UPDATE: A Research Guide and a Bibliography for Korean Law Resources in English
By Jootaek (Juice) Lee
Jootaek (“Juice”) Lee is a librarian and assistant professor at the Rutgers Law School (Newark). Professor Lee is also an adjunct professor and an affiliated faculty for the Program on Human Rights and the Global Economy (PHRGE) at the Northeastern University School of Law, where he has served as Senior Law Librarian (Research Librarian for Foreign, Comparative & International Law) for seven and half years. He, a prolific scholar and author, has been published in numerous articles relating to legal information, legal pedagogy, human rights, and foreign law legal sources in various journals, including Georgetown Environmental Law Review, Law Library Journal, International Journal of Legal Information, Legal Reference Services Quarterly, Globalex, etc.
Published January 2016
(Previously updated in Nov./Dec. 2012)
Table of Contents
2. Legal System
4. Types of Law
This research guide with a bibliography attempts to help American legal scholars, law students, legal practitioners, and law librarians to conduct research on the law of the Republic of Korea ("South Korea") in English. The guide focuses on bibliographies, indexes, research guides, online databases, and books written or translated in English. In order to help Korean law researchers determine how useful or important a research resource/tool is for its specific research purpose, the guide also provides a brief annotation for indexes and bibliographies, research guides, and databases. In the last chapter, the guide includes a bibliography related to Korean law under the title, “Treatises,” where I selectively compiled about 240 books and doctoral dissertations about Korean law in English (1945-2008) that researchers can get in the United States either through their own library or through interlibrary loan request.
Since the U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into force on March 15, 2012, interest in South Korean, (hereinafter "Korean") laws in the United States has been increasing. The Office of the U.S. Trade Representative sees the agreement providing U.S. exporters with more opportunities to sell their products and services in the Korean territory using their logistics, which will end up demanding more Korean law research in the United States. As of October 2015, among the 20 FTA countries US made free trade agreements with, Korea and Singapore are the only Asian countries: . Additionally, citizens from both countries freely travel to the other country for business and traveling purposes; from November 17, 2008, South Korea joined the U.S. Visa Waiver program; as a result, U.S. citizens, on reciprocity, can visit South Korea without a visa for duration of up to 90 days for business and tourism.
The Republic of Korea (South) not only has the civil law system heavily influenced by the German legal system, but also follows customary law and sound reasoning. Furthermore, American legal principles (the common law) have also affected Korean law since the liberation from Japan by the American forces in 1945.
Korea did not succeed any treaties concluded before August 15, 1948, when the government of the Republic of Korea was newly established. After its new establishment, Korea concluded 3,071 treaties—2,420 multilateral treaties and 651 bilateral treaties—by 2015. The number of treaties increased recently—especially treaties dealing with free trade, prevention of double-taxation, social security, investment protection, extradition, and judicial assistance. Under Article 73 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea (대한민국헌법; hereinafter "Constitution"), the President has the authority to adopt and ratify treaties. Similar to the democratic treaty-making practice of most states, however, this power of the President to ratify is checked by the National Assembly for a democratic purpose. While treaties must be consented to by the National Assembly, under Article 60(1) of the Constitution, the National Assembly's authority to consent to the adoption and ratification is limited to important treaties. Those include treaties relating to mutual assistance or mutual security, international organizations, friendship, trade and navigation, any restriction in sovereignty, legislative matters, peace treaties, and treaties that give important financial burdens to citizens or Korea. According to Article 6(1) of the Constitution, treaties are treated as domestic laws of Korea. Unlike the United States which distinguish treaties from executive agreements in terms of the weight of authority, under the Korean Constitution, the Korean treaties which are subject to the consent to the ratification by the National Assembly are treated same as the treaties which must go through the consent procedure by the National Assembly. This is because Article 6(1) of the Constitution does not break down treaties by its designation and treaty-making process and consider all treaties equally as domestic law.
Topically, Korean law can be broadly organized into public law, private and social law. Primary sources of law in Korea are Constitution & Statutes, Treaties, Emergency Executive Orders, Emergency Financial and Economic Executive Orders, Presidential decrees, Rules of the National Assembly, Rules of the Supreme Court, Rules of the Constitutional Court, Rules of the National Election Commission, Ordinances of the Prime Minister and Ministries, enforcement decrees, administrative rules, municipal ordinances and rules. The Korea Legislation Research Institute (KLRI) at its Statutes of the Republic of Korea website provides excellent summaries and graphics of Korean legislative system, categories of acts & subordinate statutes, hierarchy of authorities. Cases are secondary sources in Korea.
