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UPDATE: THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE

By Sophie Lobey

Sophie Lobey holds a Master of International Trade and Finance (Paris, 1992) from "Institut Supérieur de Gestion" (Advanced Institute of Management). She has worked for about 20 years as Sales and Marketing Manager for Council of Europe Publishing, and has been responsible for the commercial website of the COE since 1997.

Published September 2013
(Previously updated in October 2007)
See the Archive Version!

Table of Contents

 

1.     An Overview

2.     Institutions

3.     The Conventions             

a.     Human Rights

b.     Society

c.     Minority Rights

d.     Crime

e.     Health

f.      Environment

4.     Monitoring Bodies

5.     The Rule of Law

6.     Partial Agreements

7.     Campaigns and Projects

8.     European Union and Council of Europe Co-operation

9.     Global Co-operation

10.  Council of Europe Member States

11.   Council of Europe Observer States

12.  Glossary of Terms

13.  Resource Material

 

  1. An Overview

The Council of Europe is an international organisation with 47 member states whose founding principles are human rights, democracy and the rule of law. These values are the basis of all of the work carried out within the Organisation in order to build a stable, tolerant and functional Europe.  Nurturing Europe’s cultural identity and diversity while achieving democratic stability through political, legislative and constitutional reform are at the heart of this process. The European Convention on Human Rights is the cornerstone of this work and remains as strong as ever in its role as a powerful protector of essential freedoms.

The Council of Europe continues to reaffirm its steadfast commitment to protecting these values and is constantly evolving to match the changing international climate. It is mindful of the threats posed by the current financial, institutional and social crises compounded by an undermining of citizens’ trust and confidence due to corruption and political misconduct. Through dialogue and co-operation, the Council of Europe is striving to maintain citizens’ faith in the rule of law and is urging member states’ governments to implement its recommendations. It also has extensive relations with observer states, including USA, and non-member states.

Current key priorities include:

-        Fighting corruption

-        Helping governments implement judicial reforms

-        Protecting freedom of expression and the media

-        Fighting intolerance and hate speech

-        Promoting diversity

-        Protecting minorities

  1. Institutions
  • Committee of Ministers: This is the Council of Europe’s decision-making body made up of all member states’ Foreign Affairs Ministers or their representatives in Strasbourg. It is both a governmental body and a collective forum where national and Europe-wide approaches can be formulated. It upholds the Council of Europe’s fundamental values and ensures that member states comply with them.
  • Parliamentary Assembly: The Assembly can adopt texts on a wide range of political, social, economic and cultural matters.  It is made up of representatives from all member states and an elected president. It has shown great flexibility as an international inter-parliamentary body and has evolved and developed alongside a fast-changing Europe.
  • Congress of Local and Regional Authorities: This Congress provides Europe’s regions and municipalities with a voice in the Council of Europe where local elected representatives can discuss common problems and pool their experience. It represents a link between grass-roots level democracy and the international platform of the Council of Europe thus creating a vital forum for local and regional issues.
  • European Court of Human Rights: The Court is the judicial body which hears complaints brought against a state on the grounds of a violation of the European Convention on Human Rights. It ensures the coherent and consistent protection of human rights throughout all 47 member states.
  • The Commissioner for Human Rights: The Commissioner is an independent and non-judicial institution to promote awareness of and respect for human rights. It conducts active dialogue with member states on a wide range of pressing issues.
  • The Conference of International Non-Governmental Organisations: The Conference of International Non-Governmental Organisations provides a vital link between politicians and ordinary citizens and gives civil society a voice at the Council of Europe.
  • The Secretary General: The Secretary General spearheads the work of the Council of Europe while safeguarding the founding values and principles of the Organisation. The holder of this office heads the Secretariat of the Council of Europe and is elected every 5 years by the Parliamentary Assembly.
  1. The Conventions
    1. Human Rights
  • European Convention on Human Rights: The Convention guarantees the right to life, liberty, security, a fair trial, family life and freedom of thought and expression. It has become a pan-European protection system which underlines the Organisation’s goal of upholding common fundamental standards.
  • The European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: This convention establishes standards regarding the rights of citizens who have been imprisoned and ensures member states’ compliance. Its aim is to guarantee that the treatment of detainees and prison conditions are consistent with human dignity.
  • European Convention on the Exercise of Children’s Rights: This convention aims to protect the best interests of children and provides a number of procedural measures to allow the children to exercise their rights. Among the types of family proceedings of special interest for children are those concerning custody, residence, access, questions of parentage, legitimacy, adoption, legal guardianship, administration of property of children, care procedures, removal or restriction of parental responsibilities, protection from cruel or degrading treatment and medical treatment.

