Regional Trade Agreements in Africa: A Historical and Bibliographic Account of ECOWAS and CEMAC
by Victor Essien
Victor Essien holds LL.B.(Hons), LL.M. (Ghana), LL.M. (Int'l), and J.S.D. ( NYU) degrees. He is International Law Librarian and Adjunct Associate Professor of Law at Fordham Law School, where he teaches International Investment Law, Multinational Corporations Law and International and Foreign Legal Research. He was formerly Law Lecturer (on National Service) at the University of Ghana, Legon and the University of Jos, Nigeria. He was also a Consultant to the UNCTC in New York and a Legal Assistant to the Iran-US Claims Tribunal at The Hague, the Netherlands. He was admitted to the Ghana Bar in 1977. He is currently a Member of the Bars of New York State, United States District Court, Southern and Eastern Districts of New York and The United States Court of Appeals, Second and Third Circuits.
Published October 2006
Table of Contents
Efforts at regional and sub-regional integration in Africa go back to the immediate post colonial period. It was seen as an extension of the liberation movements and an effort to construct geographic entities that were economically viable and politically united. It also reflected the prevailing European experience with its emphasis on free trade within a common external tariff area.
Regional or sub-regional integration in Africa has met with limited success on account of several factors. Chief among them are the parallel and often competing groupings that divert the needed political will to succeed; the conflict with the developmental objectives and expectations of their development partners, usually the former colonial masters or their associated groupings; conflict between national structures and policies and group objectives and agenda; personality conflicts; infra-structural constraints, institutional constraints, and national security constraints.
The promise that integration holds, in the form of the enlargement of local markets, the realization of economies of scale and the strengthening of bargaining positions in global negotiations is a sufficient allure to make the countries of Africa try time and again to forge these regional trade agreements.
ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West African States and CEMAC, the Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l'Afrique Centrale represent two major efforts at regional integration in Africa.
The treaty establishing the ECOWAS was signed in Lagos, Nigeria on May 28th 1975 by the Heads of States and Government of 14 West African nations, namely Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo. Guinea Bissau acceded to the Treaty later in 1975. In 1979, Cape Verde became the 16th member nation. In accordance with the terms of the treaty, the treaty came into force in June 1975 with the ratification by seven states.
Article 2(1) of the 1975 Treaty described the aims of the Community as follows:
"... to promote co-operation and development in all fields of economic activity particularly in the fields of industry, transport, telecommunications, energy, agriculture, natural resources, commerce, monetary and financial questions and in social and cultural matters for the purpose of raising the standard of living of its peoples, of increasing and maintaining economic stability, of fostering closer relations among its members and of contributing to the progress and development of the African continent".
Article2(2) of this Treaty explains that the Community shall by stages ensure (emphasis mine):
"(a) the elimination as between the Member States of customs duties and other charges of equivalent effect in respect of the importation and exportation of goods;
(b) the abolition of quantitative and administrative restrictions on trade among the Member States;
(c) the establishment of a common customs tariff and a common commercial policy towards third countries;
(d) the abolition as between the Member States of the obstacles to the free movement of persons, services and capital;
(e) the harmonization of the agricultural policies and the promotion of common projects in the Member States, notably in the fields of marketing, research and afro-industrial enterprises;
(f) the implementation of schemes for the joint development of transport, communication, energy and the infra-structural facilities as well as the evolution of a common policy in these fields;
(g) the harmonization of the economic and industrial policies of the Member States and the elimination of disparities in the level of development of Member States;
(h) the harmonization, required for the proper functioning of the Community, of the monetary policies of the Member States;
(i) the establishment of a Fund for Co-operation, Compensation and Development; and
(j) such of the activities calculated to further the aims of the Community...."
To carry out these aims, the Treaty created the following institutions:
(a) the Authority of Heads of State and Government (AHSG), the principal governing institution of the Community whose decisions and directives hall be binding on all Community Institutions;
(b) the Council of Ministers (COM), consisting of two representatives of each Member State and subordinate only to the AHSG. It is the responsibility of the COM to keep under review the functioning and development of the Community and to make recommendations to the AHSG on matters of policy aimed at the efficient and harmonious functioning and development of the Community. 
(c) the Executive Secretariat which is headed by an Executive Secretary who is the principal executive officer of the Community. The Executive Secretary and other officers of the Secretariat, in the discharge of their duties, owe their loyalty entirely to the Community.