- Bibliography of Asian Studies / Association of Asian Studies (Ann Arbor, Mich.)
A printed form is available from 1941 to 1991 period, and starting from 1991, the Bibliography of Asian Studies Online was launched with digitalized books, journal articles, conference proceedings, etc. from 1971. The online bibliography allows users to search and browse by journal title and country. This bibliography separately compiled materials from Korea, and divided them into different subjects such as Anthropology & Sociology, Arts, Biography, Communication & Media, Economics, Education, General & Miscellaneous, Geography, History, Language, Library & Information Sciences, Literature, Philosophy & Religion, Politics & Government, Psychology & Psychiatry, and Science & Technology. It classified legal materials under Politics and Governments and provides bibliographical information on more than 450 materials.
- Introduction to Korean Legal Materials / Yong-Hui Kim (Seoul, Korea; originally published in Journal of Korean Law, v. 2, no. 1, 2002, pp. 125-66), also available here
This research guide and bibliography on Korean legal materials provides comprehensive legal materials and annotations for researching Korean law. This guide introduces Romanization of Korean, Korean citation rules, dictionaries, Korean legal system, and four major Korean collections in the Untied States. Furthermore, it provides various legal titles for Korean codes and cases in addition to Korean indexes and databases. This guide has not been updated since 2002; hence, many online hyperlinks and books provided are outdated.
“The Korean Section of the Library of Congress has prepared a bibliography of approximately 4,800 records of books about Korea in English up to 1995 held by the Library of Congress.” This resource is comprehensive and user-friendly, and users can search by keywords, author, title, and subject. This bibliography provides bibliographical information on more than 110 legal materials in English.
Bibliographies before 1990:
· Kim, Chong-won & Carolyn Campbell Kim. 1970. Bibliography of materials on Korean law in the Harvard University libraries.
· Baik, ChungSook. 1980. Korean law: An annotated bibliography of English-language monographs. Washington, D.C.: Law Library, Library of Congress.
· T Susanne Lee. 1983. “Korean law: A selective bibliographical guide” in Korean Journal of International and Comparative Law (Former Korean Journal of Comparative Law), vol. 11, p.163-189. / Korea Journal of International and Comparative Law.
- Index to Legal Periodicals: Legal Periodicals & Books & Legal Periodicals Retro / The H.W. Wilson Company
Index to Legal Periodicals Retrospective “indexes nearly 1000 legal periodicals published in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand” and covers from 1908 to 1981. Using Index to Legal periodicals & Books, users also can search more than 1,000 legal journals, law reviews, yearbooks, institutes, statutes, bar association publication, university publications, and government publications. In both databases, there are more than 120 articles on Korean law and legal issues in Korea from 1948. If a user wants to get a full text article, he ought to subscribe to Index to Legal Periodicals Full text.
- Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals /American Association of Law Libraries
“Produced at the Berkeley Law Library, University of California Berkeley for the American Association of Law Libraries, the Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals (IFLP) is the preeminent multilingual index to articles and book reviews appearing in over 500 legal journals published worldwide.” Its online version is now included in Hein Online and in addition to a search function, allows to browse by subjects, country, publication title, and year of publication. Coverage starts from1960. This database allows users to find reference on more than 800 articles on Korean law, legal system, and legal issues in Korea. Journals, which contain Korean law articles, include Journal of Korean Law, Seoul Law Journal, Korea University Law Review, Korean Journal of Comparative Law, etc.
- Legal Trac /Gale
This database allows users to search more than 1000 titles including law reviews, law journals, specialty law and bar association journals, and newspapers. Coverage starts from 1980. The database also allows users to browse contents by topic, and Korean articles from academic journals, magazines, and news is indexed under “South Korea.” There are references and sometimes, full text links to about 100 articles on Korean law and legal issues in Korea. Most periodicals, which contain Korean law, are published in the United States.
- Index Master
This database allows users to search index and table of contents of secondary legal titles. They “compiled thousands of titles from large and small legal publishers … and provided the actual index and tables of content” in the PDF file format. Index and table of contents of more than thousand books in this database contain the Korean-related contents.
