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UPDATE: Guide to Russian Federation Law in English:

Selection of Sources

 

By Lucy Cox

 

Lucy Cox is Librarian Emerita of the Rutgers University Law School Library at Camden, where she was Reference and Foreign/International Law Librarian. Her responsibilities included maintaining the Ginsburgs Collection of Soviet and Post-Soviet Law. She holds an M.LS. Degree from Drexel University and a Ph.D. in Russian from the University of Pennsylvania. She has translated legal material from Russian to English. Ms. Cox has given presentations on sources of Soviet and post-Soviet law at conventions of the American Library Association, the American Association for Slavic Studies, and the Mid-Atlantic Slavic Association.

Published November/December 2010

Read the Archive Version!

 

Table of Contents

Preface

Background Information

Research and Bibliographic Guides

Journals

Legal Dictionaries

                  Russian-English

                  English-Russian

Major Texts

Compilations of Translated Legislation (Comprehensive)

Constitution

Formation and Organization of the Russian Federation

Codes

Courts

Legal Profession

Election System

Civil Rights

Religion

Citizenship

Migration

Human Rights

Media

Intellectual Property

Telecommunications

Arbitration (Private and International)

Property

Labor

Education

Health

Family

Environment

Criminal Justice

Terrorism and Related Issues

Military

Comparative Law

International Law and Foreign Affairs  

Commercial Law & Business Information

Major Web Sites for Commercial Information

Guides/Current Awareness  

Compilations of laws on Business

Books on Commercial Law

Banking

Bankruptcy

Foreign Investment

Company and Corporation Law (Multiple Laws)

Joint Stock Companies  

Monopoly

Securities

Tax

Privatization

News Sources

Further Suggested Readings

 

Preface

This selection of  resources is intended as a research and informational guide, not as a tool to be consulted for legal advice. The material included is not official, and translations are never true substitutes for the original. The scope of sources for the material included in this compilation is wide, encompassing governmental bodies, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, commercial entities, scholarly works and contributions by private individuals.  More than one translation exists for some material, and older as well as more updated versions of some legislative items are listed. Update information may have changed after the guide was written. Throughout this guide there will be repeated references to three particularly rich sources of  legislative compilations. One is the multi-volume print source Russia and the Republics, edited and translated by William E. Butler;  the second is the journal of translations Statutes and Decisions, and the third is the electronic site, Legislationline, from OSCE.  More detailed  information on these is given below under the appropriate headings. This guide is not an exhaustive enumeration of material, but rather a selection meant to provide at least some help to those searching for information on Russian law in English.

Background Information

·       Background Notes: Russia From the U.S. Department of State.

·       The World Fact Book. Russia From the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

·       Country Profile: Russia From Foreign and Commonwealth Office (UK)

·       The Statesman’s Yearbook. New York, etc.: St. Martin’s Press, etc. 1864-. Also available on-line (subscription required)

·       Legislationline.org From OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR). The site covers the countries belonging to the OSCE , including the Russian Federation. It provides a brief overview of the Constitution and legal system and links to important government bodies. This  site is important for legislation and analyses of topics relating to democratization, rule-of-law, and civil and human rights. Search is by country and topic. This site will be referred to later in relation to specific topics.

Research and Bibliographic Guides

·       A Guide to Legal Research in Russia (Globalex) By Arina Popova and Lex S. Solovyev. Excellent explanation of structure of government and legal system, with links to governmental departments, agencies, courts, etc. Points out when English language information is available on a site.

·       Legal Research Guide: Russia  (Library of Congress)

·       Bulletin on Current Research in East European Law. United States:  s.n., 1972-. 3 times a year. Published at the University of Toronto, Centre for Russian and East European Studies, beginning with vol. 11, no.3.  Valuable source for coverage of current publications. Lists books, book reviews, articles from law reviews and other legal and related journals, announcements of conferences and of other news of interest to those involved in East European law. One section in each issue is devoted to listing English translations of legislation and court decisions.

·       Kavass, Igor I. Law in Russia and the Other Post-Soviet Republics:  A Bibliographic Survey of English Language and Literature 1992-1995.  Sequel to Soviet Law in English, Gorbachev's Law, and Demise of the Soviet Union. Buffalo, N.Y: William S. Hein & Co., 1997.  Provides a thorough bibliographic listing of books, articles, translations of laws and court decisions from law reviews and other journals.  Access is by author or subject.

·       Kavass, Igor I. Law in Russia and the Other Post-soviet Republics: A Bibliographic Survey of English Language Literature 1996-2001. Buffalo, N.Y.: William S. Hein & Co., 2002.  Continuation of earlier work listed directly above. 

·       Reynolds, Thomas H. and Arturo A Flores. Foreign Law: Current Sources of Codes and Legislation in Jurisdictions of the World. Littleton, CO: Fred B. Rothman & Co., 1989- . (Looseleaf).  Good starting point for research in Russian law. Provides a historical background of the legal system. Provides citations to major sources of law in Russian publications, but also gives citations to English translations if they exist. Also available on CD-ROM and on the Internet  (fee-based).

Journals

General law journals provide a wealth of material on Russian law, and they may be searched in the standard indexes: Index to Legal Periodicals, Current Law Index, or Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals.  The listing below includes only journals or serials which deal specifically with Russia (or Eastern Europe including Russia). Besides articles and book reviews, some of the journals listed below provide translations of legislation and of court decisions. One of the journals is devoted exclusively to the translation of statutes and decisions.

 

·       Statutes and Decisions: the Law of the USSR and its Successor States. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1991-. Quarterly. Continues Soviet Statutes and Decisions.  This journal is devoted exclusively to translations of legal material, accompanied by authoritative commentary. Individual issues, or more than one issue, deal with specific themes, and include relevant  translations of legislation, edicts, court decisions and commentary. Material from this journal is included in this paper under various subject areas.

·       Review of Central and East European Law. Dordrecht; Boston: M. Nijhoff, 1992-. Quarterly. Continues  Review of Socialist Law. Published in Cooperation with the Institute of East European Law and Russian Studies at the University of Leiden. Sometimes  includes translations of legislation. Issues 19-22 contained a section titled “Russian Federation Legislative Survey”, which listed the most important legislation from June 12, 1990 through April 1995. Laws were indexed by subject, with official citations given.

·       Russian Law: Theory and Practice: Journal of the Russian Academy of Legal Sciences. Moscow: Russian Academy of Legal Sciences, 2005-. Semi-annual. Edited by William E. Butler.  Includes articles, book reviews, excerpts from court cases.

·       The Journal of Eurasian Law. Huntington, N.Y. Juris Pub., 2008-. 3 nos. a year. Jointly issued by Duke University, Center for Slavic, Eurasian and East European Studies, and Uppsala University. Besides articles, the journal publishes documents such as court decisions.

·       Sudebnik. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1996-2007. Quarterly. Ceased Publication. Was published under auspices of the Moscow Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences and of the Vinogradoff Institute, University College, London. This journal includes translations of recent legislation and court decrees as a regular feature in the section “Documents”. Some of the translated laws found in this journal are: Federal Constitutional Law On Arbitrazh Courts, 2:3 (1997), 728-757; Federal Law On Defence of the Rights and Legal Interests of Investors of the Securities Market, 4:1 (1999),  209-229; On Foreign Investments in the  Russian Federation, 4:1(1999); Federal Law On State Regulation of Foreign Trade Activity, 1:2 (1996), 427-455;  Federal Law On Joint Stock Societies, 1:1(1996), 199-284; Law on the Organization of Insurance Affairs, 3:1 (1998), 173-187; Federal Law On International Treaties of the Russian Federation. 1:2 (1996), 456-486; Federal Constitutional Law  On the Judicial System of the Russian Federation, 2:1(1997), 217-237; On Mortgage (Pledge of Immovables), 3:3 (1998); Fundamental Principles of Legislation of the Russian Federation onthe Notariat (1993), 2:4(1997), 1005-1049; On the Peculiarities of the Legal Status of Joint- Stock Societies of Worker People’s Enterprises, 3:2 (1998), 379-402; Law On  Pledge, 1:3 (1996), 819-842.

·       Russian Politics and Law. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1992-. Bi-monthly.  Translations from Russian-language sources.

·       Europe-Asia Studies. Abingdon, Oxfordshire, UK: Carfax Pub. Co., 1993-. 8 isues per year. Covers social sciences, including law.

·       Demokratizatiia. The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization. Washington, D.C. Heldref Publ., 1992- quarterly. Project of American University and Moscow State University.  Article on an array of social issues, including legal ones.

·       Columbia Journal of East European Law. New York, N.Y: Columbia University School of Law, 2007-2009. Semiannual. Ceased Publication.

·       Parker School Journal of East European Law. New York, N.Y: Parker School of Foreign and Comparative Law, Columbia University School of Law, 1994-1998. 6 issues per year, 1994-1997. Quarterly, 1998. Ceased publication.

·       Journal of East European Law. New York, N.Y: East European Law Center, Columbia University School of Law, 1999-2004. Quarterly. Continues Parker School Journal of East European Law. Includes useful section titled: “Survey of East European Law”, which provides analytical commentaries on legal developments. Ceased publication.

·       East European Constitutional Review. Chicago, IL: Published by the Center for the Study of Constitutionalism in Eastern Europe at the University of Chicago Law School in partnership with the Central European University, 1992-2003.Quarterly. Published by New York University School of Law and Central European University beginning with v.6, no. 4. Contains notes and articles providing overview on constitutional and other public law issues. Archived from v.6, #2/3, ( Spring/Summer 1997) through v.11, #3, (Summer 2002) at  New York University School of Law  Ceased publication.

Legal Dictionaries

Russian-English

·       Baskakova, M.A. Tolkovyi iuridicheskii slovar’: pravo I biznes: russko-angliiskii, anglo-russkii - Legal Glossary: law and business: Russian-English, English-Russian. 8th ed., rev. and exp. Moscow:  Finansy i statistika, 2000.

·       Borysenko, I.I. and V.V. Saenko. Novyi russko-angliiskii iuridicheskii slovar’: 23,000 terminov. Moscow: RUSSO, 2002.

·       Business Dictionary: Russian-English-Russko-angliiskii biznes slovar’. Moscow: International Pub. in cooperation with L&H Pub.Co.; Copenhagen: 1999.

·       Butler, William E. Russko-angliiskii iuridicheskii slovar.  Moscow: Zertaslo; London: Simmonds & Hill, 1995.

·       Butler, William E.  Russian-English Legal Dictionary and Bibliographic Sources for Russian Law in English. Ardsley, N.Y: Transnational Pub., 2001.

·       DeBeer, Shane R. Dictionary of Business and Legal Terms: Russian-English/English-Russian. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1995.

·       Komandin, G.A. Anglo-russkii iuridicheskii slovar’. Moscow: TOO SKL, LTD. 1995.