In addition to these community institutions, the 1975 Treaty established four technical and specialized Commissions in these fields: Trade customs, immigration, monetary and payments; Industry, agriculture and natural resources; Transport, telecommunications and energy and Social and cultural affairs.
Each Commission shall have a representative of a Member State and any number of advisors.
The Treaty also established the office of an External Auditor and a Tribunal of the Community. The latter was charged with the responsibility of settling disputes among member states regarding the interpretation or application of the Treaty that could not be settled amicably by direct agreement.
What the Treaty wrought in 1975 was a grouping of sixteen countries of uneven size, with Nigeria providing over 65 per cent of the population and trade. Ghana, Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire provided a further 20 percent while the remaining twelve countries provided 15 per cent among them. The political geography of ECOWAS also dictated that it was a grouping of coastal and landlocked countries, with the latter countries depending on the former partners for transport services and trade. Significantly, there are linguistic barriers inherited from the colonial era. Nine of the countries are Francophone, five are Anglophone and two are Lusophone. Added to this, was the deliberate pull of the metropolitan countries away from ECOWAS. For example, as the idea of ECOWAS was gaining ground, France encouraged the Francophone West African States to transform a moribund regional organization into the Communaute Economique de l'Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO) with similar objectives as ECOWAS.
Similarly, the negotiations to revise the ECOWAS Treaty in 1992-1993 coincided with the emergence of the Francophones' new union, the Union Economique et Monetaire de l'Ouest Afrique (UEMOA), which was externally guaranteed by France.
The 1975 Treaty had envisaged the establishment of a common market in fifteen years. Given the many logistical, infra-structural, financial and political obstacles and problems, this was not realistic. In the end, the much anticipated increase in intra-regional trade did not materialize and the many Protocols for the elimination of trade barriers were not honored. In short, most economic activity in the region was unaffected by the organization and its goals.
Expectedly, in 1993, the Treaty was revised to rationalize the aims and objectives of the Community and to improve upon the limitations of the past.
The Revised Treaty clarified the aims and objectives of the Community. In particular, it emphasized the establishment of an economic union through the adoption of common policies in the economic, financial, social and cultural sectors and the creation of a monetary union.
The Revised Treaty also identified the ECOWAS as ultimately the sole economic community in the region for the purpose of economic integration and the pillar for the realization of the African Economic Community.
In addition, the Treaty provided for certain fundamental principles, among them, the promotion and consolidation of a democratic system of governance in the Member States.
The Revised Treaty, established, additional community institutions, namely, the Community Parliament, the Economic and Social Council and the Arbitration Tribunal. The 1975 Treaty Community Tribunal was transformed into a full-fledged Community Court of Justice.
The Revised Treaty further defined the nature of community legislation. The AHSG was described to act by decisions while the COM has to act by regulations. Decisions of the AHSG are binding on the Member States and all community institutions. Regulations of the COM are binding on all subordinate community institutions and bind Member States only upon their approval by the AHSG.
Decisions and regulations shall be adopted depending on the subject matter under consideration by unanimity, consensus or two-thirds majority.
The Revised Treaty placed on the Executive Secretary the responsibility to publish all decisions of the AHSG as well as the regulations of the COM, 30days after the date of signature.  Such decisions and regulations automatically enter into force 60 days after the date of their publication in the Official Journal of the Community. The Treaty also requires each Member State to publish the decisions and regulations in their national Official Gazette within 30 days of their signature.
In addition to the decisions and regulations defined in the Treaty, other secondary legislation come in the form of resolutions, recommendations and declarations. Such legislation do not become binding until they are issued as decisions or regulations.
The Revised Treaty recognized the penchant of the Member States to enter into international agreements with both member States and non-member states. However, the Treaty requires member states to avoid obligations that are incompatible with their obligations under the ECOWAS Treaty and to adopt common positions when dealing with non-member states and other international or regional organizations.
Thirteen years after the Revised Treaty, the most significant results of ECOWAS have been those concerning organizational matters such as the rafting of protocols and conduct of studies.
The implementation of treaty obligations, however leave a lot to be desired. Genuine attempts at implementation are also undercut by other measures. On the issue of free movement of persons, at its 23rd session in May 2000, the AHSG adopted and launched the ECOWAS passport in consecration of the ECOWAS citizenship. The passport is to be introduced in the Member States and the national passports are to be phased out in five years. At last count only Benin and Senegal have introduced the ECOWAS passport. Also even though visas have been abolished for nationals of Member States, there are a large number of checkpoints which remain a constant source of harassment for ECOWAS travelers.