7. Research Guides & Portals
- Foreign Law Guide: Current Sources of Codes and Basic Legislation in Jurisdictions of the World / Thomas H. Reynolds & Arturo A. Flores. Littleton, Colo.: F.B. Rothman, 1989-1998 (currently published only online).
This subscription database introduces brief history, backgrounds of Korean law, and provides useful research tips in Korean law research. This guide also provides a comprehensive list of names of session laws and authoritative resources for150 subjects and a useful tool to foreign legal practitioners.
- Guide to International Legal Research / Geo. Wash. Int’l L. Rev. Newark, NJ: Matthew Bender, 1990-.
Chapter four of this book provides a comprehensive bibliographical list of Korean legal resources with Chinese and Japanese legal resources. The chapter is divided into four government resources, legal resources, media resources, and resources by topic. Government resources include constitutions, international treaties, general legislation, and administrative law; legal resources include court system, reporters, treatises, and law journals; media resources include newspapers, non-legal journals; specialized legal resources by topic include civil law and civil procedure, civil rights, criminal law, environmental law, family law, human rights, intellectual property, labor law, maritime law, military law, property, rule of law, commercial code, banking, foreign investment, import/export, business, and competition law.
This guide provides online hyperlinks to various websites including Korean governments and official government publishers. It is organized into Constitution, executive, judicial, legislative, legal guides, and general sources.
- Introduction to Korean Legal Materials / Yong-Hui Kim (Seoul, Korea; originally published in Journal of Korean Law, v. 2, no. 1, 2002, pp. 125-66), also available here.
This research guide on Korean legal materials provides comprehensive legal materials and annotations for researching Korean law. This guide introduces Romanization of Korean, Korean citation rules, dictionaries, Korean legal system, and four major Korean collections in the United States. Furthermore, it provides various legal titles for Korean codes and cases in addition to Korean indexes and databases. This guide has not been updated since 2002; hence, many online hyperlinks and books provided are outdated.
- Korean Legal Research at the University of Washington / William B. McCloy, updated by Rob Britt, Feb. 1, 2010, available here
This guide provides up-to-date and comprehensive information on Korean law sources in both English and Korean. It covers Romanization of Korean, citation style, dictionaries, other research guides on Korean law, finding tools for books, journal articles, newspapers, and edited volumes. It also provides collections and tools for searching codes and cases in both English and Korean, and introduces various official websites of Korean governments.
This wiki style website was developed in 2011 by a law professor in Kyung Hee University. Initiated at the GLIN Directors’ Meeting in Seoul, Korean LII committed to the free access to law movement, seeking collective intelligence. This provides topical wiki summaries and articles in English about Korean laws such as public law (constitutional law, administrative law, criminal law, procedural law, etc.), private law (property law, security, contract law, torts, family law, corporate law, corporate finance, payment, insurance, transportation, etc.), specific law (privacy law, information law, technology law, fair trade law, banking, finance, labor law, insolvency), and international law.
- “Republic of Korea Law Digest” in Martindale-Hubbell International Law Digest / Kim & Chang, New Providence, NJ: LexisNexis, 2006.
Martindale-Hubbell International Law Digest provides “summaries of statutory law compiled and revised by distinguished lawyers and legal scholars of the respective countries for 80 countries, arranged by main subject categories, then topics and subheadings.” The latest version is 2006, and summaries that are more recent are available in Lexis. The “Republic of Korea Law Digest” in print covers legislation by 2005, and was written by attorneys in one of the biggest law firms in Korea. The digest provides practical tips for legal practitioners, and contains 23 different topics. Topics are arranged alphabetically, and main topics are business regulation and commerce, civil actions and procedures, alternative dispute resolution, employment, environment, estates and trusts, family, foreign trade and commerce, immigration, intellectual property, taxation, and treaties. Each topic is further divided into several subtopics, which have summaries of relevant law and citations to sources.
- South Korean Law Research on the Internet / Hyeon-Cheol Kim & Inyoung Cho, Jan. 2008, updated Feb. 2010
This research guide was prepared by two Korean judges and provides up-to-date information on internet legal resources, which contained Korean legal sources. With the introduction to the Korean legal system and a brief history of Korean law, the guide introduces various useful websites, where legal researchers can get full texts for Korean statutes, rules, regulations, treaties, cases, journals, news, etc. Most of the websites introduced, however, are in Korean.