·       Rakipov, N.G. and Anna N. Rakipova. Elsevier’s Dictionary of Economics, Business, Finance and Law. Russian-English.  Amsterdam; Boston: Elsevier, 2004. 2 vols.

 

English-Russian

·       Andrianov, S.N., A.S. Berson, and A.S. Nikiforov. English-Russian Law Dictionary: approx. 50000 terms=Anglo-russkii iuridicheskii slovar’: okolo 50000 terminov. Moscow: RUSSO, 2002.

·       Braun, Marina and Galina Clothier. English-Russian Dictionary of American Criminal Law. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.

·       Komandin, G.A.  Anglo-russkii iuridicheskii slovar. Moskva: TOO SKL, LTD., 1993.

·       Mamulian, A.S. and S. IU. Kashkin. Anglo-russkii polnyi iuridicheskii slovar - English-Russian Comprehensive Law Dictionary. Moscow: Sovetnik, 1993.

·       Zhdanova, Irina Fedorovna. Anglo-russkii slovar’ po ekonomike I pravu: okolo 40,000 terminov=English-Russian Dictionary of Economics and Law: approx. 40,000 terms. Moscow: Russo, 2004.

·       Mironova, I.V. et al. English-Russian Law Dictionary with Pronunciations. 2d ed. St. Petersburg: Yuridichesky Center Press, 2004.

Major Texts/Treatises

·       Butler, William E. Russian Law. 3rd ed. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 2009. Comprehensive textbook includes the text of the Constitution (last updated 2008), a table of legislative acts, a table of international treaties, and a table of judicial and arbitration materials. There is also a chapter devoted to resource material on Russian law. In the preface, Prof. Butler recommends advises keeping the earlier editions (1999 and 2002) because not everything was incorporated into the later edition.

·       Burnham, William, Peter B. Maggs, and Gennadii M. Danilenko. Law and Legal System of the Russian Federation. 4th ed., Huntingto, N.Y.: Juris Pub., (for the Parker School of Law), 2009. Textbook covering all aspects of law; incorporated the case-law method, and includes translations of cases explaining points of law as well as study questions. Appendix includes text of Constitution.

·       Russian Civil and Commercial Law V.P. Mozolin  and  A.I. Masliaev, editors; edited and translated by William E. Butler. London: Wildy, Simmons and Hill, 2009- . This is projected as a 5-volume work of translations of some of the most important Russian treatises dealing with civil and commercial law.  Volume One  is  listed in the „Property” section of this article. : Volume One: General Provisions, Ownership.

Compilations of Translated Legislation (Comprehensive)

Major Print Source for Updated  Legislation:

·       Russia and the Republics  Legal Materials. 2d series. William E. Butler, editor and translator. Huntington, N.Y.:, Juris Pub., 2006- . 3 v. (loose-leaf).  This is the major scholarly work of legal translations and should be consulted by anyone who is looking for recent legislation. It  is updated regularly. The material is grouped under these headings, which in turn have sub-headings: Constitutional Law; Civil Law; Economic Societies and Partnerships; State Corporations; Commercial Secrecy; Intellectual Property; Family Law; Insurance Law;  Land Law;  Labor Law;  Criminal Law; Court Organizations; Foreign Relations Law. This set succeeds the one listed below, which should be retained for archival purposes. Reference to this set will occur throughout this guide under specific topics, although that is not a substitute for consulting the table of contents of the publication itself to ascertain the full extent of its holdings. The set succeeds the one listed below, which should be retained for archival purposes.

Other Print Sources:

·       Russia and the Republics: Basic Legal Texts. Vratislav Pechota, general ed. Ardsley-on-Hudson: Transnational Juris, 1991-2006. (Looseleaf).  8 vols. Russian Federation takes up 3 vols. Frequent updates.  Includes useful introductory notes on salient features of specific laws. Legislation is grouped under headings:  Constitutional law, Civil law, Commercial law, Corporate law, Foreign Investment. Some of the specific laws included are: 1997 Law on Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations; 1998 Law on Leasing; 1995 Law on Joint Stock Companies; 1998 Law on Limited Liability Companies; 1999 Law on the Protection of Rights and Legitimate Interests of Investors in the Securities Market; etc. An additional volume is titled Judicial and Arbitral Decisions. It covers cases dealing with issues of Russian law in the courts of various countries, including Canada, United Kingdom and the United States. This set has been superseded by the 2d series, listed above.

·       Statutes and Decisions: Laws of the Soviet Union and its Successor States. For more information on this journal of translations see „Journals” section of this guide.

·       Russian Legal Texts: The Foundations of a Rule-of-Law State and a Market Economy. Compiled and edited by William E. Butler and Jane Henderson; translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill; Boston; The Hague: Kluwer International, 1998.  Contains legislation under these headings: Foundations of  Federation; Rights of  Citizens; The Judicial System and Other Tribunals; The Legal Profession; Instruments of a Market Economy; Foreign Relations Law. Some of the laws included are:1998 Constitutional law On the Arbitrazh Courts; 1995 Law On the Procuracy; Family Code of the Russian Federation (1995); Criminal code of the Russian Federation (1996); and more.

·       Martindale-Hubbell International Digest. Summit, N.J: Martindale-Hubbell, 1868-1990. Reed, 1990- .Annual.  Search under “Russian Federation”. Useful digests of legislation arranged by topic. 

 

 Electronic Sources:

·       Garant(Economic Laws of the Russian Federation) available on Lexis/Nexis.  (Subscription required)   This Russia-based  company provides a major database of  Russian legislation, as well as some court cases. The English version is available through through Lexis. The material is updated frequently.  Although the focus is on  economic laws, this term encompasses a very wide range of item. There is an extensive system of internal links, making possible comparisons between old and new versions of legislation and many access points for searching material.  A useful Guide on how to search is provided. Lexis Library and File: Intlaw; Rflaw.

·       Kodeks  (Available through Eastview Information Systems. Subscription required) This is another major Russian legal database which makes English translations of Russian legal material available and is updated frequently.

·        Lexadin World Law Guide: Legislation. Russia. This Netherlands site gathers material found on the world-wide web, and so some  material may be more outdated that other.

Constitution

·       Constitution of the Russian Federation (as amended to 30 Dec. 2008). In  Russia and the Republics,  v.1. (listed above under „Compilations of Translated Legislation, Print”)

·       The Constitution of Russia: the Basic Law  From the Office of the President of the Russian Federation.

·       The Constitution of the Russian Federation From Legislationline. Last updated 2001.

·       Constitution of theRussian Federation (1993) From Bucknell University. Not updated.

·        Constitution of the Russian Federation From non-governmental organization site, Democracy.ru. (Not updated).

·        Belyakov, Vladimir V., and Walter J. Raymond. Constitution of the Russian Federation: With Commentaries and Interpretations. Lawrenceville, VA: Brunswick Publishing Corp.; Moscow: Novosti, 1994. Includes reference material on 1994 Duma, maps.

·       Constitution of the Russian Federation. Helsinki. Finnish Lawyers’ Publishing, 1994.  Text in English and Finnish.

·       Constitution of the Russian Federation. Moscow: Juridical Literature, 1994.  Text in Russian and English.

·       Tomanov, Vladimir, ed. Constitution of the Russian Federation: A Legal Interpretation.  Bethesda, MD: Austin and Winfield, 1995.  Translations in English, French and German, as well as commentaries.

·       Transition to Democracy. Edited by the International Institute for   Democracy. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Pub., 1997. Includes constitutions of the the former Soviet republics and Mongolia.

·       Constitutions of the Countries of the World. Edited by Gisbert H. Flanz. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana, 1971-.(Looseleaf). Also available online with subscription.

 

Formation and Organization of the Russian Federation

·       „Constitutional Law.” In Russia and the Republics Legal Materials v. 1.  (Listed above under heading  „Compilations of Translated Legislation.”  This section of the set  includes, under various sub -headings, treaties, legislation regarding the presidency,  the government, the legislature, and the nature of federalism.  Some of these are: Treaty of the Federation; Statute on the Administration of the President of the Russian Federation;, Federal Constitutional Law on the Procedure of Acceptance into the Russian Federation and Formation of its Composition of A New Subject of the Russian Federation; Federal Constitutional Law on the Government of the Russian Federation.

·       Russian Legal Texts: The Foundations of Rule-of-Law and a Market Economy (listed above under Compilations of Legislation). This book contains the foundational documents, including treaties of the federation, the declaration of independence, and the Constitution.

·       “The Development of Russian Federalism.”  Statutes and Decisions:  The Laws of the USSR and Its Successor States  33:6 (1997)-34:6 (1998) These 7 issues include statutes and treaties dealing with the federal aspects of the Russian Federation after the demise of the Soviet Union.  For decisions of the Constitutional Court regarding federalism, see under Constitutional Court in this paper.

·       Kahn, Jeffrey. Federalism, Democratization, and the Rule of Law in Russia. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.  Study of the nature of federalism in the Russian Federation. Includes analysis of bilateral treaties.

·       Pascal, Elizabeth. Defining Russian Federalism. Westport, CN: Praeger, 2003.

·       Hober, Kaj. The Impeachment of President Yeltsin. Huntington, N.Y.: Juris, 2004.  Includes selection of legal documents and Duma debate from May 1999 on the attempt to impeach the Russian President.

Codes

Sources for Many  Codes

  • Russia and the Republics Legal Materials. (Listed above in this paper under heading “Compilations of Legislation.”  The codes in this set are usually more current than most others listed in this article. They are located in the set within the relevant areas  of law sections. As of this writing, this set includes the following codes: Civil Code (Pt. 1, as amended to 1 Dec. 2007); Pt. 2, as amended to 29 Nov. 2007; Pt. 3, as amended to June 30, 2008; Pt. 4, as amended to 8 Nov. 2008); Family Code (as amended to 21 July 2007); Land Code (as amended 8 Nov. 2007); Labor Code (as amended to 28 Feb. 2008);  Criminal Code (as amended Criminal Code(as amended 27 Dec. 2009). (The dates of updates may have changed since this guide was written).
  • Lexadin World Law Guide: Russia  From Netherlands technology firm. The Lexadin portal site gathers material from the world-wide web. The codes on this site are located under specific categories of law. They are not necessarily the latest version of a specific code. At the time of writing, these codes were available: Administrative Offences Code, Criminal Code, Criminal Procedure Code,  Customs Code, Tax Code Parts One and Two, Labor Code, Forest Code.

 

Individual Codes

Check „Sources for Many Codes” above for other versions of specific  codes.

 

Administrative Violations Code

·       “Code of the Russian Federation on  Administrative Violations,” Federal Law No. 195-FZ (2001 as amended 2007).  Statutes and Decisions: the Law of the USSR  and its Successor States  42:3 –42:6 (2007).  Edited, with an introductory article, by Sarah J. Reynolds. These 4 issues cover the first five parts of the code.