·       Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse: The objective of this convention is to prevent sexual offences while protecting victims and ensuring that perpetrators are prosecuted. This includes the screening, recruitment and training of people who work with children while making children aware of the risks and teaching them to protect themselves, as well as monitoring measures for offenders and potential offenders.

·       Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence: This establishes guidelines to eliminate such acts and bring perpetrators to justice. It aims to protect women from violence and seeks to change attitudes to work towards gender equality.  It is not only women who suffer domestic violence, parties to the convention are encouraged to apply the protective framework to men, children and the elderly who are exposed to violence within the family or domestic unit. However, it should not be overlooked that the majority of victims of domestic violence are women and that it is part of a wider pattern of discrimination and inequality.

·       The European Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings: This convention is a comprehensive treaty focusing mainly on the protection of victims of trafficking and the safeguarding of their rights. It also aims to prevent trafficking and to prosecute traffickers. In addition, it provides for the establishment of an effective and independent monitoring mechanism capable of controlling the implementation of the obligations contained within it.

    1. Society
  • The European Social Charter: The European Social Charter is a key instrument in guaranteeing citizens’ social and economic rights. It covers rights to housing, education, health care, employment and free movement of persons. The European Committee of Social Rights ensures member states’ compliance with the Charter and makes collective decisions on complaints.
  • The European Cultural Convention: This convention aims to safeguard European culture, promote national contributions to Europe's common cultural heritage respecting the same fundamental values and to encourage in particular the study of the languages, history and civilisation of the Parties to the Convention.

c.     Minority Rights

  • Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities: This guarantees protection for national minorities in all member states and establishes guidelines for the freedom of expression, assembly, conscience and religion. It ensures that all citizens belonging to national minorities can enjoy fair access to media, language and education while seeking to promote the full and effective equality of national minorities and enabling them to preserve and develop their culture and to retain their identity.
  • European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages: On the one hand, this convention aims to protect and promote regional and minority languages as a threatened aspect of Europe’s cultural heritage and on the other hand to enable speakers of these languages to use them in private and public life.
    1. Crime
  • The European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism: By targeting all aspects of incitement, recruitment and training, this convention aims to combat any acts which may lead to terrorism. It also sets out guidelines to harmonise extradition and mutual legal assistance procedures between member states in cases of terrorist acts.
  • The Convention on Cybercrime : The purpose of this convention is to issue guidelines to develop national legislative frameworks to fight cybercrime, especially dealing with infringements of copyright, computer-related fraud, child pornography and violations of network security. It also acts as a platform for communication and co-operation between signatory countries. This convention has also been signed by Canada, and signed and ratified by USA, Japan and Australia.
  • Data Protection Convention : By ensuring the appropriate collection, storage and use of personal data, this convention safeguards citizens’ right to private life. It seeks to monitor the trans-frontier flow of personal data and outlaws the processing of data regarded as sensitive without proper defence mechanisms in place.
  • European Convention on Spectator Violence and Misbehaviour at Sports Events and in particular at Football Matches: This convention aims to foster co-operation between member states, public authorities and independent sports organisations to prevent violence and misbehaviour by spectators at sports events. It sets out a number of measures, including close co-operation between police forces; prosecution of offenders; strict control of ticket sales and appropriate design of stadia to prevent violence and allow effective crowd control and safety.

e.     Health

  • The European Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine: This convention sets standards for ethical practices in biomedicine including organ transplantation, medical research on human beings, the protection of embryos and the use of medical records. It is designed to preserve human dignity, rights and freedoms by countering the misuse of biological and medical advances.
  • The Anti-Doping Convention: The objective of this convention is to standardise anti-doping regulations throughout all member states, ensuring they adopt legislative, financial, scientific and educational measures to efficiently fight doping in sport. It aims to give a common framework to each country’s specific policy in which athletes are subject to the same procedures, regardless of which country they are representing.
  • Medicrime Convention: This convention criminalises the manufacture, supply and trafficking of counterfeit medical products. It safeguards public health through penal measures against criminal behaviour, protection of victims, promotion of co-operation at national and international levels, and preventive measures.