8. Databases (Free Internet and Subscription)
Recently, many Korean government and court websites provide Korean laws free of charge while most of them disclaim the accuracy of English translation. For example, the Korea Legislation Research Institute (KLRI) affiliated with the National Assembly of Korea, is providing an English database, Statutes of the Republic of Korea. The Ministry of Government Legislation website also provides Korean Laws in English, which contains the list of 912 current Korean acts in English and allows search by keywords and title. Its separate database, called “국가법령정보센터” (National Legal Information Center) provides more than 8,100 Korean law in English. The National Assembly website itself provides under the "Laws & Bills" heading, English translations of Constitution of the Republic of Korea, National Assembly act, foreigner-related laws, and recently passed bills. The Constitutional Court of Korea also provides English translation of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea and Constitutional Court Act as well as their cases. Selected Supreme Court cases in English are available at the website of the Supreme Court.
The following databases are databases developed and maintained outside of South Korea.
- Asian Legal Information Institute (AsianLII)
“The Asian Legal Information Institute is a non-profit and free access website for legal information from all 27 countries and territories in Asia…” The Australasian Legal Information Institute (AustLII) is developing this database in cooperation with partner institutions in Asian countries, and the Korean Legislation Research Institute is helping AustLII include Korean legislation. This database allows users to search Laws of the Republic of Korea (1948-2010), Constitutions of Asian Countries (1987), Cases from the Korean Constitutional Court (1998-2011) and Supreme Court (2000-11), and legal materials provided by the Korea Legislation Research Institute and the Global Legal Information Network (GLIN) of the United States Law Library of Congress.
- Constitutions of the Countries of the World
This database by Oxford contains texts of Constitution as amended to 1987 and the Constitution Court Act as amended to 2007. It also contains an in-depth article on Korean Constitution, and selected bibliographies on Korean Constitutions.
The Global Legal Information Network (GLIN) is no longer available from the Law Library of Congress as of October, 2015. It used to allow users to search for official laws, judicial decisions, legislative records, and legal literature of 35 countries as of November 2008. Access to this database was free of charge. Korea is one of the contributing members. While more than 3,000 Korean legal sources were available in full texts in this database, most of them were published in Korean. English summaries and subject terms for each material were still provided.
The World Constitutions Illustrated library contains the original text and revisions of Constitutions of the Republic of Korea. Journals includes are Journal of Korean Law (2001-2009), Korean Journal of International and Comparative Law (1973-2006), Asian Yearbook of International Law (1991-2002), Columbia Journal of Asian Law (1987-2009), Asian American Law Journal (1994-2008), Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal (2000-2009), and Asian Journal of WTO & International Health Law & Policy (2006-2008)
Lexis contains the Martindale-Hubbell Law Digest – Asian Law Digests database that contains the Republic of Korea Law Digest. A table of contents link provided next to the search box also allows users to browse by country and by topic. The “Republic of Korea Law Digest” provides 23 different topics. Each topic is further divided into several subtopics that have summaries of relevant law and citations to sources. The latest version incorporates legislation through Dec. 31, 2008. Lexis also provides Tax Analysts Worldwide Tax Treaties Combined Files, Collier International Business Insolvency Guide, Foreign Tax and Trade Briefs, International Agency & Distribution Agreements, International Computer Law, International Copyright Law and Practice, Intellectual Property Protection in Asia, and the Law of Advertising databases.
This database included the former Tax Laws of the World (1964-2006) and Commercial Laws of the World (1976-2005) under RIA Worldwide Tax & Commercial Law. Korean statutes on tax laws and commercial laws had been separately compiled under Korea until 2005, and after 2006, the laws are only available in the RIA Checkpoint database. The database allows ‘keywords’ search either in tax law or commercial law database after selecting Korea. The commercial law database contains Customs Act, the Commercial Code, Foreign Exchange Transactions Act, Foreign Trade Act, Financial Holding Companies Act, Commercial Act, Bank of Korea Act, Foreign Investment Promotion Act, Bills Law, and Checks Law.