 

Arbitrazh Procedure Code

·       Arbitrazh Procedure Code (1995). Statutes and Decisions 32:4 (1996)

·       Arbitrazh Procedure Code (2002). Statutes and Decisions 38:3-38:5 (2002). These three issues give the text of the Code. Issue 6 contains material on the work of the code, including two speeches by the Chair of the Higher Arbitrazh Court, and a statistical report on the court for 20i03. It also includes these  laws:  Federal Law of the Russian Federation „On Arbitrazh Assessors in the in the Arbitrazh Courts of the Russian Federation” (2001, as amended 2003) and Federal Constitutional Law of the Russian Federation „On the Arbitrazh Courts in the Russian Federation” (1995, as amended 2003).   

 

Aviation Code

·       The Aviation Code of the Russian Federation. Ed. by Heiko van Schyndel. Utrecht: Eleven International Pub., 2010. Includes both English and Russian versions of the code.

Civil Code

·       Grazhdanskii kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii (Civil Code of the Russian Federation): Parallel Russian and English Texts. Edited and translated by Peter B. Maggs and Alexei N. Zhiltsov. Moscow: Norma, 2003. Contains the Civil Code as of 15 Sept. 2003. Also contains all the previous versions of the Civil Code starting with 1995. A useful introduction by Prof. Maggs traces the history and development of the various parts of the Code. Both editors took part in the drafting of the Code. The preface is by the Chairman of the High Commercial Court of the Russian Federation, V.F. Yakovlev.

·       Civil Code of the Russian Federation: Parts One, Two, and Three. Edited,  compiled and translated from the Russian with an introduction by William E. Butler. Oxford; New York; Oxford University Press, 2002.

·       The Civil Code of the Russian Federation: Part 3. With Amendments to the first and second parts. Edited and Translated by Peter B. Maggs. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 2002.

·       The Civil Code of the Russian Federation: Parts 1 and 2. Edited and Translated by Peter B. Maggs with A.N. Zhiltsov. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1997.

·       Russian Civil Legislation: The Civil Code (Parts One and Two) and Other Surviving Legislation of the Russian Federation. Edited, compiled, and translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill; The Hague; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1999.

·       Civil Code of the Russian Federation: Parts One and Two: Adopted by the State Duma on 21 October 1994 and 22 December 1995, as Amended 20 February and 12 August 1996. Translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill: Primrose Academy, 1997.

·       Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Parts I and II. Translated by Peter Maggs and A.N. Zhiltsov. Statutes and Decisions 32:5-32:6 (1996); 33:1-33:3 (1997). These 5 issues provide translations of Parts One and Two.  

·       Civil Code of the Russian Federation. Part III. Translated by Peter Maggs.  Statutes and Decisions 38:1 (2002).

·       “Civil Code of the Russian Federation: Part Three (26 November 2001)”. Translated by William E. Butler. Sudebnik 6:4 (2001), 753-819.

 

Criminal Code

·       Criminal Code (Legislationline) As of this writing, last updated December 2004.

·       Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Translated with an introduction by William E. Butler. 4th ed. London: Wildy, Simmonds & Hill, 2004.

·       “Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.” Edited and Translated by Sarah J. Reynolds. Statutes and Decisions. 39:4-39:6 (2003).  These three issues contain the Criminal Code as amended through the end of 2003.

·       The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1997.

·       The Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. 3rd ed. Edited and translated by W.E. Butler. The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1999.

·       Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.  Statutes and Decisions: the Law of the USSR and its Successor States  33:4-33:5 ( 1997).  Translation of entire code in 2 successive issues of the journal.

·       Criminal Code. Excerpts. From Russian National Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transsexual Site. Includes Article 121, "Infection with a Venereal Disease;" Article 122, "Infection with HIV;" Article 132 "Forced Actions of Sexual Nature;" Article 242 "Unlawful Distribution of Pornographic Materials or Objects." (Last updated December 2003).

 

Criminal Corrections Code

·       “Criminal Corrections Code of the Russian Federation.” Edited and Translated by Sarah J. Reynolds. Statutes and Decisions: the Laws of the USSR and its Successor States. 39, nos. 1&2, (Jan.-Apr. 2003). The Appendix also includes “Rules of Internal Order for Correctional Institutions”; the subsequent issue, 39, no. 3, contains Rules of Internal Order for Corrective-Educational Colonies of the Correctional System of the Ministry of Justice of the Russia the Russia Federation, as well as the Law On Institutions and Bodies Executing Criminal Punishment in the Form of Deprivation of Freedom.

 

Criminal Procedure Code

·       Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation (Legislationline) As of this writing, last updated June 2005.

·       “Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation.” Edited and Translated by William Burnham. Statutes and Decisions: the Laws of the USSR and its Successor States 40:1 (2004)-40:4 (2004).  These 4 issues contain the Code as amended hrough June 29, 2004.

·       “Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Federation, No. 174 FZ of December 18, 2001.” With commentary by Leonard Orland. Connecticut Journal of International Law 18(20o02): 15 7-387  (2002)

Customs Code

·       Customs Code (Federal Customs Service of the Russian Federation) 

·       Customs Code of the Russian Federation.  28 May 2003, No. 61-FZ.  (Translation by firm Baker McKenzie)

 

Family Code

·       Russian Family Law: the Family Code of the Russian Federation and Federal Law on Acts of Civil Status. Edited and translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1998.

 

Forest Code

·       Forest Code of 2006 (Ecolex)

·       Forest Code of 1997   (Ecolex)

 

Labor Code

·       Labor Code of the Russian Federation (2001) From Natlex database of the International Labour Organization. This version is also found on the Lexadin site above. The Natlex site also provides listings and information on of amending and amended acts, but with some exceptions, the texts of the laws themselves are in Russian.

·       The Labour Code of the Russian Federation (2001). Translated by W.E.    Butler.  Sudebnik  7:1 (2001), 35-23 and 7:2 (2001), 239-291. Translation of code in two successive inssues of Sudebnik.

·       The Labour Code of the Russian Federation. Translated by William E. Butler. London: Interlist, 1993.

 

Land Code

·       “Land Code of the Russian Federation.” Translated by William E. Butler Sudebnik, 6:2 (2001), 429-530.

 

Tax Code

·       Tax Code of the Russian Federation: Part One, as Revised and Amended 30 March and 9 July,1999. Edited and translated by W.E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1999.

Courts

Directory

  • Russia: Courts/Cases (Lexadin World Law Guide) Comprehensive list of courts in Russia, arranged by level of court and geographic location. The names of the courts are listed in English, but most of the web links to the courts are in Russian.

Overview

·       The Russian Court System  From Russian-European Chamber of Commerce.

·       Vereshchagin, Aleksandr.  Judicial Law-Making in Post-Soviet Russia. Abingdon, Oxon, U.K.; New York: Routledge-Cavendish, 2007.  Discusses development of judicial law-making in Russian civil law. The introduction is useful in giving description of judicial system. Treats cases and legal developments up to October 2006. 

·       Solomon, Peter H. and Todd S. Foglesong.  Courts and Transition in Russia: The Challenge of Judicial Reform. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.  Examination of court system based on field research, including survey responses by Russian judges. Includes recommendations for strengthening the court system. Does not include arbitrazh courts or the Constitutional Court.

·       Benro Schwarz, “Litigation in Russia.” In  Litigation and Arbitration in Central and Eastern Europe. Edited by David W. Rivkin and Charles Platto. The Hague; London; Boston: Kluwer Law International, 1996.  Succinct explanation of the competence of civil and commercial courts within the Russian Federation court system in early post-Soviet period.

·       Reshetnikova, Irina V. „The Role of Courts in Adversarial Litigation in Russia.” Review of Central and East European Law 34(2009): 1-13. Explanation of main features of procedural legislation in civil and arbitrazh courts.

 

Legislation on Judicial System and Courts

·       „ Court Organization.” In Russia and the Republics, v. 1. This section includes, among others, the following laws:

o   Code of Judicial Ethics (2 Dec. 2004);

o   Law on the Status of Judges (as amended to 24 July 2007)

o   Federal Constitutional Law on the Judicial System (as amended 2005)

o   Federal Constitutional Law on the Constitutional Court (as amended to 5 Feb. 2007);

o   Federal Constitutional Law on Arbitrazh Courts (as amended 28 April 2008)

o   Federal Constitutional Law on Military Courts (as amended 4 Dec. 2006)

o   Federal Law on Justices of the Peace (as amended to 22 July 2008)

·       Law on the Status of Judges (1992, as amended 2005) and Constitutional Law on the Judicial System (1996, as amended 2005). (Legislationline, under topic „Independence of  the Judiciary).

·       Laws on the Judicary (The Russiasite)  Not updated. This site contains John Fowler's translation of the following Federal Constitutional Laws:

o   Law on the Court System of the Russian Federation (Dec. 31, 1996)

o   Law on the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (July 21, 1994)

o   Law on Arbitration Courts in the Russian Federation (April 28, 1995)

o   Law on Military Courts (June 23, 1999)

 

Constitutional Court

·       Selective  Constitutional Court Decisions. Unofficial translations by the Constitutional Court of ten decisions from the 1990’s.

·       Listing of Constitutional Court decisions from 1992-2001. (No decisions in 1994). From RussiaSite. Listing provides translation of case names  by John Fowler.

·       “Legal Reformation: New Constitutions and New Principles: The Jurisprudence of the First Russian Constitutional Court.” Statutes and Decisions: The Laws of the USSR and Its Successor States 30:3 (1994)-30:6 (1994). These 4 issues of the journal include decisions of the Constitutional Court issued from January 1992 to the time of its suspension in the political crisis of October 1993.

·       “Legal Reformation: New Institutions and New Principles--The Russian Constitutional Court Revisited.” Statutes and Decisions. The Laws of the USSR and its Successor States  31:4 (1995)-31:5 (1995).  These 2 issues include a translation of the 1994 Law on the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the first eleven decisions issued in 1995, including the decision and dissents on the constitutionality of the War in Chechnya.

·       “The Development of Russian Federalism: Federalism in the Courts.” Statutes and Decisions: The Laws of the USSR and its Successor States. 35:3 (1999)-35:4 (1999).  Two successive issues of the journal are devoted to translations of decisions of the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation between 1995 and 1998 dealing with federalism. Often deal with charters and statutes from regions of the Russian Federation.

·       “The Evolution of Constitutional Jurisprudence in the Russian Federation.” Edited by Sarah J. Reynolds. Statutes and Decisions 35:6 (1999); 36:1(2000)—36:6(2000); 37:1(2001)-37:6 (2001).  These 13 issues contain most of the decisions of the Constitutional Court which were not translated and published in the earlier volumes listed above. The final issue includes decisions from 1999. Issues no. 6 for vols. 36 and 37 include a “Guide” listing decisions by subject matter.

