UPDATE: International Criminal Courts for the Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone: A Guide to Online and Print Resources
By Amy Burchfield
Amy Burchfield is the Head of Access and Faculty Services at the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law Library. She previously worked as the International and Foreign Law Reference Librarian at the John Wolff International & Comparative Law Library at the Georgetown University Law Center. Ms. Burchfield earned her JD from The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law and an MLIS and MA in German translation from Kent State University. She is the author of International Sports Law and The Crisis in Darfur: Researching the Legal Issues .
Published July/August 2014
(Previously updated on August 2008 and July 2011 )
See the Archive Version!
Table of Contents
3.2. Basic Documents
3.3. Case Law
4.2. Basic Documents
4.3. Case Law
5.2. Basic Documents
5.3. Case Law
Despite vows of “never again” in the aftermath of the Holocaust, late twentieth century history was marked by a series of brutal conflicts that resulted in war crimes, crimes against humanity, genocide and other serious crimes. Several international tribunals were established with the goal of prosecuting individuals who committed these crimes.
This guide focuses on online and print sources relating to the following three international criminal courts: the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL). The guide begins with a chart comparing key features of these three courts. The guide then examines each court individually, providing an overview of the court, the court’s basic documents, case law sources, and a listing of additional print and online sources for that individual court. The next section of the guide identifies online and print resources that deal with multiple international criminal tribunals. Finally, the last sections cover research institutes and educational resources, and other research guides.
Number of judges
Location of court
May 23, 1993
16 permanent and
up to 9 ad litem
Grave breaches of Geneva Conventions of 1949; violations of the laws of war; genocide; crimes against humanity
The Hague, The Nether-lands
English and French
(Serbo-Croat is unofficial)
ted since 1991
Territory of the former Yugoslavia
Nov. 8, 1994
16 permanent and 18 ad litem judges
Genocide, crimes against humanity, serious violations of the Geneva Conventions of 1949
Hassan Bubacar Jallow
English and French
(Kinyarwanda is unofficial)
ted between Jan. 1, 1994 and Dec. 1994
Territory of Rwanda
Aug. 14, 2000 (established) – Dec. 3, 2013 (closed)
At least 8, and no more than 11
Crimes against humanity; violations of international humanitarian law; serious crimes under Sierra Leonean law
Philip Nyamu Waki,, President of Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone
Since Dec. 2013
ted since Nov. 30, 1996
Territory of Sierra Leone
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was established in 1993 by United Nations Security Council Resolution 827. The ICTY is authorized to prosecute persons responsible for grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, violations of the laws of war, genocide, and crimes against humanity. The ICTY can only hear cases concerning crimes committed on the territory of the former Yugoslavia since 1991.
The ICTY is organized into three Trial Chambers and one Appeals Chamber. Three permanent judges and a maximum of six ad litem judges are members of each Trial Chamber. Five judges are members of the Appeals Chamber. The Appeals Chamber of the ICTY also functions as the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. The working languages of the ICTY are English and French.
The following basic documents of the ICTY are available at the Court’s official website .
- Statute of the Tribunal (updated September 2009)
- National legislations implementing the ICTY Statute (Greece, Romania, Hungary, Croatia, U.K., Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Bosnia-Herzegovina, France, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Spain, The Netherlands, Finland, U.S., Italy)
- Agreements on the enforcement of sentences (Albania, Poland, Italy, Finland, Norway, Austria, Sweden, France, Spain, Germany, Denmark, U.K., Belgium, Ukraine, Portugal, Estonia and Slovakia)
- Rules of Procedure and Evidence
- Defense Counsel Materials
- Detention rules, regulations and other materials
- Practice directions
The ICTY basic documents are also available online at the University of Minnesota Human Rights Library .
In print, see Basic Documents International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991 ([Netherlands:] United Nations, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, 1995-).
Additionally, the ICTY publishes The Yearbook ([Netherlands]: United Nations, ICTY, 1995- ) documenting the activities of the ICTY and recording speeches and other background information.
Former Serb President, Slobodan Milošević , [New York Times Topics archive] died on March 11, 2006 during proceedings at the ICTY. He was indicted for crimes in Kosovo, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The tribunal did not reach a verdict in his case.