WestlawNext uniquely contains a Korean law database – only one comprehensive civil law system database. In Korea, LawnB is the most popular, comprehensive commercial database, containing statutes, decrees, rules and ordinances, cases, and treatises in Korean. However, it does not provide English translations. LawnB was acquired by Thomson Reuters on March 30, 2012. Westlaw began providing Korean cases, legislation, and law review and journals articles in English from 2013; the Korea Reports database cover cases from the Supreme Court, appellate and trial courts from 2000, and the Korea Legislation database provides selected legislation including the current Constitution provided by the Korean Ministry of Government Legislation. It also contains Korean newspaper databases such as Korea Times and some journal databases that have articles on Korean law and legal systems. Journals included are:
- Asian Business Lawyer (2008-)
- Asian Journal of WTO & International Health Law & Policy (2006- );
- Asian Journal of Women’s Studies (2000- );
- Columbia Journal of Asian Law (1987-(selected coverage); 1994-(full coverage)
- Journal of Korean Law (2001-)
- Korea Legislation Research Institute Journal of Law and Legislation (2011-)
- Korea University Law Review (2007-)
- Sunkyunkwan Journal of Science and Technology Law (2007-)
- Yonsei Law Journal (2010-)
· An, Jae-Wook. 1999. Regulations on financial institutions. CFE papers on Korean economy; 7. Seoul, Korea: Korea Center for Free Enterprise.
· Bae, Joon Suk, Bloomington Indiana University, and School of Law. 2008. Pension systems and inflation-indexed bond: A study of strengthening retirement income security through comparative analysis of the United States and Korean systems.
· Baik, ChungSook. 1980. Korean law, an annotated bibliography of English-language monographs. Washington, D.C.: Law Library, Library of Congress.
· Baker, Edward J.1979. The role of legal reforms in the Japanese annexation and rule of Korea, 1905-1919. Studies in East Asian Law; no. 1; variation: Occasional papers of the Center for Korean Studies; no. 9. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Law School.
· Baliño, Tomás J. T., and Angel J. Ubide. 1999. The Korean financial crisis of 1997: A strategy of financial sector reform. IMF working paper; WP/99/28. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department.
· Ch`oe, Chong-go. 2005. Law and justice in Korea: South and north. Seoul: Seoul National University Press.
· Ch`oe, Tae-gwon. 1980. Law and social change, the Korean experience. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms International.
· Ch`oe, Tae-gwon, and Kahei Rokumoto. 2007. Judicial system transformation in the globalizing world: Korea and Japan. Seoul, Korea: Seoul National University Press.
· Chang, Sung-hwa, and Won-Mog Choi. 2009. Trade law and regulation in Korea. Elgar Korean law series. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
· Chee, Choung Il. 1999. Korean perspectives on ocean law issues for the 21st century. Nijhoff law specials; v. 42. The Hague; Boston: Kluwer Law International.
· Chee, Choung Il, and Taehan Choksipchasa. 1990. Protection and assistance for the refugees in international law and experience of Korea National Red Cross. Seminar on international humanitarian law (11th; 1990; Seoul, Korea). Seoul, Korea: Humanitarian Law Institute, the Republic of Korea National Red Cross.
· Chiu, Hungdah. 1984. Exploration and exploitation of ocean resources in the western pacific: The legal and political implications for regional cooperation and joint prosperity. Seoul: The Korean Institute of International Studies.
· Cho, Hong Sik, and World Jurist Association. 1999. The development of Korean environmental law: A lesson for developing countries. Work paper; 19th Biennial Conference on the law of the world (19th; 1999; Budapest, Hungary and Vienna, Austria).
· Cho, Keu Cab. 1962. Problems arising from the legal doctrines and practices of the Korean marital law. Dissertation: Thesis (J.S.D.), Yale Law School.
· Choe, Chang-Su. 2006. Antitrust adaptation of economic analysis for inferring concerted conduct from competitors' parallel pricing: Insights and directions to strengthen Korean antitrust jurisprudence. Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D.), University of Washington.
· Choi, Dai-kwon. 1976. Law and social change the Korean experience. Dissertation: Thesis (Ph.D.), University of California at Berkeley. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms.
· Choi, Wan Sik. 1987. An introduction to Korean air law. Work paper, Seoul Conference on the Law of the World, September 6-11, 1987. Washington, D.C.: World Peace Through Law Center.