·       Trochev, Alexei. Judging Russia: Constitutional Court in Russian Politics, 1990-2006. Cambridge: New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

·       Marina Lomovtseva and Jane Henderson. „Constitutional Justice in Russia.” Review of Central and East European Law 34 (2009):37-69. Article on the development of constitutional review by the Constitutional Court of the RF as well as the constitutional courts of the subjects of the RF.  

 

Supreme Court

·       Supreme Court. No longer updated in English. The homepage gives an overview of  the Russian judicial system.  It also links to the following: Law on the Status of Judges of  1992  (updated through June 21, 1995) and the Law on the Judicial System of the Russian Federation of 1996.  (updated through April 7, 2003). Later versions of these laws are in sources listed above under Legislation on the Judicial System.  

·       Decree of the Presidium of Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (2005) “Extradition of Person is not Permitted if in Accordance with Legislation of the Russian Federation a Criminal Case May not be Instituted. Judgment may not be Brought into Execution as Consequence of Expiry of Period of Limitation.”  Sudebnik, 11:3&4, (2006).

 

Commercial (Arbitrazh) Courts

 

Commercial courts are part of the court system of the Russian federation, and deal specifically with commercial matters. The Russian term for them is “arbitrazh” courts.  This  is often translated as “arbitration,” creating confusion.  For further explanations, see  the texts by Butler and Burnham,  listed under “Major Texts” (above) in this paper. See also the article by Butler, below. Note that the English version of the Supreme Commercial Court Home site, directly below, uses the term „commercial” for „arbitrazh”.

·       Home Page of the Supreme Commercial Court. Gives some information on the structure and work of the Court and its Presidium..

·       Butler, William E.  „State Interests and Arbitration: The Russian Model.”  Pennsylvania State Law Review 113 (2009): 1189-1202. Article includes clear explanation of difference between international commercial arbitration institutions and the „arbitrazh” courts which are are an integral part of the Russian judicial system

·       „Arbitrazh Procedure Code of the Russian Federation.” Adopted in 2002. Statutes and Decisions 38:3-38:5. These three issues give the text of the Code.

·       “The Arbitrazh Courts of the Russian Federation: Continuing Evolution”. Edited and Translated by Sarah J. Reynolds. Statutes and Decisions: The Laws of the USSR and its Successor States  38:6 (2002).   Includes the following:  Law on the Arbitrazh Courts in the Russian Federation (1995 as amended 2003);  Law on Arbitrazh Assessors in the Arbitrazh Courts of the Russian Federation (2001 as amended 2002 and 2003);   documents on the practice of the arbitrazh courts.

·       “Legal Reformation: New Institutions and New Principles: Arbitrazh Courts.” Statutes and Decisions. The Laws of the USSR and its Successor States 32:4 (1996). Includes the Law on the Arbitrazh Courts of 1995;  the Arbitrazh Procedure Code of 1995.

·       “Decrees of the Supreme Arbitrazh Court: On the Legal Status of Forwards’ and “On the Operations of International Treaties of the Russian Federation Relating to Constitutions of Arbitrazh Procedure”.  Sudebnik  4:2 (1999), 337-356.

·       Decision of the Arbitrazh Court of Moscow Re: Rosneft v. Yukos (March 22 2006) Sudebnik, 11:3&4 (2006), 773-779. Translated by W.E. Butler.

·       Decree of the Ninth Arbitrazh Appellant Court Re: Rosneft v. Yukos (22 May 2006)  Sudebnik , 11:3&4 (2006), 780-791. Translated by W.E. Butler.

·       Hober, Kaj. Enforcing Foreign Arbitral Awards against Russian Entities. Irvington-on Hudson, N.Y: Transnational Juris, 1994. This book gives insight into the beginning of foreign arbitral awards enforcement by Russian courts early after the end of the Soviet system.

See also, Reynolds, Sarah.  Handbook on Commercial Dispute Resolution in the Russian Federation.  Listed under: Commercial Law: Guides/Current Awareness, in this article.

 

Legal Profession

·       “Legal Profession.”  In Russia and the Republics, v.3. This section includes legislation on various sectors of the legal profession. Some of these are: 

o   Federal Law on the Procuracy (1995, as amended 2008)

o   Federal Law on Advocate Activity and the Advokatura (2002, as amended 2007).

o   Statute on the Federal Security Service (2003, as amended 2008).

o   Law on Private Detective and Protection Activity (1992, as amended 2008).

·       “Professional Ethics for the Attorney.” Edited by Katerina P. Lewinbuk and Stephen D. Shenfield. Statutes and Decisions 43:3-43:5 (2008). These three issues deal with efforts to regulate the professional activity of defense attorneys. The first issue includes “Federal Law of the Russian Federation, No. 63-FZ, On Work as an Attorney and the Legal Profession in the Russian Federation” (2002, as last amended 2007). For another translation, see directly above.  This issue also includes the Code of Professional Ethics for the Attorney, Adopted by the First All-Russia Congress of Attorneys in 2003, as last amended 2007. Issues 4 and 5 give reports and surveys of disciplinary practice.

·       “Attorneys’ Work According to Russia’s High Courts.” Editor’s introduction by Alexei Trochev. Statutes and Decisions 43:6 (2008). This issue gives excerpts from court decisions, including the Constitutional Court, on cases involving attorneys’ attempts to protect themselves from malpractice claims and blatant pressure brought on them by authorities interfering with their work.  

·       “The Procuracy.” Statutes and Decisions 41:1-41-2 (2005). The first issue includes “The Law on the Procuracy,” (1992) and Constitutional Court rulings from 2000-2002; the second issue contains more Constitutional Court rulings and press articles regarding the procuracy.

·       Jordan, Pamela. Defending Rights in Russia: Lawyers, the State, and Legal Reform in the Post-Soviet Era. Vancouver; Toronto: UBC Press, 2005. Traces development of the advokatura (defense bar) and methods of advocacy in both criminal and civil cases from Gorbachev era to current.

·       Huskey, Eugene “The Founding of Chambers of Advocates in Putin’s Russia.”  In Public Policy and Law in Russia: In Search of a Unified Legal and Public Space: Essays in Honor of Donald D. Barry. Law in Eastern Europe; no. 55.  Edited by Robert Sharlet and Ferdinand Feldbrugge. Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2005.

·       Martindale-Hubbell International Law Directory.  Summit, N.J., Martindale-Hubbell, 1868- 1990; Reed, 1990- . Annual.  Look under “Russia” for listing of law firms. Includes biographical information on attorneys.

·       List of Attorneys From  U.S. Embassy in Moscow.

Election System

Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation  Site provides useful basic information, including make-up and functions of the Commission, explanation of election procedures, and section Election and Referendum Legislation which includes the laws listed below.

    • Federal Law on the Election of the President of the Russian Federation (2003, amended 2007).
    • Federal Law on Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the Right of Citizens of the Russian Federation to Participate in a Referendum (June 2002 as amended July 2003).
    • Federal Law on the Election of Deputies of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (2005 as amended July 2007).
    • Federal Law on the State Automated System of the Russian Federation “Vybory” (2003).
    • Federal Law on Political Parties (2001, as amended 2007).
  • Federal Law on Political Parties  (as amended 8 Nov. 2008).  In Russia and the Republics, v.1
  • Elections. Russian Federation (Legislationline).  Select „Elections” from topic listing. Gives relevant excerpts from the Constitution and links to election laws which overlap with those already listed above, (although the above are usually more current). Also  includes the Federal Law on the Administrative Liability of Legal Entities for Violations of the Russian Federation Laws on Elections and Referenda (1999), which is not included on the Central Election Commission site.
  • Russian Federation (ACE Electoral Knowledge Network) News and reports on elections in the Russian Federation.
  • Democracy.ru  Site of the NGO, Institute for Election Systems Development (IESD). This organization took over most of the activities of the International Foundation for Elections Systems (IEFS) when it withdrew from Russia. The Library of the site site includes election laws, model laws, resolutions of the Central Election Commission of the RF.  These laws are not updated.

o   Law on Political Parties of July 11, 2001.

o   Law on Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights and the Right of Citizens of the Russian Federation to Participate in a Referendum Enacted September 1997, as amended. Replaced a 1995 law.

o   Law on the Election of the President of the Russian Federation (1999)

o   Law on the Election of Deputies of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation  Another translation of this law is listed below in this section.

o   Law on Administrative Liability of Legal Entities for Violations of the Russian Federation Laws on Elections and Referenda

·        “Legal Reformation: New Institutions and New Principles. Elections: The Federal Assembly.” Statutes and Decisions. The Laws of the USSR and its Successor States. 32, no. 1(January-February 1996). Special issue devoted to legislation and decrees related to elections. Includes text of Law On Elections of Deputies to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of 21 June 1995.

 

Civil Rights

·       Freedom of Association (Legislationline) Select „Freedom of Association” from topic listing.  Besides the primary laws listed below, this site also includes secondary legislation and cases from the European Court of Human Rights.

    • Federal Law on Non-Profit Organizations (1996, amended 2003)
    • Federal Law on Political Parties (2001, amended 2005) Later version listed below.
    • Federal Law on Public Associations (1995, amended 2004)
    • Federal Law on Trade Unions and their Rights and Activities (1996, amended 2005)
    • Federal Law on State Registration of Legal Entities and Individual Entrepreneurs (2001, amended 2005) Later version listed below.
    • Federal Law on Employers’ Associations (2002)
    • Federal Law on Charitable Activities and Organizations (1995, amended 2004)
    • Federal Law on Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations (1997, amended 2004)
  • Federal Law on Political Parties (as amended 8 Nov. 2008);  Federal Law on State Registration of Juridical Persons and Individual Entrepreneurs (as amended 1 Dec. 2007).  In Russia and the Republics , v.1  and v 2 respectively.  
  • “Spies, Politics and Charities: Legal Regulation of Nongovernmental Organizations in the Russian Federation.” Statutes and Decisions: The Laws of the USSR and Its Successor States 42, no. 1(2007) and 42, no. 2 (2007). The first issue includes press and journal articles on potential threat to NGO’s with foreign connections, and the law “On Noncommercial Organizations,” (1996 as amended through Feb. 2, 2006). The second issue includes the following laws: “On Social Organizations,” (1995); “On Charitable Activity and Charitable Organizations (1995 as amended through Aug. 22, 2004); “On Associations of Employers,” (2002); “On Political Parties,” (2001 as amended through July 12, 2006).
  • Some Issues Related to Russia’s New NGO Law (International Journal of Not-For-Profit-Law, 8, no.3, (May 2006) Article by Natalia Bourjaily analyzing the main provisions of the 2006 law and its relationship to international law.
  • Henderson, Jane E. “Defending the Rights and Freedoms of Citizens in the Russian Federation.” Sudebnik 3 (1998): 293-302.  Includes „Law On Appealing to a Court Actions and Decisions Violating the Rights and Freedoms of Citizens.”
  • Freedom of Assembly  (Legislationline) Select  topic „Freedom of Assembly.” Includes the legislation listed below. Also provides an excerpt from Art. 31 of the Constitution and commentary on the relationship of international law and domestic Russian Federation law regarding freedom of assembly.

o   Federal Law on Assemblies, Meetings, Demonstrations, Processions and Pickets (2004)

o   Code of Administrative Offences, excerpts from Chapt. 20, which deals with Offences encroaching on Public Order and Security.