The pre-eminent objective of creating a common market has not fared any better. In pursuance of this objective, the Community adopted a trade liberalization scheme aimed at the elimination of custom duties and taxes of equivalent effect on imports of ECOWAS origin since 1981 and the abolition of non-tariff barriers to intra-ECOWAS trade by May 28, 1985. The ECOWAS Fund for Cooperation; Compensation and Development was established to make compensation for loss of customs revenue under the liberalization scheme. The most recent report of the Executive Secretary of ECOWAS states that:
"Regrettably the Executive Secretariat continues to receive complaints from Member States and economic operators about cases of refusal or failure to implement the scheme. Indeed it is a fact that Member States still maintain non-tariff barriers such as bans and the requirement of special permits, against products of ECOWAS origin."
ECOWAS has recorded limited success in the area of infrastructural development. The coastal highway and the Sahelian highway have attained a high realization rate. Studies have been initiated for a regional railway master plan. ECOWAS is cooperating with CEMAC under the Yamoussoukro Decision to increase air transport activities with the principal support of the World Bank and the European Union.
The 30th Ordinary Summit of the Heads of States and Government in January 2006 adopted decisions aimed at deepening and accelerating the integration process of ECOWAS. It promises to enhance the supranational powers of the organization and, in effect, introduce a new legal regime.
With these decisions, the ECOWAS Secretariat has been transformed into a nine-member Commission, comprising a President, a Vice-President and seven Commissioners. The Commission is to take off in January 2007.
The same summit also approved a new structure for the ECOWAS Parliament to allow the institution fully play its role in the integration process.
The Summit further approved the enhancement of the institutional capacity of the Community Court of Justice to ensure that ECOWAS possesses a strong and independent court.
On balance, ECOWAS remains of marginal interest to the western countries. Apart from Nigeria's oil exports to the U.S. and Niger's uranium to France and possibly France's continuous alliance with is former colonies, ECOWAS is only a source of strife, and of economic, demographic and environmental crises. Its relevance to the West may be in the form of its ECOMOG forces in the security issues in the Region and saving the Western nations from direct involvement in foreign conflicts.
On June 23, 1959, immediately before gaining independence from France, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo and Gabon, the four members of the erstwhile Federation de l'Afrique Equatorial Francaise signed a Convention creating an Equatorial African Customs Union, the Union Douaniere Equatoriale (UDE).
On December 8, 1964, the UDE and free standing Cameroon signed a treaty creating the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (UDEAC). It was not till 1983, that Equatorial Guinea became its sixth member.
In the late 1960s, the UDEAC was plagued by dissension. Central African Republic (CAR) and Chad, the less industrialized members among them threatened to withdraw. Under pressure from France, CAR returned fully to the fold. Chad was to return much later.
The UDEAC Treaty underwent its first major revision in 1975. The 1975 Treaty did not increase the authority or powers of the Secretariat as the member countries were still consumed with the notion of sovereign integrity.
Eventually, following the economic crises of 1980 to 1990, the six countries became convinced of the need for a more dynamic integration and signed a new Treaty on March 16, 1994 establishing the Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l'Afrique Centrale. (CEMAC)
The CEMAC Treaty states that its essential mission is to promote the harmonious development of the Member States within the framework of a true common market.
To achieve this, it sets out the following objectives under the rubric of two of its institutions, namely, the Union Economique de l'Afrique Centrale ( UEAC) and the Union Monetaire de l'Afrique Centrale (UMAC).
(i) To set up a multilateral device of monitoring the economic and financial policies of the Member States;
(ii) To ensure a stable management of the common currency;
(iii) To make safe the environment of the economic activities and the businesses in general;
(iv) To harmonize the regulation of the sectoral policies in the essential fields prescribed by the Treaty, namely, agriculture, fisheries, industry, trade, tourism, transport and telecommunications, energy and environment, research, teaching and vocational training;
(v) To create a common market based on freedom of movement of persons, goods, services and capital.
The Treaty identifies the four community institutions as follows:
(i) The Union Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UEAC);
(ii) The Union Monetaire de l'Afrique Centrale (UMAC);
(iii) The Parliament Communitaire (P.C.);
(iv) The Cour de Justice Communautaire (C.J.C.)