· Chon, Pong-dok, William Shaw, and Tae-gwon Ch`oe.1980. Traditional Korean legal attitudes. Korea research monograph; 2. Berkeley, California: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley, Center for Korean Studies.
· Chun, Shin-Yong, International Cultural Foundation. 1982. Legal system of Korea. Korean culture series; 5. Seoul: Si-sa-yong-o-sa.
· Chwa, Sung-hui, Chung-in Moon, and Chong-ho No. 2002. Constitutional handbook on Korean unification. Major research paper; 2002-25. Seoul, Korea: Korea Economic Research Institute.
· Eikemeier, Dieter, Fons Strijbosch, and Keebet von Benda-Beckmann. 1986. Law, contract, and covenant: Aspects of a Korean mutual insurance venture. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde; 116. Dordrecht; Cinnaminson: Foris.
· Ginsburg, Tom. 2004. Legal reform in Korea. RoutledgeCurzon advances in Korean studies; 5. London; New York: RoutledgeCurzon.
· Hahm, Pyong-choon. 1987. The Korean political tradition and law: Essays in Korean law and legal history. Monograph series; no. 1. Seoul, Korea: Published for the Royal Asiatic Society Korea Branch by Seoul Computer Press.
· 1986. Korean jurisprudence, politics, and culture. Seoul, Korea: Yonsei University Press.
· 1971. The impact of traditional legacies on the contemporary judicial process in Korea. Occasional; no. 2. Seoul: ILCORK, Korean Council, Korean Secretariat.
· Haley, John Owen, and T. Susanne Lee. 1983. Trade and investment in the Republic of Korea: Materials for a continuing legal education seminar, June 25, 1983. Seattle, Washington: The Foundation.
· Han, Sung-Soo. 2003. Road to democratic state without corruption: Report based on the synthetic analysis of law, tax and economy. Seoul, Korea: Istory.
· Hanguk Haeyang Yonguso (Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute), and Sanggong Chawonbu (Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy). 1994. International advisory conference on deep seabed mining policy [proceedings]. International Advisory Conference on Deep Seabed Mining Policy. Seoul: The Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute.
· Hayes, E. A. 1905. H.R. 8975, in the house of representatives : December 18, 1905, Mr. Hayes introduced the following bill, which was referred to the Committee on Foreign Affairs and ordered to be printed: A bill to prohibit the coming into and to regulate the residence within the United States, its territories, and all territory under its jurisdiction, and the District of Columbia, all Japanese persons and persons of Japanese descent and Korean persons and persons of Korean descent. Washington: G.P.O.
· Hong, Seong-Yong, and Malaysian Institute of Maritime Affairs. 1990-1999. A framework for emerging new marine policy: The Korean experience. MIMA issue paper. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Malaysian Institute of Maritime Affairs.
· Hong, Sung-yong, and Haeyang Yonguso. 1993. Marine policies toward the 21st century: World trends and Korean perspectives. International workshop on marine policies toward the 21st century; occasional paper, ocean industry and policy division; no. 1. Seoul: Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute.
· Hoyt, Edwin C. 1961. The United States reaction to the Korean attack: A study of the principles of the United Nations Charter as a factor in American policy-making. The Bobbs-merrill reprint series in the social sciences; PS-132. Indianapolis, Indiana: Bobbs-Merrill.
· Hur, Joseph Seon. 2006. Competition law/policy and Korean economic development. Seoul, Korea: Ziumm, Ltd.
· Park, Hwang Mok 2006. Exploring Korean law: Insights from insiders. Seoul: Whiz Press.
· Ih, Byung-Sun. 1997. “Cultural values and human rights: the Korean perspective” in Human rights in Asian cultures: Continuity and changes: A regional report in support of the UN decade for human rights education. Osaka: Asia-Pacific Human Rights Information Center (HURIGHTS OSAKA).
· International Association of Democratic Lawyers. 1952. War crimes of the U.S. forces in Korea and Northeast China: Reports of the Commission of the International Association of Democratic Lawyers. Moscow: Trud.
· International Civil Aviation Organization. 1993. Report of the completion of the fact-finding investigation regarding the shooting down of Korean Air Lines Boeing 747 (Flight KE 007) on 31 august 1983. Information paper; Montreal: International Civil Aviation Organization.