Religion

·       Federal Law  on the Freedom of Conscience and on Religious Associations (as amended 23 July 2008). In Russia and the Republics, v. 1.

·       Law on Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations (last amended 2004) and Law on Charitable Activities and Organisations (last amended 2004) Legislationline. Topic „Freedom of Association.”  Earlier versions of the laws are found  on the site directly below.

·       Religion and Law Consortium   (Replaces earlier Religion and Law site from Brigham Young University).  Select “Russia” from country portal list. Links to laws, decisions decisions  of the European Court of Human Rights, government reports, etc.  Also includes earlier, pre-amended  versions of the two laws found on the Legislationline site above,  Law on the Freedom on Conscience and Religious Associations and Law on Charitable Organizations. 

·       U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom  Select „Russia” from listing on left. The site issues  Annual Reports on religious freedom in specific countries, including Russia. 

·       Emory International Law Review. Special Issue “Proselytism in Russia.” Winter 1998.  This issue contains articles and legislation, including the Law on Freedom of Conscience and Religious Associations and Law of the Tula Region on Missionary (Religious) Activity on the Territory of the Tula Region.

Citizenship

·       Federal Law on the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation (as amended to 29 Dec. 2006).  In Russia and the Republics, v.3. This version is more current than the ones listed below.

·       Citizenship: Russian Federation. (Legislationline)  Select topic „Citizenship”. Gives relevant excerpts from Constitution and the  Law on Citizenship of 2002 as amended 2004.

·       Federal Law on Citizenship (2002) From Council of Europe.

·       Federal Law Concerning the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation (2002)  From Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.

Migration

  • Federal Law on Refugees (as amended 23 July 2008)  and Law on Forced Resettlers (as amended 23 July 2008). In Russia and the Republics, v.1.

·       Migration: Russian Federation (Legislationline) Provides relevant constitutional provisions, and several laws, including  Law on Refugees, Federal Law on the Procedure for Exiting and Entering the Russian Federation, Federal Law  on the State Border (1993, as amended 2005).

·       Refworld: Russian Federation (UNHCR) Comprehensive site gives information on cases from courts in other countries as well as the European Court of Human Rights involving Russian matters, legislation, policy matters on refugees. Has category “Legal Information,” which can be searched by “type,” i.e. national legislation, case law, treaties, etc.  Among the laws provided are Law on Forced Migrants (1995);  Federal Law on Citizenship (2002); Federal Law on the Procedure for Exit from the Russian Federation and Entering  into the Russian Federation (1996), and others.

·       European Country of Origin Network: Russia  Provides background information and legislation relevant to asylum issues.  Has links to relevant laws, most of them from the site, Legislationline.

Human Rights

·       Country Reports on Human Rights Practice  (U.S. State Department) . Select year, then country.

·       UN Office of the  High Commissioner for  Human Rights : Russian Federation. Information on status of ratification of human rights treaties, relationship between Russian Federation and UN human rights bodies, etc.

·       Federal Constitutional Law on the Plenipotentiary for Human Rights in the Russian Federation (as amended 16 October 2006). In Russia and the Republics, vol. 1. 

·       Federal Constitutional Law on the Commissioner of Human Rights in the Russian Federation  (Ombudsman Information Network)

·       News on Human Rights in the Russian Federation (Council of Europe)

·       Policing and Minorities in the Russian Federation: Key International Guidance Documents and Case Studies.Prepared by European Dialogue (UK) with the Support of the Council of Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Pub., 2008). Guidebook setting out international standars on good practice in policing minority communities, meant for use in Higher Institutes of Police Training in the Russian Federation.

·       Ethnic Minorities and Access to Justice in the Russian Federation: Cooperation between Ethnic Minorities and the Police at the Local Level. (European Dialogue)

·       Saari, Sinikukka. Promoting Democracy and Human Rights in Russia. London; New York: Routledge, 2010.

·       Rudinsky, F.M. Civil Human Rights in Russia: Modern Problems of Theory and Practice. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publ., 2008.

·       Burkov, Anton. The Impact of the European Convention on Human Rights on Russian Law: Legislation and Application 1996-2006. Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2007. Appendices contain translations, some in extract form, of Russian legislation.

·       Gilligan, Emma. Defending Human Rights in Russia: Sergei Kovalyov, Dissident and Human Rights Commissioner, 1969-2004. London; New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2004.

·       Gilligan, Emma. Terror in Chechnya: Russia and the Tragedy of Civilians in War. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 2010.

·       Human Rights in Russia and Eastern Europe: Essays in Honor of Ger P. van den Berg. Edited by Ferdinand Feldbrugge and William B. Simons. The Hague; New York: M. Nijhoff, 2002.

·       Weiler, Jonathan Daniel. Human Rights in Russia: a Darker Side of Reform. Boulder, Colo.; Lynne Rienner Pub., 2004.

·       Russian Federation, Lessons Not Learned: Human Rights Abuses and HIV/AIDS in the Russian Federation. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2004.

·       Sidorenko-Stephenson, Svetlana. Legal Reform and Human Rights in Russia: Key Developments and Actors. Colchester: Human Rights Centre, University of Essex, 1998.

  • The Post-Soviet Handbook: A Guide to Grassroots Organizations and Internet Resources. Rev. Ed. By M. Holt Ruffin et al. Foreword by S. Frederick Starr. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999. Outdated, but useful for historical research. Detailed guide to independent, non-governmental organizations in the countries of the former Soviet Union, including Russia.  Consists of two parts: the first part profiles the organizations, the second part lists Internet resources in the various countries. Much material from this book also available  electronically NIS Law and Human Rights Organizations by Country.  Select "Russia" from country listing.

 

Media

·       Media Law  (Moscow Media Law and Policy Institute, a regional NGO). Site has  translations of  laws, Constitutional Court decisions, governmental decrees, etc. One of the laws is  Law on Mass Media (1991, as last amended Dec. 8, 2003);  this is the Supreme Court decision: Decision of the Plenum of the Supreme Court,  No. 3, of Feb. 24, 2005, “On Judicial Practice at Disposal of Cases on Protection of Honour and Dignity of Persons, and Also Business Reputation of Persons and Legal Entitities)

·       Post-Soviet Media Law and Policy Newsletter New York, N.Y: 1993-1999. 10 issues per year. Ceased publication. Published by the Russian-American Press and Information Center, New York University Center for War, Peace, and the News Media and the Howard Squadron Program in Law, Media and Society at Cardozo Law School, Yeshiva University University and the Moscow Media Law  and Policy Center.  

·       Price, Monroe,  Andrei  Richter and Peter K. Yu.  Russian Media Law and Policy in the Yeltsin Decade: Essays and Documents. Edited by The Hague; London; New York: Kluwer Law International, 2002.  This book contains articles, decisions, and legislative material. Much of this appeared earlier in the Post-Soviet Media Law and Policy Newsletter, which is listed directly above. Among the included items of legislation are: Law on Advertising (1995), and Law on the State Support of the Mass Media and Book-Publishing in the Russian Federation (1995)

·       Azhgikhina, Nadezhda.  “The Struggle for Press Freedom in Russia: Reflections of a Russian Journalist.”  Europe-Asia Studies  59 (2007): 1245-1262

Intellectual Property

·       Federal Service for Intellectual Property, Patents and Trademarks (Rospatent) Official site. Provides news on developments and programs, including information on international cooperation projects. Some information is in Russian only. (As of this writing, part of site is “under construction.”

·       Intellectual Property.” In Russia and the Republics, v. 2.  Some of the items included in this section are the following:

o   Law on Author’s and Neighboring Rights (as amended to 20 July 2004).

o   Law on Trademarks, Service Marks, and Names of Places of Origin of Goods (as amended to 24 Dec. 2002).

o   Patent Law of the Russian Federation (as amended to 6 Feb. 2006).

o   Law on the the Legal Protection of Programs for Electronic Computers and Data Bases (as amended to 2 Feb. 2006).

o   Law on the Legal Protection of Topologies of Integral Microcircuits (as amended to 2 Feb. 2006).  

o   Statute on Patent Attorneys (12 Feb. 1993).

·       Intellectual Property: Eastern Europe and Commonwealth of Independent States. Compiled and edited by David Garrison. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana, 1995-. (Looseleaf)  As of this writing, includes these Russian Federation laws: Patent Law (as amended 2003); Law on Copyright and Related Rights (as amended 2004); Law on the Legal Protection of the Topologies of Integrated Circuits (updated 2002); This work also gives background information and forms needed in intellectual property practice.

  • Intellectual Property Law in the Russian Federation: basic legislation. 4th revised ed.  Introduction and translation by W.E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill, 2005.  Translations of most important legislation in this field.

·       CIPR -Coalition for Intellectual Property Rights  Private-Public Organization which monitors IP developments in CIS and Baltic Countries. Includes links to IPR Laws for Russia

·       WIPOLex: National Legislation: Russian Federation (World Property Organization) Provides listing of most important currently in-force legislation on intellectual property. As of this writing, very few are available in full-text English translation.

·       Sojuzpatent  (Russian firm specializing in Intellectual property). Provides news and press releases on intellectual property developments. Section on “ip legislation” gives international agreements and translations of these Russian Federation laws on intellectual property. The laws are not updated.  

o   Patent Law(1992)

o   Law on Trademarks, Service Marks and Appellation of Origins of Goods (1992)

o   Law on the Legal Protection of the Topologies of Integrated Circuits (1992)

o   Law on Protection of Selection Achievements

o   Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights (1993)

·       Julian Zeligman. Researching Intellectual Property Law in the Russian Federation (LLRX) Thorough guide to Intellectual Property Law background and sources, explanations of individual laws, as well as useful information on researching Russian law in general.

·       Intellectual Property in the Russian Federation: A System in Transition.  Elst, Michiel and Katlijn Malfliet, eds. Brussels: Bruylant, 1994.  Includes many laws dealing with intellectual property, including the Patent Law, Law on Copyright and Neighboring Rights from early post-Soviet period.  

·       Elst, Michiel. Copyright, Freedom of Speech, and Cultural Policy in the Russian Federation. Leiden: M. Nijhoff, 2005.