f.     Environment

  • The Bern Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats: The purpose of this convention is to monitor and control endangered and vulnerable plant and animal species while protecting their natural habitats. It gives advice on scientific and legal issues and encourages and co-ordinates further research in this area.
  • European Landscape Convention: This convention promotes the protection, management and planning of European landscapes and organises European co-operation on landscape issues. The Council of Europe supports the continent’s natural landscape as an integral part of our shared heritage, be it ordinary or outstanding, urban or rural, on land or in water.
  1. Monitoring Bodies

As well as a series of standard-setting conventions, the Council of Europe carries out active monitoring of these standards through several well-established independent bodies. Recognised expertise and professionalism enables the Council of Europe to identify areas of non-compliance with the conventions and make recommendations to its member states.

  • MONEYVAL (The Committee of Experts on the Evaluation of Anti-Money Laundering Measures and the Financing of Terrorism): MONEYVAL is responsible for ensuring that member states have effective measures in place to fight organised crime, money laundering and terrorist financing. It assesses its members' compliance with all relevant international standards in the legal, financial and law enforcement sectors and its reports provide highly detailed recommendations on ways to improve the effectiveness of domestic regimes to combat these problems. USA has observer status on this committee.
  • GRETA (Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings): This monitoring mechanism draws up country evaluation reports containing an analysis of the implementation of the Convention on Trafficking in Human Beings and proposals for further action. On the basis of GRETA’s reports recommendations may also be made concerning the measures to be taken to implement its conclusions.
  • The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI): This body monitors problems of racism, discrimination on grounds of ethnic origin, citizenship, colour, religion and language, as well as xenophobia, anti-Semitism and intolerance, prepares reports and issues recommendations to member states.
  • Group of States against Corruption (GRECO): The purpose of this group is to improve the capacity of its members to fight corruption by monitoring their compliance with Council of Europe anti-corruption standards. It helps to identify deficiencies in national anti-corruption policies, prompting the necessary legislative, institutional and practical reforms. USA is a full member of this group.
  1. The Rule of Law

Protecting and promoting the rule of law is one of the cornerstones of the Council of Europe, which works to ensure justice and develop common standards in the field. It actively encourages member states to implement these standards in their national law-enforcement bodies. The Council of Europe’s main mechanisms to ensure respect for the rule of law are:

·       The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice

·       The Consultative Council of European Judges

·       The Consultative Council of European Prosecutors

  1. Partial Agreements

A number of partial agreements have been established by the Council of Europe which are a particular form of co-operation amongst member states. They are important in establishing and maintaining close co-operation between member states on a range on specific issues. These partial agreements include:

 

·       The Venice Commission (European Commission for Democracy through Law): The Venice Commission is the Council of Europe’s advisory body on constitutional matters. With 57 members worldwide, it offers legal and constitutional advice to countries wishing to bring their institutional structures in line with European standards. It is composed of constitutional and international law experts and is dedicated to the promotion of Europe’s legal heritage and is now recognised as an international independent legal think-tank. USA has observer status in this commission.

  • The European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare (EDQM): This agreement helps to safeguard the quality and the safe use of medicines while ensuring that patients throughout the continent have access to medicines of the same quality. In addition, the EDQM is active in other fields of public health, such as providing guidance related to blood transfusion, organ transplantation, pharmaceutical care and cosmetics. Close collaboration with European authorities and the support of member states, which volunteer the services of their experts, is crucial to the EDQM’s success. The European Pharmacopoeia is a single reference work for the quality control of medicines. These official standards provide a legal and scientific basis for quality control during the development, production and marketing processes. As well as member states, USA and the World Health Organization (WHO) are observers of the European Pharmacopoeia Commission.
  • The European Audio-Visual Observatory: The Observatory aims to improve the transfer of information within the audio-visual industry and to promote a more transparent view of the European market. In doing so, it pays particular attention to ensuring reliability, compatibility and comparability of information. This helps the development of the film and television industries by providing statistical data across different media.
  • The Pompidou Group: This is the Council of Europe’s frontline taskforce fighting drug abuse and drug trafficking. Its core mission is to contribute to the development of innovative and effective drug policies in its member states, focussing especially on the realities of local implementation of drug programmes. USA contributes on an ad hoc basis with this group.
  • Eurimages: The Council of Europe’s fund for the co-production, distribution and exhibition of European cinematographic works aims to promote the European film industry by encouraging the production and distribution of films and fostering co-operation between professionals. It endeavours to support works which reflect the multiple facets of a European society whose common roots are evidence of a single culture.
  • The Council of Europe Development Bank (CEB): The CEB is a multilateral development bank directly contributing to strengthening social cohesion in Europe. It is a major instrument of the policy of solidarity in Europe, by participating in financing social projects, responding to emergency situations and improving the living conditions of the most disadvantaged population groups, the CEB helps its member states achieve sustainable and equitable growth
  1. Campaigns and Projects