Bosnia Serb politician, Radovan Karadzić , [New York Times Topics archive] was arrested on July 21, 2008, and transferred to the ICTY later that month. He is accused of ordering the 1995 Srebrenica massacre. The trial of Karadzić is ongoing; closing arguments in the case are scheduled to take place in fall 2014.
Serbian Army leader, Ratko Mladić , [New York Times Topics archive], was arrested on May 26, 2011, having been an international fugitive for over 15 years. His trial commenced in May 2012. He is accused of implementing the 1995 Srebrenica massacre that claimed the lives of over 8,000 Muslim men and boys.
Cases and Judgments are found on the ICTY website. All documents for individual parties are gathered in one place: indictments, judgments, decisions, orders and transcripts. This is the best source for up-to-date case law information.
ICTY Judgment Summaries (American University Washington College of Law) provide overviews of fourteen cases.
WestlawNext , (subscription database requiring a password), has coverage of ICTY judgments, decisions, orders, indictments, transcripts, and press releases since 1995.
Judicial Reports / International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia = Recueils judiciaires / Tribunal pénal pour l’ex-Yougoslavie (The Hague : Kluwer Law International, 1999- ). This includes indictments, orders, decisions and judgments. It is considered the official print reporter for the ICTY, and is currently published for and on behalf of the United Nations by Brill / Martinus Nijhoff. This set runs approximately ten years behind—consult the ICTY website for the most current case law.
Global War Crimes Tribunal Collection (Nijmegen, the Netherlands : Global Law Association, 1997- ) this commercial source includes trial transcripts, selected full-text judgments, and other materials.
3.4. Selected Print Sources & Links
ICTY Print Sources:
- M. Cherif Bassiouni, The Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (Irvington-on-Hudson, NY : Transnational Publishers, 1996).
- Gideon Boas and William A. Schabas (eds.), International Criminal Law Developments in the Case Law of the ICTY (Leiden : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003).
- Genocide, War Crimes, and Crimes Against Humanity: A Topical Digest of the Case Law of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (New York : Human Rights Watch, 2006).
- James Gow et al. (eds.), Prosecuting War Crimes: Lessons and Legacies of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (Abingdon, Oxon; New York : Routledge, 2014)
- Sanja Kutnjak and John Hagan, Reclaiming Justice: The International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and Local Courts (New York : Oxford University Press, 2011).
- Michael J. Kelly, Nowhere to Hide: Defeat of the Sovereign Immunity Defense for Crimes of Genocide and the Trials of Slobodan Milošević and Saddam Hussein (New York : Peter Lang, 2005).
- John Laughland, Travesty: The Trial of Slobodan Milošević and the Corruption of International Justice (London; Ann Arbor, MI : Pluto, 2007).
- Virginia Morris and Michael P. Scharf, An Insider’s Guide to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (Irvington-on-Hudson, NY : Transnational Publishers, 1995).
- O. Olusanya, Sentencing War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity under the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (Groningen : Europa Law Pub., 2005).
ICTY / Former Yugoslavia Links:
- Milosevic Trial Public Archive – Video and transcripts of the ICTY proceedings.
- The Centre for Peace in the Balkans
- Global Policy Forum’s ICTY Page
ASIL Insights Coverage:
The American Society of International Law publishes ASIL Insights , an electronic publication for brief expert legal insight and analysis on major developments in international law. The following articles have been published on the ICTY and related issues in ASIL Insights :
- Cees van Dam, The Netherlands Found Liable for Srebrenica Deaths (2011).
- Linda Strite Murnane, Ten Years After the War in Kosovo: International Law, Kosovo and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (2009).
- Benjamin E. Brockman-Hawe, ICTY Special Chamber Decision In the Case Against Florence Hartmann (2009).
- Anthony Cullen and Marko Divac Öberg, Prosecutor v. Ramush Haradinaj et al . : The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the Threshold of Non-International Armed Conflict in International Humanitarian Law (2008).
- Michael P. Scharf , ICTY Appeals Chamber Decision on Slobodan Milosevic’s Right of Self-Representation (2 004).
- Mark A. Drumbl, ICTY Appeals Chamber Delivers Two Major Judgments: Blaskić and Krstić (2004).