· Jordan, Jerald J. 1985. The Soviet response to Korean Air Lines Flight 007. Ft. Leavenworth, KS; Springfield, VA: US Army Command and General Staff College; National Technical Information Service, distributor.
· Kang, Inchul, Michael Y. Shin, and Jong Gil Kim. 1999. Investment in Korea: Guide to Korean laws and regulations. Seoul: Office of International Legal Affairs, Ministry of Justice.
· Kang, Shin-Won. 1996. The impact of environmental regulations on total factor productivity: Korean steel industry. Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D.), Colorado School of Mines.
· Kauzlarich, David. 1994. Nuclear threats by the United States in the Korean and Vietnam wars: Toward a grounded theory of international governmental crime. Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D.), Western Michigan University.
· Kim & Chang. 1989. Korean SEC's new regulation on foreign acquisition of Korean shares: A step toward the opening up of the Korean securities market. Seoul: Kim & Chang.
· Kim, Byoung Youn. 2000. A comparative study of disclosure system in the United States and Korea: For improving disclosure and liability schemes in the Korean securities market. Dissertation: Thesis (S.J.D.), Indiana University, 2000.
· Kim, Byung Joon. 1991-03. Korean waste management law and waste disposal forms. USACERL special report; N-91/19. Champaign, IL; Springfield, VA: US Army Corps of Engineers, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory; available from the National Technical Information Service.
· Kim, Byung-Joon and Sung-Ho Kim.1994-06. Korean waste management law, presidential decree no. 13480, and prime minister order no. 397. USACERL special report; EP-94/03. Champaign, IL; Springfield, VA: US Army Corps of Engineers, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory; Available from the National Technical Information Service.
· Kim, Ch`an-jin, University of Washington, and School of Law. 2000. Korean attitudes towards law: Prepared for the centennial celebration of the University of Washington School of law, Seattle, Washington, May 3, 2000.
· Kim, Chin. 1995. Korean law study guide. San Diego, CA, U.S.A. San Diego, CA: Cross-Cultural Associates.
· Kim, Chong Sang and Yong Kyun Kim. 1990. Guide to Korean taxes, 1990. North Ryde, N.S.W: CCH International.
· Kim, Chu-su. 1958. A study of marriage and divorce in the new civil code of Korea. Korean studies series; v. 1. Seoul: Korean Research Center.
· Kim, El-lim and Hyon-mi Pak. 1992. Statute book on Korean women. 1992 KWDI research report; 200-3. Seoul, Republic of Korea: Korean Women's Development Institute.
· Kim, Hakseong. 2009. Plea bargaining in the civil law countries: A proposal for the introduction of plea-bargaining in the Korean criminal justice system. Dissertation: Dissertation (S.J.D.), Indiana University, 2009
· Kim, Hwa-jin and Bernard S. Black. 2002. Self-regulation in the Korean securities market. Seoul: Korean Securities Law Association.
· Kim, Hyo-Jon. 2008. The constitutions of the Republic of Korea. Seoul, Korea: Korean Constitutional Law Association.
· Kim, Jasper. 2010. Korean business law: The legal landscape and beyond. Durham, N.C: Carolina Academic Press.
· Kim, John J. 1967. Survey of Korean law relevant to foreign investment. Seoul: J.J. Kim.
· Kim, Joon-Young. 2006. The effect of regulations on the Korean mobile telecommunication industry. Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D.), Claremont Graduate University, 2006.
· Kim, Kab Lae, Bloomington Indiana University, and School of Law. 2008. Why going public through the backdoor on the KOSDAQ market: Structural problems in the Korean venture ecosystem and solutions. Dissertation: Dissertation (S.J.D.), Indiana University, 2008.
· Kim, Myong-gi. 1991. The Korean war and international law. Claremont, CA: Paige Press.
· Kim, Seungjin. 1996. Is multilateral rule making on investment an opportunity? A Korean perspective. KDI working papers; 9606. Seoul: Korea Development Institute.
· Kim, Soung Soo. 1990. Balancing elements in energy agreements in Asia: Doctrinal developments based on Korean experiences. Work paper, Beijing conference on the law of the world. Washington, D.C: World Peace Through Law Center.
· Kim, Su-am. 2006. The North Korean penal code, criminal procedures, and their actual applications. Studies series; 06-01. Seoul: Korea Institute for National Unification.