The Council of Europe undertakes a wide range of campaigns and projects in order to promote its fundamental principles of human rights, democracy and the rule of law. These are a vital tool for raising awareness on key issues and fostering co-operation and communication within and between member states.

  • European Day against the Death Penalty: This day celebrates the process of the abolition of the death penalty as reflected in protocol 6 to the European Convention on Human Rights. All of the Council of Europe’s member states have abolished or introduced a moratorium against the death penalty, believing it has no place in a modern democratic society. The Parliamentary Assembly continues to monitor the situation, even in those countries with observer status, especially USA and Japan.
  • No Hate Speech Movement: This campaign is against the use of hate speech, racism and discrimination online. It stands for equality, dignity, human rights and diversity. The working methods are awareness raising, advocacy and creative solutions. It is a project for action and intervention which enables young people and youth organisations to recognise and act against such human rights violations.
  • Dosta!: Dosta, meaning “enough”, is the campaign aimed at fighting prejudice towards the Roma community. It is part of the Council of Europe’s work to protect national minorities and its goal is to counter the negative image of Roma citizens which is all too often presented.
  • The Council of Europe LGBT Project: The goal of this project is to contribute to the improvement of the quality of life among LGBT people in Europe by supporting member states in their efforts to develop a robust LGBT policy, strengthening human rights for LGBT people, and supporting the national fight against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.
  • Building a Europe for and with Children: This strategy focuses on a number of strategic objectives to promote child-friendly services and systems, eliminate all forms of violence against children, and guarantee the rights of children in vulnerable situations and to promote child participation.
  1. European Union and Council of Europe Co-operation

The strategic importance of the partnership between the Council of Europe and the EU is based on the 2007 Memorandum of Understanding and further strengthened by the 2009 Lisbon Treaty.  In this framework, regular high-level consultations and exchanges between the EU and the Council of Europe shape policy co-ordination and address common challenges to society. 

Negotiations for EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights are well underway as pledged in the Lisbon Treaty 2009. This represents a decisive step forward in co-operation and will strengthen the protection of human rights in Europe. It will allow citizens the same rights regarding the acts of the EU as they currently enjoy from individual member states.

Joint programmes between the Council of Europe and the European Commission remain a unique tool to promote and protect human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe. They are designed to facilitate and support legal and institutional reform. Over the years, Joint Programmes have become one of the major instruments of co-operation. They are agreed between the Council of Europe and the EU’s European Commission, in consultation with the governments of the countries concerned.

  • The Southern Neighborhood Programme: Both the Council of Europe and the European Union share the same objective regarding neighbour countries from North Africa and the Middle East, namely to promote democratic values and principles, as well as the respect for human dignity in the region. They are both resolved to actively accompanying the democratic changes in these countries, through a concerted approach and in synergy with other actors in the region. Several countries of the Southern neighbourhood have manifested their interest in strengthening co-operation with the Council of Europe by identifying priority lines of co-operation.
  • Youth Partnership Agreement: Aiming to develop a clear strategy for youth training, policy and research, the Council of Europe and the European Union have been working together and have established agreements to provide a robust framework to improve the situation of young people in member states and increase their participation in public life.
  • Cultural Initiatives: As part of an EU-CoE joint initiative, European Heritage Days take place every year to showcase cultural assets, historical buildings and local skills and traditions. They aim to bring European citizens together and to appreciate the shared diversity of Europe’s common heritage, helping them to overcome cultural and linguistic barriers.
  • Intercultural Cities: The Intercultural Cities programme unites a wide range of European cities and focusses on the promotion of intercultural dialogue and citizen participation. This joint programme looks to provide an impetus for one of the Council’s key priorities: Diversity. Running alongside this, the Cultural Routes Programme allows citizens to access routes of natural or historic importance and enables them to appreciate Europe’s cultural variety at first hand.