- Leila Nadya Sadat, The Trial of Slobodan Milosevic (2002).
- Ruth Wedgwood, Former Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic To Be Tried in The Hague for Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Allegedly Committed in Kosovo (2001).
- Julie Mertus, Judgment of Trial Chamber II in the Kunarac, Kovac and Vukovic Case (2001).
- Michael P. Scharf, The Indictment of Slobodan Milosevic (1999).
- Dorothea Beane, The Yugoslav Tribunal and Deferral of National Prosecutions of War Criminals (1996).
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) was established in 1994 by United Nations Security Council Resolution 955. The ICTR is charged with prosecuting persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law in the territory of Rwanda between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 1994. The ICTR can also prosecute Rwandan citizens who committed such serious crimes in neighboring countries during that same time period.
The ICTR is authorized to prosecute persons who committed genocide, crimes against humanity, and serious violations of the 1949 Geneva Conventions. These broad categories of crimes encompass such acts as conspiracy to commit genocide, incitement to genocide, murder, torture, rape, the taking of hostages, and acts of terrorism.
The ICTR is organized into three Trial Chambers and one Appeals Chamber. Three permanent judges and a maximum of four ad litem judges comprise each of the Trial Chambers. Seven permanent judges serve as members of the Appeals Chamber. The working languages of the ICTR are English and French.
The following basic documents of the ICTR are available at the Court’s official website , on the Legal tab.
- Security Council Resolutions
- Statute of the Tribunal
- Rules of Procedure and Evidence
- Practice Directions
- Code of Professional Conduct for Defense Counsel
- Rules covering the detention of persons awaiting trial or appeal
- Prosecutor’s Regulation
- Bilateral Agreements (headquarters agreement between the UN and Tanzania; agreements on the enforcement of sentences of the ICTR between the UN and Sweden, Italy, France, Swaziland, Benin, Mali, and Rwanda.)
In print, see International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Basic Documents (Arusha: Tanzania: International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 1999).
Currently (May 2014), the ICTR has completed seventy-five cases, with sixteen cases on appeal.
Cases on the ICTR website. Most up-to-date posting of indictments, decisions, judgments, case minutes, and status of detainees.
ICTR Judgment Summaries (American University Washington College of Law) provides overviews of thirty-seven cases.
WestlawNext, (subscription database requiring a password), has coverage of ICTR judgments, decisions, orders, and indictments from 1995 through July 2007.
Eric David (ed.), Tribunal pénal international pour le Rwanda: recueil des ordonnances, décisions et arrêts, 1995-1997 = International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Reports of Orders, Decisions and Judgements, 1995-1997 (Bruxelles : Bruylant, 2000). Unlike the ICTY, there is no official print reporter for the ICTR. This volume is one print source for ICTR case law.
Global War Crimes Tribunal Collection (Nijmegen, the Netherlands : Global Law Association, 1997-) This commercial source includes trial transcripts, selected full-text judgments, and other materials.
ICTR Print Sources:
- Avitus A. Agbor, Instigation to Crimes Against Humanity: The Flawed Jurisprudence of the Trial and Appeal Chambers of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) (Leiden : Martinus Nijhoff, 2013).
- Thierry Cruvellier, Court of Remorse: Inside the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (Madison, Wis. : University of Wisconsin Press, 2010).
- Encyclopedia on the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (The Hague : International Courts Association, 2011-).
- Fred Grünfeld and Anke Huijboom, The Failure to Prevent Genocide in Rwanda: The Role of Bystanders (Leiden; Boston : Martinus Nijhoff, 2007).
- L.J. van den Herik, The Contribution of the Rwanda Tribunal to the Development of International Law (Leiden; Boston : Martinus Nijhoff, 2005).
- Nicholas A. Jones, The Courts of Genocide: Politics and the Rule of Law in Rwanda and Arusha (New York : Routledge, 2010).
- Kingsley Chiedu Moghalu, Rwanda’s Genocide: The Politics of Global Justice (New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2005).
- George William Mugwanya, Crime of Genocide in International Law: Appraising the Contribution of the UN Tribunal for Rwanda (London : Cameron May, 2007).
- Mohamed C. Othman, Accountability for International Humanitarian Law Violations: The Case of Rwanda and East Timor (Berlin : Springer, 2005).