To carry out the objectives of CEMAC, the Treaty has also created the following principal organs:
(1) The Conference of Heads of States (COHS) which is described as the supreme body of the Community. The COHS determines the policy of CEMAC and directs the actions of the decision-making bodies of the two constituent unions, UEAC and UMAC, by means of supplementary acts.
(2) The Council of Ministers (COM) of the UEAC is charged with the responsibility of directing the UEAC. It is made up primarily of the Ministers in charge of Finance and Economic Affairs of the Member States. Each national delegation should have no more than three members and shall have but one vote. When the issues under discussion do not relate to economic or financial policy, the COM shall bring together, ad-hoc, the relevant Ministers whose deliberations will be final only after adoption by the COM.
(3) The Ministerial Committee (MC) of the UMAC is charged with the responsibility of directing the UMAC. It is composed of two Ministers per Member State with the Minister of Finance as head of the delegation. Unlike the COM whose Presidency is determined and identical to the nationality of the member state presiding over the COHS, the Presidency of the MC is rotated annually among the member states in alphabetical order.  The role of the MC is to examine the economic trends within the member states and to ensure coherence with the common monetary policy.
(4) The Executive Secretariat or Secretariat Executive (SE) is headed by an Executive Secretary who is the principal executive officer of the UEAC.
(5) Inter-State Committee or Comite Inter-Etats (CIE);
(6) The Banque des Etats de l'Afrique Centrale (BEAC);
(7) The Commission Bancaire de l'Afrique Centrale (COBAC) and
(8) The Institution de Financement du Developpement (IFD).
The COHS acts by means of Supplementary Acts to the Treaty. These are supposed to supplement the Treaty without modifying same. These Supplementary Acts are binding on the community institutions and organs as well as on the member states.
The COM and the MC act by means of regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations or opinions.
The regulations and the basic regulations are of general application. The regulations are binding in all respects and directly on all member states. The basic regulations are binding directly only as to certain respects.
The directives are binding orders addressed to Member States requiring them to accomplish a stated purpose while leaving them free to select the form, in which, and the means by which that purpose is to be achieved.
The decisions are binding only upon the States or persons to whom they are addressed.
The recommendations and opinions have no binding effect.
The regulations, the basic regulations, the directives and the decisions of the COM, the MC, the S.E. and the Governor of the BEAC have to be warranted by law.
The supplementary acts, the regulations and basic regulations have to be published in the Official Bulletin of the Community. They come into effect on the date stipulated in the measure or in default, the twentieth day following their publication.
The directives and decisions take effect on the date following the day of notification to their addressees.
Although CEMAC was established in 1994, it was not until June 1999 that it became fully operational and replaced UDEAC. Little wonder that the member states have not achieved much of their objectives under the CEMAC Treaty.
Trade within the region amounts to 2% of total imports and 1% of total exports.  Ironically trade between CEMAC and Nigeria is higher than trade among CEMAC countries. Bilateral trade between the European Union and CEMAC is about 7 billion Euros per year. The common market is still far away and the economic integration is even further off. Pascal Lamy, the European Union's Commissioner for International trade, cautions that "CEMAC must start by developing a common market so as to ensure durable regional integration".
Both ECOWAS and CEMAC have strikingly similar objectives, an ever closer union within each sub-region. Ultimately, regional integration is the modality that Africa has to refine to meet the challenges of the inevitable onslaught of globalization. Hopefully the many parallel and competing groupings will give way to one larger political and economic union as envisaged under the Africa Union and the Africa Economic Community Treaties.
(i) Print Sources
· A Compendium of Protocols, Conventions and Decisions Relating to the Free Movement of Persons and Goods. Lagos, ECOWAS, 1998.
· A Compendium of Protocols, Conventions and Decisions Relating to the Free Movement of Persons and Goods. Lagos, ECOWAS, 1992.
(ii) Electronic Services
· Lexis's International Legal Materials contains some of these treaties and protocols.
· Westlaw's International Legal Materials contains some of these treaties and protocols.