· Kim, Yong-gu. 2005. A pursuit of truth in the Dokdo Island issue: Letters to a young Japanese man. Korean cultural assets; 1. Seoul, Korea: International Cultural Exchange Association.
· Kim, Yong-hui. 2002. Introduction to Korean legal materials. Seoul, Korea: Journal of Korean Law.
· Kim, Yongjae. 1998. Analyses of the 1998 Korean banking reform and suggestions to the future reform modeled on the United States. Dissertation: Thesis (S.J.D.), University of Wisconsin
· Kim, Yon-sung. 1970. Korea: Continental shelf in the international law and the law for development of submarine mineral resources. S.I.: s.n.
· Ko, Dong Won. 1996. Financial liberalization and internationalization: The Korean experience. Thesis (S.J.D.), Duke University, 1996.
· Ko, Haksoo. 2007. An economic approach to Korean corporate structure and corporate law. Seoul, Korea: Yonsei University Press.
· Ko, Kwang Ha. 1978. Korean laws and policies on importation of foreign technology. Dissertation: Thesis (Ph.D.), University of Washington.
· Fair Trade Commission. 1990. Statutes and regulations on monopoly regulation & fair trade 1990. Seoul, Korea: The Fair Trade Commission.
· Koo, Hearan Joo. 2000. The division of a professional service market: The case of Korean legal professions. Dissertation: Thesis (Ph. D.), University of Chicago.
· Korea (Republic of). 1948. Articles for the government of the Korean constabulary. Seoul, Korea: Korea Military Governor.
· 1961. Foreign investment encouragement law with enforcement decree and enforcement by-law. Seoul, Korea: Government of the Republic of Korea.
· 1950-1967. Miscellaneous Korean tax laws. Seoul, Korea: Government of the Republic of Korea.
· Central Election Management Committee. 1964. Korean constitution, election and political party laws. Seoul, Korea: Central Election Management Committee.
· Central Election Management Committee. 1970. Korean constitution, election and political party laws. Seoul, Korea: Central Election Management Committee.
· Constitutional Court of Korea. 2001. Decisions of the Korean constitutional court (1998.9.-1999.12.). Seoul, Korea: Constitutional Court of Korea.
· Constitutional Court of Korea. 2002. Decisions of the Korean constitutional court (2000). Seoul, Korea: Constitutional Court of Korea.
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 The United States is also in negotiations of a regional, Asia-Pacific trade agreement, known as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement, Office of the United States Trade Representative, https://ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements.
 Daehanminguk Hunbeob [대한민국 헌법][Constitution] (Oct. 29, 1987) art. 73 (S. Kor.).
 Daehanminguk Hunbeob [대한민국 헌법][Constitution] (Oct. 29, 1987) art. 60(1) (S. Kor.). This limitation of treaties which are subject to the consent by the National Assembly started from the 1948 Constitution while the types of treaties enumerated have been changed. If there is a conflict between the President and the National Assembly regarding what treaties are subject to the consent, the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Korea has the jurisdiction.
 Daehanminguk Hunbeob [대한민국 헌법][Constitution] (Oct. 29, 1987) art. 6(1) (S. Kor.).
 Treaties are primary sources of law in Korea. Korea signed the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties on November 27, 1969 and later ratified it on April 27, 1977. Treaty-Making of Korea (우리나라의 조약체결), http://perma.cc/ADL4-RU9L.
 However, the judges in South Korea look at previous cases form the Supreme Court of South Korea as guidance.
 It also provides a disclaimer as follows: This information is to improve the understanding of Korean laws and policy. Readers are responsible for obtaining exact legal information by themselves or from their own legal counsel. N.B.: Any inconsistency or defect in English version shall be decided by the Korean text.
 LAWnB is a fee-based subscription database that contains approximately 74,000 laws, 150,000 cases, 130,000 administrative materials, 90,000 treaties, articles, and periodicals, 85,000 tax cases, 20,000 lawyers information, 4500 corporations legal information, and 70,000 legal news articles. See LAWnB, http://www.lawnb.com/ (last visited May 2, 2013).
 Kanishk Vergese, Thomson Reuters Acquires LawnB, Asian Legal Business (Mar. 30, 2012), http://asia.legalbusinessonline.com/news/thomson-reuters-acquires-lawnb/108127.