- Virginia Morris and Michael P. Scharf, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (Irvington-on-Hudson, NY : Transnational Publishers, 1998).
ICTR / Rwanda Links:
- Voices from the Rwanda Tribunal A collection of 49 video interviews conducted with personnel from the ICTR.
- The ICTR Remembers 20 th anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide
- Rwanda Page (African Studies Center at the University of Pennsylvania)
- Official Website of the Republic of Rwanda
- UNAMIR (October 1993 – March 1996) Past U.N. Assistance Mission for Rwanda.
- AllAfrica.com Comprehensive online African news source.
ASIL Insights Coverage:
The American Society of International Law publishes ASIL Insights , an electronic publication for brief expert legal insight and analysis on major developments in international law. The following articles have been published on the ICTR and related issues in ASIL Insights :
- Shannon E. Powers, Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts: Implications for International Criminal Law and Transitional Justice (2011).
- Gregory Townsend, Epilogue to Hotel Rwanda (2011).
- Kate Gibson, The Arrest of ICTR Defense Counsel Peter Erlinder in Rwanda (2010).
- Gregory Townsend, The ICTR Appeals Chamber Judgment in Prosecutor v. Seromba (2008).
- Alhagi Marong, The ICTR Transfers Michel Bagaragaza to the Netherlands for Trial (2007).
- ———, The ICTR Appeals Chamber Dismisses the Prosecutor’s Appeal to Transfer Michel Bagaragaza for Trial to Norway (2006).
The Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) was a hybrid court established by an agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Sierra Leone on August 14, 2000. The SCSL was authorized to prosecute persons responsible for the most serious crimes committed on the territory of Sierra Leone since November 30, 1996.
The SCSL prosecuted persons who committed the following three categories of crimes: crimes against humanity, crimes in violation of international humanitarian law and serious crimes under Sierra Leonean law. The Special Court was made up of at least eight and no more than eleven judges who were organized into a Trial Chamber and an Appeals Chamber. The working language of the court was English.
The work of the SCSL concluded in December 2013, and the tribunal officially closed. The Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone (RSCSL) was established that year by an agreement between the United Nations and the government of Sierra Leone to oversee ongoing legal obligations. These obligations fall into “ongoing” functions and “ad hoc” functions. Ongoing functions include archives maintenance, witness protection, and prison supervision. Ad hoc functions include the trial of Johnny Paul Koroma should he be arrested, review of convictions and acquittals, and compensation claims.
All basic documents of the SCSL are available on the RSCSL website under the SCSL Documents tab . These include:
- Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Sierra Leone on the Establishment of the Special Court for Sierra Leone (16 January 2002)
- Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone (annexed to the Agreement, 16 January 2002)
- Special Court Agreement (2002) Ratification Act
- Rules of Procedure and Evidence
- Headquarters Agreement between the Republic of Sierra Leone and the Special Court for Sierra Leone
- Annual Reports
- Practice Directions and Directives
The Digest of Jurisprudence of the Special Court for Sierra Leone 2003 – 2005 by Cyril Laucci (Leiden ; Boston : Martinus Nijhoff, 2007) abstracts 548 decisions, orders and judgments rendered by the SCLC that relate to the Statute of the Special Court and the Rules of Procedure and Evidence. The Digest is organized by article and rule number. A second volume of the Digest that would cover the remainder of the tribunal’s work is intended for publication.
There is no official print publication of the SCSL basic documents. One print sources for the SCSL Statute and Rules of Procedure and Evidence is International Criminal Practice (See Multi-Court Sources—Online and In Print, this guide).
The Consolidated Legal Texts for the Special Court for Sierra Leone by Charles Jalloh (Leiden, The Netherlands ; Boston : Martinus Nijhoff, 2007) contains the following sections: basic legal texts, regulations of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, Sierra Leonean legislation, and ceasefire and peace agreements.
The SCSL completed the trials of ten persons, including former heads of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), the Civil Defense Forces (CDF), and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). The SCSL was the first international tribunal to convict individuals for the use of child soldiers and for the crime of forced marriage.