(i) Print sources
· Bulletin Officiel de la CEMAC. Bangui, 1994-
· Journal Officiel de L'UDEAC, Douala, 1992 -
· Protocole de Cooperation Maritime en UDEAC/CEMAC. Bangui, 1994 -
· Textes organiques de la CEMAC, Bangui -
(ii) Electronic Sources
(i) Print Sources
· Boletin Oficial -Guinee-Bissau, Imprensa Nacional, 1974- (also appears in French as Bulletin Officiel/ Republique de Guinee-Bissau)
· Gambia Government Gazette. Banjul. Gov't Printer, 1965-
· Ghana Gazette, Accra, Gov't Printing Office, 1957-
· Journal Officiel de la Republique Populaire du Benin. Port Novo, 1975-
· Journal Officiel du Burkina Faso, Ouagadougou, 1984-
· Journal Officiel de la Republique de Cote d'Ivoire. Abidjan, Service des Journaux Officiels, 1958-
· Journal Officiel de la Republique du Guinee. Conakry, Imp. Natinale "Patrice Lumumba", 1984-
· Journal Officiel de la Republique du Niger. Niamey, Imp. Nationale du Niger, 1959-
· Journal Officiel de la Republique Togolaise. Lome, Cabinet du President, 1956-
· Journal Officiel de la Republique du Senegal, Dakar, Impr. Officielle, 1960-
· Official Gazette, Federal Republic of Nigeria. Lagos, 1963-
· Official Journal of the Economic Community of West African States. (ECOWAS). Lagos, ECOWAS, 1979-
· Sierra Leone Gazette. Freetown, Gov't Printer, 1961-
(i). Print Sources
· Bulletin Officiel de la CEMAC. Bangui, CEMAC, 1994 -
· Journal Officiel de la Republique Unies du Cameroun/Official bulletin of the Federal Republic of Cameroon. Yaounde, 1972 -
· Journal Officiel de la Republique Centrafricaine. Bangui, 1979 -
· Journal Officiel de la Republique du Tchad. N'Djamena, 1959 -
· Journal Officiel de la Republique Populaire du Congo. Brazzaville, 1958 -
· Journal Officiel de la Republique Gabonaise. Libreville, Service du Journal Officiel, 1959-
(ii). Electronic Sources
· Constitutive Act of the African Union. Done at Lome, Togo on July 11, 2000. UNTS Registration Number 37733.
· O.A.U. Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community. Done at Abuja, Nigeria on June 3, 1991. 30 ILM 1241 (1991).
· Treaty of the Economic Community of West African States. Done at Lagos, Nigeria, on May 28, 1975. 14 ILM 1200 (1975); UNTS Registration Number 14843
· ECOWAS Revised Treaty . Done at Cotonou, Benin on July 24, 1993. 35 ILM 660 (1996)
· Treaty Establishing A Central African economic and Customs Union/ Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale ( UDEAC). Done at Brazzaville, Federal Republic of Congo on December 8, 1964. 4 ILM 699 ( 1965).
· Treaty Establishing the Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States/ Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l'Afrique Centrale (CEMAC) . Done at N'Djamena, Chad on March 16, 1994.
· Ajomo, M. Ayo & Omobolaji. Adewale. African Economic Community Treaty : Issues, Problems, and Prospects. Lagos : Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, 1993
· Akinrinade, Olusola & Kurt J. Barling. Economic Development in Africa International Efforts, Issues, and Prospects London : Pinter, 1987 Microform
· Bakut tswah Bakut & Dutt, Sagarika. Africa at the Millennium : An Agenda for Mature Development Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York : Palgrave, 2000
Myra Leann. Decision- Making in Developing Countries Regarding Participation in
Regional Economic Organizations; Comparison of an Andean Pact, Ecowas and Asean
Thesis/dissertation/manuscript : Microform Archival Material
· Gondwe, Carlton H. M..Dependency, Economic Integration and Development in Developing Areas: the Cases of EAC, ECOWAS and SADCC. Ottawa : National Library of Canada, 1988
· Gruhn, Isebill V. Regional Integration in Africa : Lessons of History. Santa Cruz, Calif. : Dept. of Politics, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1980
James A..Regional Cooperation Among Less Industrialized Countries : a Political
Economy Perspective of ASEAN, ECOWAS, and the CACM
Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material Archival Material, 1998.
· International and Regional Organizations Into the 21st century. Washington, : Washington and Jefferson College, 1998
· Liberalisation and Regional Integration in Africa : Proceedings of an International Conference in Arusha, Tanzania. May 25-28, 1992. Nairobi, Kenya : Friedrich Naumann-Stiftung, 1993.