 

Telecommunications

·       Telecommunictions Law of Russia: Statutes and Statutory Instruments. Translated by Olga Markova. [London:] Lawcis Research and Consultancy, ltd. 2006.  Contains translation of  Law on Communication of July 2003 and selected statutory items implementing it, including ordinances and decrees of the President and government and orders of federal executive authorities. Most of the material effective as of 1 August 2006. 

Arbitration (Private and International)

·       Law of the Russian Federation on International Commercial Arbitration. In Force 14 August 1993.  From LexMercatoria.

·       Federal Law on International Commercial Arbitration (7 July 1993).  In Russia and the Republics, v.3.

·       The International Commercial Arbitration Court at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation  This is the most important international arbitration court in the Russian Federation. Site provides information on Procedure, Costs, Documents, Enforcement of Awards.

·       Budylin, Sergey. “Judging the Arbiters: the Enforcement of Foreign International Awards in Russia.”  Review of Central and East European Law 34(2009):137-172.

·       Khrenov, Alexander and Andrew Yukov, “Russia,” In The European & Middle Eastern Arbitration Review 2010. Brief overview of International Arbitration in the Russian Federation.

·       Komarov, A.S. „Overview of the Revised Rules of the International Commercial Arbitration Court at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation (the ICAC),”   The Journal of Eurasian Law 1 (2008), 129-136. Author is President of the ICAC.

·       Marisin, Ivan and Aitkulov, Timur. „The New Russian International Arbitration Rules (The Rules of the International Commercial Arbitration Court at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation),” The Journal of Eurasian Law 1 (2008),  137-148.

·       International Commercial Arbitration and International Maritime Law from a German and Russian Perspective. Trunk, Alexander  & Valerij A. Musin, eds.  Munster: LIT, 2004.

·       World Arbitration Reporter. 2d ed. Loukas Mistelis, Laurence Shore and Hans Smit, eds. Huntington, N.Y.: Juris Publishing, 2010-. Multi-volume, loose-leaf set. Vol. 1A contains National Report on the Russian Federation by Ivan Marisin and Roman Khodkykin; Vol. 2 contains an article on the International Commercial Arbitration Court (IAC) and Maritime Arbitration Comission (MAC) at the Russian Federatdion Chamber of Commerce and Industry by Roman Khodyrkin.  

·       Litigation and Arbitration in Central and Eastern Europe. Rivkin, David W. and Charles Platto, eds. The Hague; Boston:  Kluwer Law International, 1998.  Contains: “Arbitration in Russia”, by Andrey Gorodissky. Also includes, in Annex IV of book: Law on International Commercial Arbitration of July 7, 1993; Rules of the International Commercial Arbitration Court at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation; Statute on the International Commercial Arbitration Court at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation.

·       “Rules of International Commercial Arbitration Court of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Russian Federation.” Translated  by W.B. Simons and C. Vaughn-Kirov.  Review of Central and East European Law 22 (1996): 33-53.

Property

  • Russian Civil and Commercial Law: v. 1: General Provisions, Ownership. V.P. Mozolin and A.I. Masliaev, editors; William E. Butler, editor and translator. This publication listed under “Major Texts” earlier in this paper. This volume is published in association with the Moscow State Legal Academy.
  • Renaud, Bertrand M., et. al. “Property Rights and Real Estate Privatization in Russia: A Work in Progress.” In Property Rights and Land Policies. Edited by Gregory K. Ingram and Yu-Hung Hong. Cambridge, MA. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2009. Compares development of property rights in Estonia and Russia. Includes tables showing time-line of land and property laws in Russia. Gregory M. Ingram and Yu-Hung Hong, eds. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2009.

·       Mozolin, Viktor P. Property Law in Contemporary Russia. (Washington, D.C: International Law Institute, 1994-. (Looseleaf). Includes legislation and amendments up to 1992. Has not been updated.

 

Labor

For other versions of the Labor Code, see the “Compilations of Legislation” and “Codes” sections of this article, above.  

·       Natlex Natlex is the database of the International Labor Organization of National Legislation on Labour, Social Security and Related Human Rights. Select "Russian Federation" from country list. Information in English on the laws and decrees retrieved is generally in abstract form; full text versions are usually only in Russian; however,  full-text English translations are available for the following: Labor Code of the Russian Federation (197-FZ) of December 31, 2001;  Law( No. 10-FZ)  On Trade Unions of January 12, 1996;  Act No. 24901 On Collective Agreements of March 11, 1992;  Law No. 125-FZ On Compulsory Social Insurance Against Accidents at Work and Occupational diseases of July 24, 1998;  Law on the Prevention of the Spread in the Russian Federation of Diseases Caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV-Infection) of March 30, 1995;  Law on Rallies, Meetings, Demonstrations, Marches and Picketing of June 19, 2004; (from Legislationline site, under topic „Freedom of Assembly.”  The Natlex site also gives citations for the location of English translations in print sources, and it  also lists repealed laws.

 

Education

·       Lauwers, Gracienne. The Impact of  the European Convention on Human Rights on the Right to Education in Russia, 1992-2004. Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers, 2005.  Includes Law on Higher Education and Post-Graduate Education; Law on National Cultural Autonomy; Law on the Languages of the People of the Russian Federation and other legal material.

 

Health

·       Butler, William Elliott. Narcotics and HIV/AIDS  in Russia: Harm Reduction Policies under Russsian  Law. London: Wildy, Simmonds & Hill Law Publishing, 2005.  Includes selected Russian Federation legislation and U.N. conventions.

·       Federal Law on Narcotic Means and Psychotropic Substances (1998, as amended 2007). In Russia and the Republics, v.3.

 

Family

For other versions of the Family Code, check  „ Compilation of Legislation” and „Codes” sections of this paper.  

·        Federal Law on Trusteeship and Guardianship (24 Apr. 2008, as amended to 18 July 2009 and Federal Law on Acts of Civil Status (15 Nov. 1997, as amended to 18 July 2009). In  Russia and the Republics, v. 2.

·       Intercountry Adoption. From U.S. Dept. of State. Select „Russia” from Country Information listing. Summarizes procedures for adopting child  from Russia.

·       “Procedural Remedies in the Event of Foreign Adoptions,” Ruling of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, 20 December 2005, excerpts translated by William Butler.  Sudebnik  11:2 (2006): 361-362.

·       Antolskaia, Maria V. “The 1995 Russian Family Code: A  New  Approach to the Regulation of Family Relations.”  Review of Central and East European Law 22:6 (1996): 635-660.

Environment

·       Ecolex  (FAO, IUCN, UNEP) Comprehensive site providing multiple search options to retrieve environmental news, legislation, court cases, treaties, etc. for many countries. The site is quite current in updating. Legislative material is given in abstract form in English, but full text is usually in Russian. However, some items appear in full text in English, for example, see the Forest Code of 2006 and the Forest Code of 1997 below.

·       Forest Code of 2006 (Ecolex)

·       Forest Code of 1997  (Ecolex)

·       Russia Federal Forest Code of 1997  From site of Russian NGO "Forest Club".

·       FAOLEX   (Food and Agriculture Organization)  Database contains national legislation on topics within FOA’s mandate. Much overlap with Ecolex site above since FAO is one of the  joint operators  of  Ecolex.  There are multiple search options. Retrieves  abstracts of ministerial decrees and orders, laws, treaties, etc.  in English. (Full text is usually in Russian, but links to English translations provided if available.

·       The Environment and the Violations of Human Rights: Special Report of the Commissioner on Human Rights in the Russian Federation. Sofia: Pensoft, 2004.

Criminal Justice

For Criminal Code and Criminal Code of Procedure, check under the „Compilation of Legislation” and  „Codes” sections of this paper.

  • Burnham, William and Jeffrey Kahn, “Russia’s Criminal Procedure Code Five Years Out.”  Review of Central and East European Law  33:1 (2008), 1-93.
  • Pomorski, Stanislaw. “Consensual Justice in Russia: Guilty Pleas Under the 2001 Code of Criminal Procedure.”  In  Public Policy and Law in Russia: In Search of a Unified Legal and Political Space: Essays in Honor of Donald D. Barry. Law in Eastern Europe, no. 55. Edited by Robert Sharlet and Ferdinand Feldbrugge. Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2005, 188-198.

·       Death Penalty. Russian Federation (Legislationline)  Select  topic “Death Penalty.” Discusses legal framework for death penalty in the Russian Federation, and the Moratorium installed in 1996.

·       Mikhlin, Aleksandr S. The Death Penalty in Russia. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1999.  History of death penalty in pre-Soviet and Soviet periods, and application and regulation of the death penalty in the Russian Federation.

·       Piacentini, Laura. Surviving Russian Prisons: Punishment, Economy and Politics in Transition. Cullompton, Devon and Portland, Oregon: Willan, 2004.  Based on field work in Smolensk, Omsk and Keremovo regions.

·       Ruling Russia: Law, Crime and Justice in a Changing Societ. William Alex Pridemore, editor.  Lanham, Md.:  Rowman & Littlefield, 2005. Articles on many aspects of crime and criminal justice  by both Russian and other scholars.  Some of these articles are: „The Criminal Procedure Code of 2001: Will It Make Russian Justice More Fair?” by Peter H. Solomon; „Juvenile Crime and Justice in Post-Soviet Russia,” by Daniel G. Rodeheaver and James L. Williams; „Injecting Drug Use and HIV: Harm Reduction Programs and the Russian Legal System,” by William E. Butler;  „The Russian Correctional System during the Transition,” by Roy King and Laura Piacentini.

Terrorism and Related Issues

·       Terrorism: Russian Federation (Legislationline)  Select topic “Terrorism.”  Includes the Federal Constitutional Law “On the State of Emergency,”  (2001 as amended 2005),  other primary laws, secondary legislation, as well as a case from the European Court of Human Rights.

·       “Defining Terrorism”. Statutes and Decisions 40:5 ( Sept.-Oct. 2004); “Antiterrorist Laws and Agreements in Russia and the Commonwealth States.” 40:6 (Nov.-Dec. 2004). Edited by Stephen D. Schenfeld.  The first of these two issues deals with the problem of elaborating coherent legal definitions for “terrorism,”; issue no. 6 contains the basic antiterrorist laws, as well as related laws such as those on money laundering, financing terrorist acts or terrorist

acts against railroads; also included are documents on interstate cooperation against terrorism among the CIS states.

·       “The Development of the Russian Law  ‘On Countering Extremist Activity’.”  Statutes and Decisions 43:1-43-2 (2008). The first issue includes “Law of the Russian Federation ‘On Countering Extremist Activity” as adopted July 25, 2002, as well as a governmental decree, orders of the General Procuracy and a determination of the Constitutional Court in regard to extremist activity, as well as newspaper articles. The second issue contains press coverage measures taken in regard to extremist activity.

·       Russian and Eurasian Security Network  News and analysis of security-related issues.