The trial of Charles Taylor [New York Times Topics archive] was conducted in The Hague at the International Criminal Court (ICC) building. Taylor faced an 11-count amended indictment for crimes against humanity, violations of Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II, and other serious violations of international humanitarian law. His trial took place from June 2007 through March 2011. The Trial Chamber of the SCLC found Taylor guilty on all eleven counts. His is currently serving a fifty-year prison sentence. With the conclusion of the Taylor trial, the SCSL was the first court since Nuremburg to try and convict a sitting head of state. Trial Chamber decisions, Appeals Chamber decisions, and transcripts are available on the RSCSL website , under the SCSL tab.
The SCLC issued a 17-count indictment against AFRC leader Johnny Paul Koroma on March 7, 2003. On June 1, 2003 Koroma was declared dead in Liberia under contentious circumstances. According to the RSCSL website, the whereabouts of Koroma are unknown, and he is officially considered to be at large.
A print source for case law is volume 9, “The Special Court for Sierra Leone 2003-2004” from the series Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals (Antwerpen : Intersentia, 1999-), André Klip and Göran Sluiter (eds.)
- Charles Chernor Jalloh, ed., The Sierra Leone Special Court and Its Legacy: The Impact for Africa and International Criminal Law (New York : Cambridge University Press, 2014)
- C. Tofan & F. Mouloudi, eds., The Special Court for Sierra Leone: History, Work and Future (Nijmegen, the Netherlands : Wolf Legal Publishers, 2011)
- C. Tofan, ed., The Sierra Leone Special Court Collection (Oisterwijk, the Netherlands : Aolf Legal Publishers, 2008-)
- The scholarship available focusing directly on the Special Court can be found primarily in journal articles. Selected articles are listed below and may be electronically available through databases such as Lexis, Westlaw, Academic Search Complete and/or JSTOR.
- Fidelma Donlon, The Transition of Responsibilities from the Special Court to the Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone Journal of International Criminal Law v. 11 (2013) pp. 857-74.
- Charles Chernor Jalloh, International Criminal Law-Special Court for Sierra Leone-Individual Criminal Responsibility-Modes of Liability-Aiding and Abetting-Planning American Journal of International Law v. 108 (2014) pp. 58-66.
- Wayne Jordash and Scott Martin, Due Process and Fair Trial Rights at the Special Court: How the Desire for Accountability Outweighed the Demands of Justice at the Special Court for Sierra Leone Leiden Journal of International Law v. 23 (2010) pp. 585-608.
- Phoebe Knowles, The Power to Prosecute: The Special Court for Sierra Leone from a Defence Perspective International Criminal Law Review v. 6 (2006) pp. 387-417.
- Vincent O. Nmehielle and Charles Chernor Jalloh, International Criminal Justice: The Legacy of the Special Court for Sierra Leone Fletcher Forum of World Affairs Journal v. 30 (Summer 2006) pp. 107-22.
- Noah B. Novogrodsky, Litigating Child Recruitment Before the Special Court for Sierra Leone San Diego International Law Journal v. 7 (Spring 2006) pp. 421-26.
- Valerie Oosterveld, The Gender Jurisprudence of the Special Court for Sierra Leone: Progress in the Revolutionary United Front Judgments Cornell International Law Journal v. 44 (2011), pp. 49-74.
- William A. Schabas, A Synergistic Relationship: The Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Special Court for Sierra Leone Criminal Law Forum v. 15 no. 1 / 2 (2004) pp. 3-54.
- Sandesh Sivakumaran, War Crimes before the Special Court for Sierra Leone: Child Soldiers, Hostages, Peacekeepers and Collective Punishments Journal of International Criminal Justice v. 8 (2010) pp. 1009-34.
SCSL/Sierra Leone Links:
- Centre for Accountability and the Rule of Law (CARL-SL) A not-for-profit that seeks to promote a just society for all persons in Sierra Leone.
- Sierra Leone Web A web portal for Sierra Leone.
· Laws of Sierra Leone Online Selected laws in PDF format, from the 1960s to the present.
- Sierra Leone Page (African Studies Center at the University of Pennsylvania)
- Sierra Leone Trial Monitoring Program – Weekly Report Archives (U.C. Berkeley War Crimes Study Center) Archives of weekly updates made by observers of the SCSL who participated in a permanent independent monitoring program. 2004-2010
- Special Court for Sierra Leone (Global Policy Forum)
- AllAfrica.com Comprehensive online African news source.