· Keller, Edmond J. & Donald S. Rothchild. Africa in the New International Order : Rethinking State Sovereignty and Regional Security Boulder, Colo. : Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1996
· Mazzeo, Domenico. African Regional Organizations Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1984
· Oduro, A. D. Africa in the Multilateral Trading System : Opportunities and Challenges . Accra-North, Ghana : Centre for Policy Analysis, 2001
· Osanakpo, Theo Chike The EEC and ECOWAS : Some Comparative Legal Perspectives. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material 1984.
· An Overview of the Economy of the West African Economic Community, 1981
· Proposals for the Rationalisation of West African Integration Efforts. Lagos : ECOWAS, 1987
· Renninger, John P. ECOWAS and Other West African Regional Organizations. Washington, D.C.: Dept. Of State, 1980.
· Review of the Economic Integration Experience of ALADI, ASEAN, CACM and ECOWAS: Report. Geneva : United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 1991
· Abimbola, S. O. ECOWAS : What? Why? How? Where? and When? Lagos: ECOWAS, 1989
· Adibe, Clement E. ECOWAS and the Democratic Imperative Kingston: Centre for International Relations, Queen's University, 1994
· Adibe, Clement Emenike Some Empirical Limitations to the Growth of Integration in West Africa a Case Study of the Economic Community of West African States ECOWAS. Ottawa : National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque Nationale du Canada, 1991 Microform
· Adkisson, Stephen C. Integration in West Africa: an Empirical Examination of ECOWAS Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material , 1984.
· Akinyemi, Nurudeen B., Political Obstacles to Regional Economic Integration in West Africa : a Case Study of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material , 1986.
· Asante, S. K. B., The Political Economy of Regionalism in Africa: a Decade of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) New York : Praeger, 1986
· Baah-Dwomoh, Joseph. ECOWAS : Impetus, Potentialities and Impediments. 1977
· Bah, Alhaji Mohamed Sirjoh. Policy Issues and Regional Integration: A Case Study of Nigeria's Policy in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - - 1979-1997. South Africa : 1999.
· Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): an Overview of the Countries of the West African Economic Community. Lagos: ECOWAS, 1980-1989
· ECOWAS: Achievements, Challenges and Future Prospects. Lagos : ECOWAS Executive Secretariat, 1990
· ECOWAS : Papers Presented at the Conference on the Economic Community of West African States--ECOWAS. Washington, D.C., June 9-14, 1980.
· The ECOWAS Review: Economic Community of West African States. Lagos : ECOWAS Executive Secretariat, 1900-1997.
· Egbikuadje, John Nakpodia Igho, ECOWAS, a Regional Approach to Development and Self reliance. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material Archival, 1990.
· Ezenwe, Uka. ECOWAS and the Economic Integration of West Africa.. New York, St Martin's Press, 1983
· Gambari, Ibrahim A. Political and Comparative Dimensions of Regional Integration :the Case of ECOWAS Atlantic Highlands : Humanities Press International, 1991
· Harrell-Bond, Barbara E., ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West African States Hanover: American Universities Field Staff, 1979
· International Conference on the Economic Community of West African States, Lagos, 1976. Lagos : Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 1976
· Joof, Mam Biram. Intra-African Cooperation, the Case of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Berlin : Deutsche Stiftung für Internationale Entwicklung, 1981
· Kwarteng, Charles Owusu. Challenges of Regional Economic Cooperation Among the ECOWAS States of West Africa. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1989.
· Mac-Thompson, Donald Regional Functional Integration in West Africa : ECOWAS and Economic Development. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International, 1988
· Markham, Theodore Kofi. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) : A Theoretical Appraisal of Gains, Problems, and Prospects. 1976
· Mensah, Doté R. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Lomé, ECOWAS Fonds de Coopération, de Compensation et de Développement, 1984
· Munu, Alhaji M. The Future of ECOWAS Lagos: The Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 1989
· Okafor, Chinyelugo Johnson. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): Its Role in the Fostering of Economic Cooperation and Integration of the West African Sub-region . Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1979.
· Okoh, Wilfred Ijeamaka Kelechukwu. Surge and Decline in Nigeria's Regional Economic Activities: Ecowas, 1979 Reconsidered 1975-1992. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material l, 1992.
· Oloruntimehin, B. Olatunji. Rebuilding ECOWAS on Democratic Principles Ibadan: Development Policy Centre, 2000
· Onwuka, Ralph I. Development and Integration in West Africa : the Case of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) .Ile-Ife : University of Ife Press, 1982
· An Overview of the Economy of the Countries of the West African Economic Community: Economic Community of West Africa States (ECOWAS). Lagos: ECOWAS, 1990-1991.