·       Intelligence Related Laws and Decrees (Federation of  American Scientists). Some translated laws included are: On the Fight Against Terrorism (of July 25, 1998); On Foreign Intelligence, (January 10, 1996); On Information, Informatization, and the Protection of Information, (February 20, 1995). Also includes many presidential decrees dealing with security issues, statutes of bodies involved with security, and other related material. Also:  Statute on Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation and Structure of Federal Security Agencies (2003).

·       Agentura  Russian web-site founded by journalists for monitoring Russian and Western security agencies. Provides current news, and links to information on intelligence services, counterterrorism measures, etc.

 

Military

·       Arbatov, Aleksei Georgievich  and  E.L. Chernikov. Russian Federation Legal Acts on Civil-Military Relations: Collection of Documents. Moscow: DCAF: Foundation for Political Centrism, 2003.

 

Comparative Law

·       Saidov, A. Kh. Comparative Law (Sravnitelnoe pravovedenie). Translated from the Russian and edited by W.E. Butler. London: Wildy, Simmonds & Hill, 2003.

International Law and Foreign Affairs

Official Bodies

·       Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation  News, some transcripts of speeches, press releases, etc.

·       Embassy of the Russian Federation to the United States Lots of useful information on visas, power of attorney, business in Russia, etc.

·       Embassy of the United States in Moscow-Russia. U.S. Lots of useful information, including  criminal matters, authentication of documents, enforcement of judgments, etc.

·       Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the United Nations  Official news, press releases and articles, etc.

Treaties, Laws

·       „Foreign Relations Law.”  In Russia and the Republics, v. 3. This section includes Federal Law on International Treaties of the Russian Federation (as amended 2007), as well as several other foreign law items.

·       The Law of Treaties in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States: Text and Commentary. Commentary by W.E. Butler. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Contains translation of 1995 “ Law on International Treaties of the Russian Federation.” Commentary on Russian law and comparisons with corresponding provisions of legislation of other CIS countries.

·       CIS Treaties and Agreements (theRussiasite) Includes  Agreement on the Establishement of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and Charter of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Unofficial translations by John Fowler.

·       Law of the Sea treaties and legislation.  From UN Division of Ocean Affairs and Law of the Seas.  Legislation on continental shelf, borders, and treaties with other countries on maritime issues.

·       Partnership and Co-operation Agreement between the European Union and Russia (1994)  From Eur-lexLex.

·       Moscow Journal of International Law. Experimental Digest Issue in English.  Contains selection of articles from the  Russian version  from 2000-2001. The table of contents is on p. 9. Scroll down on left for specific pages. The section “Documents,”  which begins on p. 231, contains the following:  Shanghai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism; Treaty on a Customs Union and a Unified Economic Area; Treaty on the Institution of the Eurasian Economic Community.

·       Law on Trophy Art (Documentation Project) Includes both Russian and English versions of law on art which was taken from other countries during World War II and moved to the Soviet Union.

Books and Journals

·       International Affairs. A Russian Journal of World Politics, Diplomacy, and International Relations. Moscow. (English version of the journal of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. Also available on-line through Eastview Information Services.

·       International Law: a Russian Introduction. [Edited by] V.I. Kuznetsov and B.R. Tuzmukhamedov; edited and translated, with an introduction,  by William E. Butler. Utrecht: Eleven International Pub., 2009. This important text includes articles by leading Russian scholars  and officials involved in foreign affairs.

·       The Role of Domestic Courts in Treaty Enforcement: a Comparative Study. Edited by David Sloss. Cambridge; N.Y. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009. Chapter on Russian Federation is by William E. Butler.

·       Zimnenko, V.L. International Law and the Russian Legal System. Edited and Translated, with an Introduction, by William E. Butler. Utrecht: Eleven International Publishing, 2007. Contains  Table of Judicial Practice, Table of Russian Legislation, Table of USSR Legislation, Table of Treaties, Table of Documents of International Organizations.

·       Kovalev, A. A. Contemporary Issues of the Law of the Sea: Modern Russian Approaches. Edited and translated by W.E. Butler. Utrecht: Eleven Intl. Publ., , 2004.

·       Langstrom, Tarja. Transformation in Russia and International Law. Leiden; Boston: M. Nijhoff Pub., 2003.

·       International Law in Russia and Eastern Europe: Essays in Honor of George Ginsburgs. Clark, Roger, Ferdinand Feldbrugge and Stanislaw Pomorski, eds. The Hague; Boston; London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2001 (Law in Eastern Europe, No. 49).   Includes following essays: "Recourse Against Judgments in Civil and Criminal Cases in the Russian Federation," by Ger P. van den Berg; "Contemporary International Criminal Law: Concepts and Features," by I.I. Lukashuk; "Moscow's Diplomacy in International Organizations," by Alvin Z. Rubinstein; "TheEnforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards Under Russian Law: The (Ab)use of the Public Policy Doctrine in Russian Courts," by William B. Simons.  

·       Ginsburgs, George. From Soviet to Russian International Law: Studies in Continuity and Change. (Law in Eastern Europe, vol. 48).The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1998.

·       Constitutional Reform and International Law in Central and Eastern Europe. Mullerson, Rein, et.al., eds.  The Hague: Kluwer Law International, 1997.  Includes following essays: “Reference to International Law in the Decided Cases of the First Russian Constitutional Court” by  J. Henderson; “The First Russian Constitutional Court: Hopes and Aspiration” by J. Henderson; “The Russian Treaty Law and the Vienna Convention on Treaties” by M. Andenas; “The New Federal  Law on International Treaties of the Russian Federation” by S. Pounjine.

 

Commercial Law & Business Information

 

Major Web Sites for Commercial/Business Information

·       Russian Country Commercial Guide  From U.S. Commercial Service (U.S. Dept. of Commerce).    

·       American Chamber of Commerce in Russia The “Doing Business in Russia” section  of  the site gives information on Business Regulations and Legislation, and recent developments in specific areas, such as energy, customs, investment, labor, property rights, real estate. The “Legislative Updates” section is very useful for tracking developments on pending legislation

·        Registration of Documents for Conducting Business Activities in Russia  (Embassy of the Russian Federation to the U.S.A.) The Consular section of this site also gives information regarding Business Visas,  the Legalization, Registration, Translation and Obtaining of  Documents on Demand, etc.

·       Federal Customs Service (Russian Federation) Links to Customs Code and Customs Tariffs.

·       European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Corporate Governance Codes. Select „Russia” from listing of countries. The EBRD also provides much other information, including Country Law Assessment regarding the adherence of a country’s commmercial laws to international standards

·       Federal Antimonopoly Service (Russian Federation). Includes news, policy decisions, legislation, etc. Section „Legislation” includes translation of  Federal Law On Protection of Competition (2006)  as well as other laws and regulations.

 

Guides/Current Awareness Information

·       Doing Business and Investing in the Russian Federation (from firm PriceWaterhouseCoopers) Accesss to 2010 report.   

·       Doing Business in Russia (from firm of Baker & McKenzie).

·       Doing Business Project (Int’l. Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank) Access this extensive site by selecting from „topics”  such as Starting a Business, Dealing with Construction Projects,  etc. and selecting „Russian Federation”  from „economies” listing. Site gives summaries of procedures involved in various aspects of business in the Russian Federation.

·       Country Taxation and Business Guides (From PKG Int’l. Ltd. Network) Select Russia from listing of countries.

·       Economic Crime in a Downturn-Russia  (PriceWaterhouse Coopers) Report from 5th Global Economic Crime Survey.

·       Russian Federation (From OECD) Statistics, reports, information on many topics such as energy, corporate governance, tax, etc.

·       Economic Survey of Russia (From OECD)

·       Ernst and Young  „Russian Federation” in search box retrieves current information on many aspects of business in Russia.

·       Russia and the EU (EUBusiness) Business news about Russia and the European Union

·       Russian Law News From firm of Dewey and LeBoeuf. Useful and timely articles on legislation affecting business.  Provides useful links to other Russian law sources.

·       Legal Guide to doing Business in Russia and the Former Republics of the USSR. Edited by Aviva Yakren. Chicago: Sect. Of International Law & Practice, American Bar Association, 2000.

·       Reynolds, Sarah. Handbook on Commercial Dispsute Resolutio in the Russian Federation: a Guide for Businesses on Navigating the Russian Legal System for Resolution of Business Disputes. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of Commerce. 2000. Gives detailed information on various bodies involved in dispute resolution, stressing especially the important role of arbitrazh courts.  Outlines steps of procedures in filing claims, responding to petitions, filing appeals, etc. Appendices give examples of petitions, responses to petitions, appeal complaint, etc.  Also available in print format.

·       BNA’s Eastern European Reporter. Washington, D.C: Bureau of National Affairs, 1991- (Looseleaf). Bi-monthly.  Provides current coverage of legal aspects of commerce. Short overview of recent Developments. Includes country reports, industry checklist, and highlights. 

·       International Comparative Legal Guide Series (ICLG)  Site provides practical information on a range of legal practice areas for many coutries. Select a practice area and then select country. Guides are updated annually. Information is provided by law firms usually located in specific country. Guides for Russia at this writing include Environment Law, Competition Litigation, Corporate Recovery an Insolvency, Corporate Tax, International Arbitration, Litigation and Dispute Resolution,  Merger Control, Mergers and Acquisition.

 

Compilations of Laws on Business

More Recent

·       „Economic Societies and Partnerships.”  In Russia and the Republics, v.2. Among the laws includes in this section are: Federal Law on  Commercial Secrecy (as amended 2007) and Federal Law on Limited Responsibility Societies (as amended 2009).

·        Russian Company and Commercial Legislation. Compiled  and edited, with a translation from the Russian and an introduction, by W.E. Butler. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.  Contains principal enactments of civil legislation which are considered by Russian legal doctrine to fall into domain of commercial and company law as of 1 February 2003. Includes legislation on companies, insurance, insolvency, non-commercial organizations, and foreign investment. The Introduction discusses the complex and controversial meanings in the Russian language of the terms “commercial”, “company”, “trade” and “entrepreneurial” law.

 

Earlier Compilations Still Useful for Research

·       Birenbaum, David Business Ventures in Eastern Europe and Russia.Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall Law and Business, 1992. 2 vols.  (Looseleaf)  Commentary and translations of laws. V. 2. contains full text of legislation. Has not been updated since 1993, but still excellent source for laws of that period.

·       Business and Commercial Laws of Russia: Translations with Expert Commentary. J.P. Hupp, gen. ed. Translations by Russica Information, Inc. Colorado Springs, CO: Shepard’s McGraw Hill, 1993-1995. 3 vols. (Looseleaf). Suspended at end of 1995, but still valuable   for research.