ASIL Insights Coverage:
The American Society of International Law publishes ASIL Insights , an electronic publication for brief expert legal insight and analysis on major developments in international law. The following articles have been published on the SCSL in ASIL Insights :
· Charles C. Jalloh and Janewa Osei-Tutu, Prosecutor v. Brima, Kamara, and Kanu : First Judgment from the Appeals Chamber of the Special Court for Sierra Leone (2008).
· Mark A. Drumbl, Charles Taylor and the Special Court for Sierra Leone (2006).
· Charles C. Jalloh, Immunity from Prosecution for International Crimes: The Case of Charles Taylor at the Special Court for Sierra Leone (2004).
· Cesare P.R. Romano and André Nollkaemper, The Arrest Warrant Against The Liberian President, Charles Taylor (2003).
· Michael P. Scharf, The Special Court for Sierra Leone (2000).
Multi-Court Sources In Print:
· Anne-Marie de Brouwer, Supranational Criminal Prosecution of Sexual Violence: The ICC and the Practice of the ICTY and the ICTR (Antwerpen : Intersentia, 2005).
· Rodney Dixon, Karim A.A. Kahn and Richard May (eds.), Archbold: International Criminal Courts, Practice, Procedure of Evidence (London : Sweet & Maxwell, 2003).
· John R.W.D. Jones, International Criminal Practice: The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, the International Criminal Court, the Special Court for Sierra Leone, the East Timor Special Panel for Serious Crimes, War Crimes Prosecutions in Kosovo (Ardsley, NY : Transnational Publishers, 2003).
· Magda Karagiannakis, Critical Assessments of International Criminal Courts (Annadale, NSW : Federation Press, 2009).
· André Klip and Göran Sluiter (eds.), Annotated Leading Cases of International Criminal Tribunals (Antwerpen : Intersentia, 1999-).
· Geert-Jan G.J. Knoops, An Introduction to the Law of International Criminal Tribunals: A Comparative Study (Ardsley : Transnational Publishers, 2003).
· ———, Surrendering to International Criminal Courts: Contemporary Practice and Procedures (Ardsley : Transnational Publishers, 2002).
· Victor Peskin, International Justice in Rwanda and the Balkans: Virtual Trials and the Struggle for State Cooperation (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2008).
· Steven D. Roper and Lilian A. Barria, Designing Criminal Tribunals: Sovereignty and International Concerns in the Protection of Human Rights (Aldershot, England ; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, 2006).
· William A. Schabas, The UN International Criminal Tribunals: The Former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone (Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2006).
· Birgit Schlütter, Developments in Customary International Law: Theory and the Practice of the International Court of Justice and the International Ad Hoc Tribunals for Rwanda and Yugoslavia (Leiden; Boston : Martinus Nijhoff Press, 2010).
· Sarah Williams, Hybrid and Internationalised Criminal Tribunals: Selected Jurisdictional Issues (Oxford; Portland : Hart Publishing, 2012).
Multi-Court Sources Online:
· International Criminal Tribunals (University of Minnesota)
· War Crimes Research Portal (Case School of Law)
The Genocide Studies Program at Yale University hosts research projects on the genocides in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and other areas. Materials include articles, maps, satellite images, and victims databases.
The International War Crimes Project (New England School of Law) Law students are involved in a project to provide legal research and analysis to the Prosecutors of the ICTY and the ICTR.
In addition to providing research guides and links, the Frederick K. Cox International Law Center War Crimes Research Portal (Case School of Law) contains the text of over 290 research memoranda on issues pending before the ICTY, ICTR and SCSL.
U.C. Berkeley’s War Crimes Studies Center collaborates and supports international tribunals through archiving materials, trial monitoring, education, publications, and research. In addition to covering the SCSL and Rwanda, the War Crimes Studies Center focuses on East Timor, Indonesia, Cambodia and WWII.
· War Crimes Research Guide (Georgetown University Law Center)
· International Criminal Law ( ASIL)
- Annette Demers, Women and War: A Bibliography of Recent Works , International Journal of Legal Information v. 34 (Spring 2006) pp. 98-144.