sources on Colombian law in English

A. Treatises  

The following is a list of English language treatises available in US libraries. Though some may be outdated, they provide a useful starting point for topical research.

                                   

·                Otero, Hernando, “Colombia,” in Latin American Investment Protections:                   Comparative Perspectives on Laws, Treaties, and Disputes for Investors, States                   and Counsel, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2012.

·                Szesnat, Felicity, et. al., “Colombia” in International Law and the Classification of                Conflicts. OUP Oxford, 2012.

·                Hudson, Rex A., ed. "Colombia: A Country Study." Library of Congress, 2010.

·                Modern legal systems cyclopedia v.10 South America, chap. 3(b). The legal                 system of Colombia -- Buffalo, N.Y.: W.S. Hein, general editor, Kenneth Robert               Redden. 1984-. 

·                International encyclopedia of comparative law   v. I, “National Reports, fascicle C                  Colombia [published under the auspices of the International Association of Legal               Science. Editorial committee: R. David ... [et al.].   Tubingen, 1975.

·                                 Business operations in Colombia, edited by Mario Andrade Perilla ... [et al.]               [BNA] Bureau of National Affairs, c2003- Washington, D.C. Tax Management    Inc., Tax management portfolios (Continually Updated Resource)

·                Doing business in Colombia, edited by Cavelier Abogados, Yonkers, N.Y., Juris       Publishing, 1999-   (looseleaf).

·                Doing business in Colombia, New York, Price Waterhouse, 1993.

·                A guide to the law and legal literature of Colombia  R.C Backus and P.J. Elder,          Washington, Library of Congress, 1943 (supplemented in 20 Tulane Law Review         392).

·                A statement of the laws of Colombia in matters affecting business. B. Rueda              Washington, Pan American Union, 1961 (supplemented in 1969).

 

B. Articles

Finally, a number of articles and notes on Colombian law have been published in American law reviews and journals in recent years including the following:       

  

·                Parra, Sebastián Nieto, and Mauricio Olivera. Making Reform Happen in Colombia: The Process of Regional Transfer Reform. No. 309. OECD Publishing, 2012.

·                Latorre, Sergio. "Legal Technicalities In Conditions Of Political Conflict: The Case Of Land Tenure Disputes In Colombia." (2012).

·                Otero, Hernando. “Colombia and Ecuador Agree to Land Boundary Starting Point,” American Society of International Law - Law of the Sea Reports, August 15, 2012.

·                Otero, Hernando. “New Arbitration Statute in Colombia,” Latin Arbitration Law, August 2, 2012.

·                Garcia, Helena Alviar. "Legal Reform, Social Policy, and Gendered Redistribution in Colombia: The Role of the Family." Am. UJ Gender Soc. Pol'y & L. 19 (2011): 577.

·                Tobón, Natalia. "International joint ventures in Colombia." Comparative law yearbook of international business 33 (2011): 677-700.

·                Universidad de los Andes Public Interest Law Group. "National Report: Colombia." American University Journal of Gender Social Policy and Law 19, no. 1 (2011): 97-112.

·                Clements, Benedict, and Herman Kamil. "Are capital controls effective in the 21st century? The recent experience of Colombia." IMF Working Papers (2009): 1-25.

·                The Conflict in Colombia and the Relationship between Humanitarian Law and Human Right Law in Practice: Analysis of the New Operations Law of the Colombian Armed Forces, by Constantin von de Groeben, 16 Journal of Conflict & Security Law Spring 141  (2011).

·                Towards Promises Unfulfilled: Applying Sixteen Years of Trade and Environmental Lessons to the Pending U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement,  by  Travis  Brooks, 23 Pacific McGeorge Global Business & Development Law Journal 339 (2011).

·                Legal Reform, Social Policy and Gendered Redistribution in Colombia: The Role of the Family,  by Helena Alviar, 19 American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy and the Law  577 (2011).

·                The ICJ and the Future of Transboundary Harm Disputes: A Preliminary Analysis of the Case Concerning Aerial Herbicide Spraying (Ecuador v. Colombia), by Robert Esposito, 2 Pace International Law Review Online Companion August 1 (2010).

·                Judicial Protection of the Right to Health in Colombia: From Social Demands to Individual Claims to Public Debates.  by Alicia Ely Yamin, 33 Hastings International and Comparative Law Review 431 (2010). 

·                The Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard Pursuant to the Investment Provisions of the U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Peru, Colombia and Panama., by Andrew P. Tuck,  16 Law & Business Review of the Americas 385 (2010). 

·                More than just Words?: The Relations between Venezuela and Colombia and

                UNASUR Intervention in Light of the Defense Cooperation Agreement between

                the United States and Colombia., by Katherine M.Tullos,  16 Law & Business

                 Review of the Americas 559 (2010).

·                Comparative Antitrust Policies in Mergers and Acquisitions: Antitrust  Merger

                Policy in Colombia , by Alfonso Miranda Londoño, 43 Cornell International   

                Law Journal 365 (2010).

·                Are Aerial Fumigations in the Context of the War in Colombia a Violation of

                the Rules of International Humanitarian law?, by Morgane Landel, 19

               Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems 491 (2010).

·                Climate Change and the Developing Country: The International Law Perspective

                Collective Human Rights: Public Heath v.  Structural and  Ecological                               Violence (The Example of  Ecuador  v. Colombia), by Laura Westra, 16 ILSA

                Journal of International and Comparative Law 557 (2010).                 