·       Trade and Commercial Laws of the Russian Federation: Official Codification and Commentary. Compiled and edited by the Academy of Jurisprudence of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation, The Institute of Economic Problems of the Transitional Period of the Academy of Sciences of the Russian Federation in Association with Dickie, McCamey & Chilcote, P.C.; commentaries by the Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Law faculty. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Pub., 1993. (Looseleaf).  Not updated since 1996, still useful for research.

·       Romanovskaia, N.v.  and R. G. Allen., eds. Commercial Code of Russia: an Adaptive Translation of the Laws of the Russian Federation Relating to Domestic and Foreign Commerce. Manassas, Va.:  AHH Publications, 1993-1999. (Looseleaf). Publication ceased, but still good as research source.

 

Books on  Commercial Law

  • Oda, Hiroshi. Russian Commercial Law. Leiden; New York: Martinus Nijoff Pub., 2d. ed. 2007.  Comprehensive text covering all aspects of commercial law.

·       Investor Protection in the CIS: Legal Reform and Voluntary Harmonization. Law in Eastern Europe, no. 57. Rilka Dragneva, editor. Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007.  Although focus is on CIS as whole, legislation and legal developments in specific countries, including Russia,  are also  examined. Go to Index for starting points.

·       Remaking the Role of Law. Commercial Law in Russia and the CIS. Kathryn Hendley, editor. Huntington, N.Y. : Juris Publishing, 2007. Papers from a conference held at the Kennan Institute in 2004.  

·       Frenkel, William G. Commercial Law of Russia: A Legal Treatise. Irvington - on-Hudson: Transnational Juris, 1995-. (Looseleaf).  Contains detailed explanations of laws relating to property, business organizations, foreign investment, etc. and includes select translations of legislation. Not updated since 1997.

·       Tolonen, Juha and Boris Topornin. Legal Foundations of the Russian Economy. Helsinki: Kikimora Publications, 2000.

Banking

·       Central Bank of Russia   Section on „Legal Status” provides link to Federal Law on the Central Bank (last updated  2009) as of this writing.

·       Law on the Protection of Competition on the Financial Services Market (Federal Antimonopoly Service).

·       Johnson, Juliet Ellen. A Fistful of Rubles: The Rise and Fall of the Russian Banking System. Ithaca., N.Y.; London: Cornell University Press, 2000. Study of causes for the collapse of the Russian banking system in 1998.

 

Bankruptcy

·       "Legislation on Bankruptcy in the Russian Federation: A Special Issue." Review of Central and East European Law. 25:1&2 (1999).Contains translations of the laws On Insolvency (Bankruptcy) and On Insolvency of Credit Organizations; also related decrees of the Government and of the Central Bank.

·       Federal Law of the Russian Federation on Insolvency (Bankruptcy). Text of law is included In: A.Iu. Bushev, D.V. Khokhlov, O.Iu. Skortsov. “The Theoretical Underpinnings of Commercial Law: A Russian View of Bankruptcy and Securities.” Special Issue. Review of Central and East European Law, 30:2-4 (2005). In-depth examination of Bankruptcy and Securities law in the Russian Federation.

 Foreign Investment

·       “Foreign Relations Law.”  In Russia and the Republics, v. 3. This section of the set includes Federal Law on Foreign Investments (1999, as amended 2007) and Federal Law on the Procedure for the Effectuation of Foreign Investments in Economic Societies Having Strategic Significance for Ensuring the Defense of the Country and Security of the State (2008). Another translation of this  2008 law is also found on the Federal Antimonopoly Service site listed in the  next section below in this paper.

·       Butler, William E. Russian Foreign Relations and Investment Law. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.

·       Butler, William E. Foreign Investment Law in the Commonwealth of Independent States. London, Simmonds & Hill, 2002. The Introduction gives background of development of foreign investment legislation and guidance to its practical application. The Appendix includes translations of legislation.

·       OECD Investment Policy Review of Russia:  Strengthening the Policy Framework for Investment (2008)

·       Russian Federation: Strengthening the Policy Framework for Investment.  Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2008.

·       Heath, Jesse R. “Strategic Protectionism? Foreign Investment and National Security in the Russian Federation.”  Gives background and analysis of foreign strategic sectors investment law of 2008.

Company and Corporation Law (Multiple laws)

  • Federal Antimonopoly Service Comprehensive site which includes many laws, articles, governmental resolutions, etc. regarding market competition.
  • Company Law (Lexadin. Legislation. Russia) Some material found here is taken from the site directly above.

Joint Stock Companies

·       Federal Law on Joint-Stock Societies (1995, as amended 2007). In  Russia and the Republics, v. 2.

·       Russian Joint-Stock Societies: Basic Legislation. Edited and translated by William E. Butler. London: Simmonds & Hill, 1996.

·       Federal Law on Joint Stock Companies. Translation of 1995 law by William E. Butler.

·       Russian Law on Joint Stock companies. Moscow: Baker & McKenzie, 1996. Russian Federal law on Joint Stock Companies, adopted by State Duma on Nov. 24, 1995, entered into force Jan. 1, 1996.

·       Black, Bernard S. Guide to the Russian Federal Law on Joint Stock Companies: Commentary and Material. Kluwer. 1998.

Monopoly

·       “Legal Reformation: New Institutions and New Principles: The Creation and Regulation of Markets: Demonopolization and Competition.” Statutes and Decisions: The Laws of the USSR and Its Successor States. 31:1(Jan.-Feb. 1995) - 31:3 (May-June1995). These 3 issues bring together various laws, orders, presidential edicts and decisions of the Arbitration Court from 1992 to 1995 dealing with competition and anti-monopoly issues and policy. Issue 31, no.2 focuses on consumer protection, and has different subtitle, “Consumer Protection” instead of “Demonopolization and Competition?

 

Securities

·       Belov, V.A.  Paperless Securities. Translated,  with an introduction, by William E. Butler and Maryann E. Gashi-Butler. 3rd rev. ed. London: Wildy, Simmonds & Hill Publishers, Ltd., 2003.

Tax

For Tax Code, check sources under the “ Compilation of Legislation” and “Codes” sections  of this guide. Many of publications  listed above under “Guides/Current Awareness Information” contain explanations of tax matters.

  • Karasseva, Marina. Tax Law in Russia. The Hague; London: Kluwer Law International, 2001.

Privatization

·       Smit, Hans and Vratislav Pechota, eds.  Privatization in Eastern Europe: Legal, Economic and Social Aspects. Irvington-on-Hudson, N.Y: Transnational Juris; Dordrecht (The Netherlands): Martinus Nijhoff, 1994.  Includes material on privatization in Russia. Annexes include list of privatization laws.

News Sources

·       Moscow Times  Coverage includes general news, but for business-related  stories specifically,  select section “Vedomosti.” Current issue is free. Free archive search, but subscription necessary for stories more than one week old.

·       The St. Petersburg Times  General news, as well as specific areas of interest.  Section on Business useful for coverage of legislation affecting business. By subscription, but free access to Overview of Top Stories.

·       Russian Information and News Agency (RIA Novosti) (Major Russian Information Agency) agency. Provides current coverage of wide range of news.

·       RussiaProfile.Org  Published by the RIA Novosti News Agency. Geared toward a wide array of readers interested in Russia. Focus is on business, economic, political and cultural trends. Contains “useful links” to yet other sources providing information on Russia.

·       Russia in Global Affairs. Published by RIA Novosti with the participation of  the journal Foreign Affairs.

·       Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press. Columbus, OH: Current Digest of the post-Soviet Press, 1992- present. Weekly. (Subscription Required)  Provides translations of articles, usually in excerpt form, from newspapers in the Russian Federation.  Approximately 6-week gap between original story and Current Digest. Available in print and electronic versions from East View Information Services.

·       Johnson’s Russia List  (World Security Institute) Articles selected  from Russian and English language sources.

·       Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty: Russia  (Broadcasting Board of Governors)  Recent news.

·       Jurist. Legal News & Research. Russia. (From Univ. of Pittsburgs School of Law)  “Paper Chase” coverage of selected news stories by team of law students

 led by Prof. Bernard Hibbitts. The site also has links to some Russian governmental sites and to other news sources.

·       News (U.S. Embassy in Moscow)

·       Eurasian Law: Breaking News (Russia-Eurasia Committee of American Bar Association) News blog covers Russia and other countries of Eurasian region.

 

Further Suggested Readings

·       Russia and its Constitution: Promise and Political Reality.  Law in Eastern Europe, No. 58. Gordon B. Smith and Robert Sharlet, eds. Leiden; Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2008. Articles by various authors, including: “Modern Russian Criminal Procedure: The Adversarial Principle and Guilty Plea”, by Stanislaw Pomorski;  “The Procuracy: Constitutional Questions Deferred,”  by Gordon B. Smith;  “Press Freedom in Russia: Does the Constitution Matter?”  by Peter Krug.

·       Private and Civil Law in the Russian Federation: Essays in Honor of F.J.M. Feldbrugge. Law in Eastern Europe. No. 60. Edited by William Simons. Articles from two conferences held at the Institute of East European Law and Russian Studies in 1998 and 2003. Articles on the Civil Code, bankruptcy, inheritance, consumer and entrepreneurs under the civil code, etc.

·       Russia, Europe and the Rule of Law. Law in Eastern Europe, No. 56. F.J. J. Feldbrugge, editor.  Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff, 2007. Articles by various authors on many topics, including: “Law, Citizenship, and Rights of Non-Russian Nationalities, Past and Present,”  by Susan Heuman; “Judicial Review of Governmental Actions: A Tool for Russian NGO’S?,”  by Anna Jonsson;  “Interpretation and Accomodation in the Russian Constitutional Court,” by  Anders Fogelklou.

·       The Revival of Private Law in Central and Eastern Europe: Essays in  Honour of Ferdinand J.M. Feldbrugge. Law in Eastern Europe, No. 46. George Ginsburgs,  Donald D. Barry, and William B. Simons, eds. Dordrecht: M. Nijhoff, 1996.  Includes articles on Property, Environmental law, Tort, Inheritance, Secured transactions, Lease, and International law of the Russian Federation.

·       The Legal Foundations of the New Russia. Risnes, Brynjulf, ed.  Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, 1998.  Includes articles on the Constitutional Court, Electoral Process, Federalism, and citizens’ complaints against public bodies.

·       Nysten-Haarala, Soili. Russian Law in Transition: Law and Institutional Change. Helsinki: Kikimora Publications, 2001.  The aim of this book is to study Russian transitional processes toward rule of law, a market economy and democracy. Focuses on development of constitutionalism, property rights and company law.

·       Smith, Gordon B. Reforming the Russian Legal System. Cambridge, U.K.; New York, N.Y.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996.

·       Ahdieh, Robert B. Russia’s Constitutional Revolution: Legal Consciousness and the Transition to Democracy, 1985-1995. University Park: Penna. State Univ. Press, 1997.