Other joint cultural initiatives include:

·      Media Against Racism in Sport (MARS) which provides a platform for dialogue and action at all levels.

·      Media in Europe for Diversity Inclusiveness (MEDIANE) which aims to fight discrimination in professional practices.

·      Shaping Perceptions and Attitudes to Realise the Diversity Advantage (SPARDA) which combats negative views towards migrants and diversity.

 

  1. Global Co-operation

Non-Member States:

The Council of Europe is constantly reaching out to non-member states, many of whom are parties to treaties or partial agreements, in order to widen its scope of action and promote its fundamental values on an international level. The Council of Europe also has five states which have observer status with the Organisation: the Holy See (1970), the United States of America, Canada and Japan (1996) and Mexico (1999).

Relations with non-member states across the world enable the Council of Europe’s activities to reach all corners of the globe. More than 45 non-member states are parties to Council of Europe conventions, or associated with it as members or observers of or participants in partial agreements such as the Venice Commission and the North-South Centre. More and more of the Council of Europe's legal instruments are drawn up in consultation with interested non-member states.

  • The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE): The Council of Europe holds regular high-level meetings with the OSCE on areas such as terrorism, non-discrimination, the fight against trafficking in human beings and election observation. Both organisations have the same fundamental values of human rights, democracy and the rule of law targeting political stability, economic development and social cohesion.
  • The United Nations (UN): The UN and the Council of Europe co-operate on a wide range of different areas to protect and promote human rights. As a regional partner of the UN, the Council of Europe regularly contributes to the work of UN agencies and funds, especially in the fields of discrimination, human trafficking, violence against women and intercultural dialogue.
  • Organization of American States (OAS): A wide range of areas of co-operation exist between the Council of Europe and the OAS, enshrined in a Memorandum of Understanding (2011), designed to achieve the institutions’ common objectives. These areas of co-operation include freedom of the media, data protection, women’s rights, social cohesion, electoral matters and fighting drug trafficking. There is also a constant exchange of information between the two institutions in order to help them tackle cybercrime and corruption.
  1. Council of Europe Member States

Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Republic of Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, “the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia”, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom.

  1. Council of Europe Observer States

Canada, the Holy See, Japan, Mexico and the United States of America.

  1. Glossary of Terms

Accession: act whereby a state expresses its consent to be bound by a treaty. It has the same legal effect as ratification and is the instrument by which non-member states of the Organisation become parties to the Council of Europe treaties.

 

Convention:                    a formal agreement, contract, pact or treaty which is binding under international law. Most of the Council of Europe treaties are entitled “conventions” but some are referred to as “agreements”, “charters”, “codes” or “protocols”. Whatever their denomination, all these instruments are treaties as defined by the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.

 

Instrument of ratification: document by which a state expresses its consent to be bound by a treaty. The instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval must be issued by the Head of State, Head of Government or Minister for Foreign Affairs and signed accordingly.

 

“Full powers”: document by which the Head of State, Head of Government or Minister for Foreign Affairs authorises a person, usually an Ambassador or a Minister, to sign a treaty on behalf of the State.

 

Procès-verbal: document prepared by the Treaty Office certifying that a state has signed, ratified, accepted, approved or acceded to a treaty.

 

Recommendation: a proposal by the Parliamentary Assembly addressed to the Committee of Ministers. The implementation of this measure is beyond the competence of the Assembly, but governments can decide to act on the recommendations given.

 

Resolution: embodies a decision by the Assembly on a question of substance which it is empowered to put into effect, or an expression of a view for which it alone is responsible.

 

Signature: act whereby a state indicates its intention to become party to a treaty. In principle, the signature precedes the ratification of the treaty.

 

  1. Resource Material

 

The following links give access to complete Council of Europe documents including working papers, press releases, newsletters, Court judgments and adopted texts. The list combines general repositories, libraries and information centres.