·                The Colombian experience in the area  of protection of the freedom of religion, by    Sergio Gonzalez Sandoval, 2009  Brigham Young University Law  Review  651                      651 (2009)

·                Law, extralegality, and space: legal pluralism and landscape from Colombia to      Puerto Rico, by Erika Fontanez Torres, 40 University of Miami Inter-American                  Law Review 285 (2009).

·                Process issues of Colombia’s new accusatory system, by Luz E. Nagle, 14      Southwestern Journal of Law and Trade in the Americas 223 (2008).

·                Making trade liberalization work for the poor: trade law and the informal                    economy in Colombia, by Kevin J. Fandl, 43 Texas International Law Journal 161                (2008) 

·                Critical examinations of free trade theory: Can Constitutional Courts be      Counterhegemonic Powers vis-a-vis Neoliberalism? The Case of the Colombian                   Constitutional Court, by Maria Paula Saffon, 5 Seattle Journal of Social Justice      533 (2007).

·                International law and conflict resolution in Colombia: balancing peace and              justice in the paramilitary demobilization process, by Jose E. Arvelo, 37   Georgetown Journal of International Law 411 (2006).

·                A new approach to extraterritorial application of environmental statutes?:                uncovering the effects of Plan Colombia, by Joanne Sum-Ping, 31 Columbia             Journal of Environmental Law 139 (2006).

·                Transitional justice in times of conflict: Colombia’s Ley de Justicia y Paz, by Lisa J. Laplante and Kimberly Theidon , 28 Michigan Journal of International Law 49            (2006).

·                Making peace with criminals: an economic approach to assessing punishment       options in the Colombian peace process, by Katie Kerr, 37 University of Miami                    Inter-American Law Review 53 (2005).

·                The two discourses in Colombian constitutional jurisprudence: a new approach to                  modeling judicial behavior in Latin America, by David Landau, 37 George                 Washington International Law Review 687 (2005).

·                Judicial activism in a violent context: the origin, role, and impact of the     Colombian constitutional court, by Justice Manuel José Cepeda-Espinosa, 3       Washington University Global Studies Law Review  259 (2004)

·                The Colombian royalty system: how flexibility in law-making generates    investment, by Maria Angelica Espinosa, 9 Law and Business Review of the                Americas 189 (2003)

·                Arbitration versus litigation in Colombia, by Jorge Posada-Villaveces, 15                   International Law Practicum, Practicing the Law of the World from New York 12                (2002) 

·                Multi-jurisdictional and multi-disciplinary practice: a Colombian perspective, by               Carlos Fradique-Méndez, 14 International Law Practicum, Practicing the Law of                the World from New York  117 (2001).

·                Transactional, social, and legal aspects of oil exploration and extraction in                Colombia, by Juan Carlos Palau, 22  Northwestern Journal of International Law                    and Business 35 (2001) 

·                Joint venture agreements: a new mechanism for investing in Colombia, by Erika                   P. Schultz, 12 World Arbitration and Mediation Report 190 (July, 2001).  

·                A comparative analysis of United States and Colombian tort law: duty, breach,       and damages, by Natalia M. Bartels, 13 Pace International Law Review 59 (2001).

·                Judiciary reform in Colombia, by Luis Alberto Moreno, 13 Florida Journal of              International Law 75 (2000).

·                Strengths and hurdles in the struggle against asset laundering and the repression              of financial crime: the Colombian perspective, by  Jaime Ospina-Velasco, 13       Florida Journal of International Law 96 (2000). 

·                Colombia’s faceless justice: a necessary evil, blind impartiality o modern inquisition?, by Luz Estella Nagle, 61 University of Pittsburgh Law Review  881    (2000).

·                The privatization and project finance adventure: acquiring a Colombian public     utility company, by Mario Andrade Mario A. de Castro   19 Northwestern Journal          of International Law and Business 425 (Symposium--Perspectives in            International Privatization of Public Utilities) (1999).

·                Religious liberty and cultural and ethnic pluralism in the Colombian constitution             of 1991, by Viviane A. Morales Hoyos 1999 Brigham Young University Law           Review International Church-State Symposium. 561 (1999).

·                Taking Machismo to court: the gender jurisprudence of the  Colombian         constitutional court, by Martha I. Morgan,  30 University of Miami Inter-                 American Law Review 253 (1998).

·                Latin American commercial arbitration: the Colombian approach, by  Erika P.       Schultz, 9 World Arbitration & Mediation Report 295 (November, 1998).

·                International trade and foreign investment in Colombia: a sound economic policy                 amidst crisis, by  David J. Pascuzzi,  9 Florida Journal of International Law Fall       443 (1994).  

·                Wanted: criminal justice—Colombia’s adoption of a prosecutorial system of                criminal procedure, by Michael R. Pahl, 16 Fordham International Law Journal                   608 (1992/1993).  

·                The 1991 constitutional reform: prospects for democracy and the rule o f law in        Colombia, by Donald T. Fox, 24 Case Western Reserve Journal of International          Law Spring, 139 (1992).  

·                Constitution-making in a time of cholera: women and the 1991 Colombian                   constitution, by Monica Maria Alzate Buitrago, 4 Yale Journal of Law and             Feminism 353 (1992).  

·                Evolution of the Colombian judiciary and the constitutional court, by Luz Estella                   Nagle, 6 Indiana International and Comparative Law Review 59 (1995).

·                The rule of law or the rule of fear: some thoughts on Colombian extradition, by         Luz E. Nagle, 13 Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Journal  851 (1991).