· An Overview of the Economy of the Countries of the West African Economic Community: ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States). Dakar: Centre International du Commerce Exterieur du Senegal (CICES), 1988
· Papers Delivered During ECOWAS Week: Accra, Ghana, 21st-25th July, 1975. Accra: Public Relations Division, Ministry of Economic Planning, 1975.
· Papers on ECOWAS: Prepared Under the Auspices of the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs. Lagos: The Institute, 1976-1979
· Progress Report on the Implementation of the ECOWAS Economic Recovery Programme. Lagos: ECOWAS Executive Secretariat, 1989
· Readings and Documents on ECOWAS: Selected Papers and Discussions From the 1976 Economic Community of West African States Conference. Lagos: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 1983.
· Renninger, John P. ECOWAS and Other West African Regional Organizations. Washington, D.C.: Dept. of State, 1980
· Senghor, Jeggan Colley. Ecowas: Perspectives on Treaty Revision and Reform. Dakar : United Nations, African Institute for Economic Development and Planning, 1993.
· Stacy, Marilyn and Karen McIlvaine, ECOWAS, Select Readings, 1975-1981. Washington: African Development Information Association U.S.A., 1982
· Ten Years of ECOWAS. Lagos: ECOWAS, 1985.
Robert A. The Origins, Evolution and Performance of the Economic Community of
West African States (ECOWAS) : Since 1975
Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1988.
· Ubogu, Roland E.& George M. Adamu. Development Planning Priorities and Strategies in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Ibadan : Heinemann Educationals, 1983.
Udoh Elijah. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS): the Quest for
Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1980.
· Wayo, Ishobee. Regional Integration in West Africa: the Attitude of ECOWAS Leaders. Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1982.
· West Africa Finds a New Future: Speeches by Heads of States During the ECOWAS Summit Meeting in Lagos, 27-28 May 1975. Lagos Economic Community of West African States,1975.
Douglas Kudzo-Kota. Integration Theories and Economic Development: a Case Study
of Political and Social Dynamics of ECOWAS.
Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material , 1994
· Zormelo, Justice & Jackson, Jeffrey. ECOWAS: Performance, Promise and Problems . Washington, D.C. : Africa Business and Economic Review, 1980
· Central African Monetary and Economic Community (CEMAC) Business Law Handbook. Washington, DC : International Business s, 2003
· Darlan, Guy. Regional Integration: the African Solution to Development; a Case Study of the Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC). Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material, 1973
· Ettangondop, Mbu. Regional Integration in Africa : a Case Study of the Central African Customs and Economic Union (UDEAC) / Thesis/dissertation/manuscript Archival Material , 1985
· Kitchen, Richard L. Problems of Regional Integration in Africa : The Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC) . Bradford : Development and Project Planning Centre, University of Bradford, 1990
· Zafar, Ali & Keiko Kubota, Regional Integration in Central Africa : Key Issues . Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2003
 African Regional Organizations. Domenico Mazzeo, ed. , 1984 at p1 et. seq.
 Bourenane, Naceur. " Regional Integration in Africa: Situation and Prospects" in Regional Integration in Africa . OECD/ADB Seminar. (2002) at 17 et seq.
 Riley, Stephen "West African Sub-regionalism: the Case of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in Glenn Hook and Ian Kearns, eds. Sub-regionalism and World Order. (1999) at p. 68.
 Bourenane, Naceur, op.cit. at p. 27.
 The Treaty Establishing the Economic Community of West African States. Done at Lagos, Nigeria on May 28, 1975 . 14 ILM 1200. Hereinafter, "1975 ECOWAS Treaty")
 Ibid Article 62(1).
 Ibid Article 2(1)
 Ibid Article 2(1)
 Ibid Article 5
 Ibid. Article 6
 Ibid Article 8.
 Ibid Article 9.
 Ibid Article 9(3).
 Ibid. Article 10.
 Ibid. Article 11.
 Ibid Article 56.
 Knowles, Oliver S. "ECOWAS: Problems and Potential " in J.E Okolo and Stephen Klright, eds. West African Regional Cooperation and Development, (1990) 147 at p.148.
 Riley, Stephen, op.cit at p. 69
 1975 ECOWAS Treaty, Article 12.
 Riley, Stephen, op.cit. at p.71.
 Ibid. at p.70.
 Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Revised Treaty. Done at Cotonou, Benin on July 24, 1993. Article 3(2)(c). (Hereinafter "ECOWAS Revised Treaty").
 Ibid. Article 2 (1).
 Ibid. Article 4.  Ibid. Article 13.
 Ibid. Article 14.
 Ibid. Article 16.
 Ibid. Article 13.
 Ibid. Article 14.
 Ibid. Article 16.
 Ibid. Article 15.
 Ibid. Article 9(4).
 Ibid Article 12(3).
 Ibid Articles 9(2) and 12(2).
 Ibid Articles 9(5) and 12(4).
 Ibid. Article 9(6) and 12(4).
 Ibid Articles 9(7) and 12(4).
 Ibid Articles 10(a), 10(c), 10(d) and 10(h).
 Ibid. Articles 9(4) and 12(3).
 Ibid. Article 84.
 Bourenane, Naceur, op.cit. At p. 24.
 Annual Report of the Executive Secretary of ECOWAS, 2002. (ECW/CM/XLIX/2).Abuja, ECOWAS Secretariat, 2002. at p. 45 et. seq.(Hereinafter, "2002 ECOWAS Report")
 Ibid at p. 41.
 Ibid.cf. On July 6, 2006, Ghana's Foreign Minister announced in the Ghana Parliament that the country will introduce the ECOWAS passport to be used concurrently with the existing national passports. Ghana News Agency. July 6, 2006.
 Bourenane, Naceur at p.24.
 2002 ECOWAS Report at p. 45.
 Ibid at p.46.
 Ibid at p. 53 et. seq.
 Ibid at p. 54.
 "Regional Leaders Finalize Transformation of ECOWAS Secretariat into Commission" Press Release, ECOWAS Secretariat, Abuja, Nigeria, June 14, 2006.
 Riley, Stephen , op. cit. at p. 81.
 Ibid. at p.82.
 Zafar, Ali and Keiko Kubota. Regional Integration in Central Africa: Key Issues. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2003 at p.1.
 Mytelka, Lynn Krieger, " Competition, Conflict and Decline in Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC) in African Regional Organizations. Domenico Mazzeo, ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1984 , at p.132.
 Treaty Establishing A Central African Economic and Customs Union/ Union Douaniere et Economique de l'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC). Done at Brazzaville, Congo on December 8, 1964.
4 ILM 699 (1965). ( Hereinafter, "1964 UDEAC Treaty").
 "Equatorial Guinea" in Europa World Yearbook. 46th ed.. London and New York, Routledge, 2005 at p.1602.
 Mytella, Lynn Krieger, op. cit. at 136.
 Ibid. at p.138.
 The Treaty Establishing the Economic and Monetary Community of Central African States/Communaute Economique et Monetaire de l'Afrique Centrale (CEMAC). Done at N'Djamena, Chad on March 16, 1994. ( Hereinafter, "1994 CEMAC Treaty").
 Ibid Article 1.
 The Convention Governing the Economic Union of Central African States/Union Economique de l'Afrique Centrale ( UEAC). Done at Libreville, Gabon on July 5, 1996. Article 4 and the Convention Governing the Monetary Union of Central African States/ Union Monetaire de l'Afrique Centrale (UMAC). Done at Libreville, Gabon on July 5, 1996. Article 4.
 1994 CEMAC Treaty Article 2.
 Additional Procol to the Treaty of CEMAC Relative to the Institutional and Juridical System of the Community . Done at Libreville, Gabon on July 5, 1996. Article 3.
 Ibid. Articles 8 and 9.
 Ibid. Article 10.
 Ibid Articles 12 and 13.
 Ibid Article 13.
 Ibid. Article 12.
 Ibid. Article 16.
 Ibid. Article 16.
 Ibid. Article 20.
 Ibid. Article 21.
 Ibid Article 20.
 Ibid. Article 21.
 Ibid. Article 22.
 Ibid. Article 23.
 UDEAC decision No. 6/98-UDEAC-CE-33 of February 5, 1998.
 Central Africa : Riches Side by Side With Poverty. African News Bulletin- Bulletin d'Information Africaine (ANB-BIA) Supplement Issue/Edition No. 468 of December 15, 2003.
 Constitutive Act of the African Union. Done at Lome, Togo on July 11, 2000. UNTS Registration Number 37733.
 O.A.U. Treaty Establishing the African Economic Community. Done at Abuja, Nigeria on June 3, 1991. 30 ILM