 

  • Council of Europe Online Bookshop: The full catalogue features publications produced by the Organisation over the last 10 years, a total of over 1,200 books and electronic publications (CD-ROMs, PDF files, videos etc.). The works published by the Council of Europe include comparative studies, monographs, topical debates, proceedings of colloquies, international legal instruments and official texts.
  • Hudoc: The HUDOC database provides access to the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (Grand Chamber, Chamber and Committee judgments, decisions, communicated cases, advisory opinions and legal summaries from the Case-Law Information Note), the European Commission of Human Rights (decisions and reports) and the Committee of Ministers (resolutions). The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) Portal is a powerful, modern and user-friendly information system.
  • Press releases collection: This collection contains all the press releases issued by the Registry since 1 January 1999. Available in English and French, they include summaries of judgments and decisions delivered by the Court and information about cases pending and about the Court’s activities in general. Press releases are normally available in both English and French and are in PDF format.
  • Council of Europe working documents: The council of Europe has many means of primary resources available including websites and online databases which provide access to the full text of Council of Europe documents (working papers, press releases, newsletters, Court judgments, adopted texts, etc.). The list combines both general repositories and databases of specific entities.

 

o   Documentation and Case-Law on the European Convention on Human Rights;

o   International Public Law;

o   Constitutional Law.

 

  • European Convention on Human Rights: Factsheets and information on all articles contained within the Convention available in a number of languages.
  • ArchivalWare: Electronic Archives: ArchivalWare is an access point to the digital collections of the Archives including audio recordings and image files, as well as an increasing collection of external documents. This digital repository is a complement to the online catalogue WebCAT with access to bibliographical references.
  • Portal of the Council of Europe: Access to several entities’ websites that contain many documentary resources
  • Press and Multimedia: Photos, video, press releases, thematic files, etc.
  • Google Books: Thanks to a partnership with Google, more than 3 300 Council of Europe books are available in text in the Google Books database.
  • ISSUU: Digital publishing platform containing Council of Europe and human rights related documentation.
  • HELP Training resources: A practical guide featuring a wide selection of case studies article by article on the application of human rights law.
  • Treaty Office: Texts of treaties (Agreements, Charter, Conventions, Statute), explanatory reports, chart of signatures and ratifications
  • European Pharmacopoeia Library (EDQM): The collection contains:

o   various European Pharmacopoeia publications (official editions as well as Pharmeuropa and its special issues);

o   a wide collection of national pharmacopoeias from all over the world;

o   scientific and technical reference thesis in the field of the quality of medicines;

o   specialised magazines on research and pharmacy.

 

Pharmacopoeias are a reference tool for pharmacists, industries and public health authorities responsible for the quality control of commercialised medicines.

o   the publications and workshop reports of the ECML;

o   materials relating to the major focuses of the Centre (e.g., organisation and setting up of language learning and teaching, language awareness, intercultural competence, language education and ICT, quality assurance, learner autonomy, bilingual education, early language learning);

o   reference and specialised multimedia resources, publications of the Council of Europe Language Policy Division, international organisations and national and cultural institutions of the Member States of the ECML.

 

  • Documentation Centre on Migration: The documentation centre on Migration contains publications, journals, documents and press clippings (audio and video material) on several themes, such as:

o   integration of migrants;

o   community relations;

o   access to migrants' social rights;

o   irregular migrants.

 

  • Web Cube Documentaire: The document database Web Cube Documentaire (WCD) provides access to the full text documents Council of Europe entities, press releases and notifications.
  • European Youth Centre Library, Budapest: The library put at the general disposal reference works, documents, files and publications related to the work of the Council of Europe in the youth field. Special emphasis is given to human rights education and on national and international non-governmental youth organisations.
  • Information Centre of the European Youth Centre, Strasbourg: The Information Centre provides documentation for the educational activities of the Directorate of Youth and Sport. Many documentation resources are also available on line.
  • Information Offices throughout Europe: Council of Europe information offices available in member states.
  • North-South Documentation Centre, Lisbon: The collection of the Documentation Centre includes books and documents related to the different fields of work of the North-South Centre:

o   Strategies and capacity building for Global Education;

o   Training and capacity building for youth and youth organisations;

o   Intercultural Dialogue;

o   Human Rights, Democratic Governance and Development;

o   Migrations and co-development.

 

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